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Full text of "The works of Horace, with English notes, critical and explanatory"

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■Ml I. 



WORKS OF HORACE 



w;rn 



ENGLISH NOTES, CRITICAL AND EXPLANATORY. 



BY CHARLES ANTHON, LL.D., 

PROFESSOR OF THK GREEK AND LATIN LANGUAGE3 IN COLUMBIA COt Uiit. 
AND RECTOR OK THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 



A NEW EDITION, 

CORRECTED AND ENLAROED, WITH EXCURSIONS RELATIVE TO nil. 

WINES AND VINEYARDS OF THK ANCIENTS; AND A 

LIFE OF HORACE BY M1LMAN. 



NEW YORK: 

HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS, 
FRANKLIN SQUARE. 

1872. 



■Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year one thousand eight hundred 

and forty-nine, by 

HARPER & BROTHERS, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Southern District of New York. 



7 1 20 9 4 35 



TO THE ME M O It Y (I ST 

MY OLD AND VALUED FRIEND, 

JAMES CAMPBELL. ESQ., 

WHO 

AMID THE BURDENSOME DUTIE3 OF AN OFFICIAL STAT10M 

OOULD STILL FIND LEISURE TO GRATIFY A TURE AND 

CULTIVATED TASTE, BY REVIVING THE 

STUDIES OF HIS EARLIER TEAKS. 



P It E F A C E. 



The text of the present edition has been corrected 
throughout, principally by that of Orelli, and the notes 
have been carefully revised and emended. Much ad- 
ditional matter has also been introduced, nut only in 
the shape of new notes, but also of Excursions. The 
latter have been taken from the larger edition, and will 
be found to contain much interesting information re- 
specting the vineyards and wines of the ancients 
Milman's Life of Horace has also been appended, 
from the splendid edition of the poet, which has re- 
cently appeared under the supervision of that scholar, 
and likewise a biographical sketch of Maecenas. 

The larger edition contained a list of the authori- 
ties whence much subsidiary matter was obtainod for 
the notes. This list was omitted in the previous edi- 
tion of the smaller work, as the latter professed to be 
a mere abridgment, and as it was at that time the in- 
tention of the editor to publish a new edition of the 
larger Horace. This intention being, however, now 
abandoned, it has been thought advisable to transfer, 
the list of authorities from the larger edition to the 
present one, the last thirteen works enumerated there- 
in being those from which materials have been more 
immediately obtained for the improvement of the pres- 
ent volume. The list is as follows: 



Vlll PREFACE 

1. Horatius. cum Amiotationibus Ma 

reti Venet. 1555. 

"3. Horatii Opera, Grammaticorum XL. 

Commentariis .... Basil, 1580. 

3. Horatii Opera, ed. Bentleius . . Cantab., 1711. 

4. Horatii Poemata, ed. Cuningamius . London, 1721, 2 vols 

5. Horatius, ed. Sanadon . . . Paris, 1729, 2 vols 

6. Horatius, ed. Watson . . . London, 1743, 2 vols 

7. Horatius (typis Andrea? Foulis) . Glasgow, 1760. 

8. Horatii Epistolce ad Pisones et Angus- 

turn (Hard) .... London, 1776, 3 vols 

9. Horatii Opera, ea. Valart . . . Paris, 1770. 

10. Horatius, ed. Wakefield . . . London, 1794, 2 vols 

11. Horatii Opera, ed. Mitscherlich . Lips., 1800, 2 vols 

12. Horatius, ed. Bond .... Paris, 1806. 

13. Horace, translated by Francis, with 

the notes of Du Bois . . . London, 1807, 4 vols 

14. Horatii Carolina, ed. Jaui . . Lips., 1809, 2 vols 

15. Horatius, In Us. Delph. . . . London, 1810. 

16. Horatii Opera, ed. Fea . . . Rorme, 1811, 2 vols 

17. Horatii Ecloga?, cum noti* Baxteri, 

Gesneri, et Zeunii . . . Lips., 1815. 

18. Horatius, ed. Wieland . . . Lips., 1816, 3 vol* 

19. Horatii Opera, ed. Kidd . . . Cantab., 1817. 

20. Horatii Opera, ed. Hunter . . Capri, 1819. 

21. Horatius, ed. Gargallo . . . Mediol., 1820. 

22. Horatius, ed. Fea, cum addit. Bothii Heidelb., 1821, 2 vol* 

23. Horatii Opera, ed. J seek . . . Vinar., 1821. 

24. Horatii Eclogae, cum notis Baxt., 

Gesn., Zeun., et Bothii . . . Lips., 1822. 

25. Horatius, ed. Batteux, cum addit. 

Achaintre ..... Paris, 1823, 3 vot« 

26. Horatii Carmina, ed. Knox . . London, 1824. 

27. Horatii Epistola ad Pisones, ed. Ayl- 

mer London, 1824. 

'28. Horatii Opera, ed. Doring . . Glasgow, 1826. 

29. Horatius, ed. Bip., cum addit. Gence. Faris, 1828. 

30. Horatii Epist. Libri Primi 2da, ed. 

Obbarius Halbers., 1828. 

31. Horatius, ed. Filon .... Paris. 1828. 

32. Marklandi in Horat. Notre (Clos3. 

Jovrn., vol. xiii., p. 126, seqq.). 



PREFACE. IX 

33. Bentleii Uune NorissimsB a<l Horat. 

(Mu$. Crit., vol. i., p. 104, i't'qq.). 

34. Iloratius, ed. Braunhard . . . Lips., /.831-8, 4 vols 
15. Horatius, ed Heindorf . . . Lips., 1813. 

36. Horatiua, ed. Orelli . . . . Turici, 1 813- 1, 2 vols, 

37. Iloratius, ed. Orelli (ed. Min.). .Turici, 1814, 2 Toll 

38. Iloratius, cd. Schmid . . . Hall.., 1830. 

39. Horatius, ed. Peerlkarap . . . Leid., 1845. 

40. Horatius, ed. Dillenberger . . BoniUB, 1848. 

41. Iloratius, ed. Keightlcy . . . London, 1818. 
12. Horatius, ed. Girdlestone, &c. . . London, 1848. 

43. Horatius, ed. Milman . . . London, 1848. 

44. DUntzer, Kritik und Erklarung der 

Episteln des Iloraz . . . Braunsch. 1843-G, 3 vol i 

45. Jacobs, Lectioncs Venusinaj . . Leipz., 1834. 
4G. Tate's Iloratius Rcstitutus . . Lcndon, 1837. 

The present edition, it will be perceived, is an ex- 
purgated one, every thing being thrown out that could 
offend the most fastidious delicacy. In this respect, 
the edition here offered to the student will be found 
decidedly superior to that recently put forih in En- 
gland by the Rev. Messrs. Girdlestone and Osborne, 
and in which many passages have been allowed to re- 
main that are utterly at variance with the idea of an 
expurgated text. 

It only remains for the editor to express his sincere 
obligations to his learned friend, Professor Drisler, foi 
his kind and careful co-operation in bringing out the 
present work — a co-operation rendered doubly pleasing 
by the consciousness, on the part of the editor, of its 
having been the means of rendering the present vol- 
ume far more useful to the student than it would 
otherwise have been. 

Charles Anthon 

Columbia College, March 15th, 1819. 



LIFE OF HORACE, 

BY MIL MAN. 



CHAPTER I. 

inilODL'CTIOIi BIRTH, PARENTAGE, EDUCATION OF HOR ICE ATlIUKt 

I'HILIPl'I RETURN TO ROME. 

The Poetry of Horace is the history of Rome during the great 
change from a republic to a monarchy, daring the sudden and id- 
most complete revolution from centuries of war and civil faction to 
that peaceful period which is called the Augustan Age of Letters- 
His life is the image o{' his eventful times. In his youth he plunges 
Into the fierce and sanguinary civil war; and afterward subsiding 
quietly into literary ease, the partisan of Brutus softens into the friend 
of Maecenas, and the happy subject, if not the flatterer, of Augustus. 
Nor is his personal history merely illustrative of his times in its broad- 
er outlines ; every part of it, which is revealed to us in his poetry, 
is equally instructive. Even the parentage of the poet is connect- 
ed with the difficult but important questions of the extent to which 
slavery in the Roman world was affected by manumission, and the 
formation of that middle class (the libcrtini) } with their privileges, 
and the estimation in which they were held by society. His birth- 
place in the romantic scenery, and among the simple virtues of the 
old Italian yeomanry ; his Roman education ; his residence at Athens ; 
his military services ; the confiscation of his estate ; his fortunes as 
a literary adventurer, cast upon the world in Rome ; the state of 
Roman poetry when he commenced his career ; the degree in which 
his compositions were Roman and original, or but the naturalization 
of new forms of Grecian poetry ; the influence of the different sects 
of philosophy on the literature and manners of the age ; even the 
state religion, particularly as it affected the higher and more intellect- 
ual orders, at this momentous crisis when Christianity was about to 
be revealed to mankind — every circumstance in the life of the poet 
is an incident in the history of man. The influences which formed 
his moral and poetical character are the prevalent modes of feel- 
ing and thought among the people, who had achieved the conquest 
of the world, and, weary of their own furious contentions, now be- 
gan to slumber in the proud consciousness of universal empire In 
him, as in an individual example, appears the change which took 
place in the fortunes, position, sentiments, occupations, estimation, 
character, mode of living, when the Roman, from the citizen of a 
fr^e and turbulent republic, became the subject of a peaceful mon- 



Xli LIFE OF HORACE. 

archy, disguised indeed, but not, therefore, the less arbitrary j while 
his acquaintance, and even his intimate friends, extending through 
almost every gradation of society, show the same influences, as they 
affect persons of different characters, talents, or station. Horace is 
exactly in that happy intermediate rank which connects both ex- 
tremes. His poems are inscribed to Agrippa or Maecenas, even to 
the emperor himself, to his humbler private friend, or to his bailiff. 
He unites, in the same way, the literary with the social life ; he 
shows the station assumed by or granted to mere men of letters, 
when the orator in the senate or in the forum ceded his place to the 
agreeable writer ; the man who excited or composed at his will the 
strong passions of the Roman people, had lost his occupation and his 
power, which devolved, as Air as the literary part of his fame, upon 
the popular author. The mingling intellectual elements blend to- 
gether, even in more singular union, in the mind of the poet. Gre- 
cian education and tastes have not polished off the old Roman inde- 
pendence; the imitator of Greek forms of verse writes the purest 
vernacular Latin ; the Epicurean philosophy has not subdued his 
masculine shrewdness and good sense to dreaming indolence. In 
the Roman part of his character he blends some reminiscence of the 
sturdy virtue of the Sabine or Apulian mountaineers with the refined 
manners of the city. All the great men of his day are the familiars 
of the poet ; not in their hours of state alone, but in the ease of so- 
cial intercourse : we become acquainted with their ordinary manners 
and habits ; and are admitted to the privacy of Maecenas, of Augus- 
tus himself, of Virgil, and of Varius. Thus the Horatian poetry is 
more than historical, it is the living age itself in all its varied reality. 
Without the biography of the poet, even without that of some of his 
contemporaries, the poetry of Horace can not be truly appreciated, 
it can hardly be understood ; and by the magic of his poetry the 
reader is at once placed in the midst of Roman society in the Au- 
gustan age. 

Quintus Horatius Flaccus was born on the 8th of December, in 
the year U.C. 689, B.C. 65, during the consulship of L. Cotta and 
L. 3Ianlius Torquatus. His father (such was the received and 
natural theory) owed his freedom to one of the illustrious family of 
the Horatii, whose name, according to general usage, he was per- 
mitted to assume. Recent writers, 1 however, have shown from in- 
scriptions that Venusia, the town in the territory of which Horace 
was born, belonged to the Horatian tribe at Rome ; and that the 
father of Horace may have been a freedman of the town of Venusia 
The great family of the Horatii, so glorious in the early days -of the 
republic, certainly did not maintain its celebrity in the later times. 
With one solitary exception, a legate of C. Calvisius in Africa (Cic 
ad Fam., xii., 30), it might seem to have been extinct. If the freed- 
man of an Horatius, the father of the poet does not appear to have 

1. G. F. Grotefend in "Ersch und Gruber's Encyclopaedia," Horatius; and C 
f. Grotefend in the Darmstadt Lit Journal. Franke, Fasti Horatianj, notr 1. 



LIFE OF lluR.u E xin 

keel up that connection, or civil relationship, which bound the eman 
cipated slave, by natural ties of affection and gratitude, to the family 
o( his generous master. The theory of this assumption of a Roman 
name was, that the master, having bestowed civil life on the freedman, 
stood, in a oertain sense, in the place of a parent. He still retained 

some authority, and inherited the freedinan's property in ease of his 
dying intestate. On the other hand, the freedman was under the 
obligation of maintaining his patron, or even the father and mother 
of his patron, if they fell into indigence. 1 But there is no allusion in 
the poet's works to any connection of this kind. At all events, the 
freedman lias thrown a brighter and more lasting lustre around that 
celebrated name than all the virtues and exploits of the older patriots 
who bore it. We know no reason for his having the pracnomen 
Qmntus, nor the agnomen, by which he was familiarly known, Flac 
cus. The latter name was by no means uncommon ; it is found in 
the Calpurnian, the Cornelian, the Pomponian, and tho Valerian fami- 
lies. Horace was of ingenuous birth, which implies that he was 
born after his father had received his manumission. The silence of 
the poet about his mother leads to the supposition that she died in 
his early youth. 

The father of Horace exercised the function of collector of pay- 
ments at auction. 3 The collector was a public servant. This com- 
paratively humble office was probably paid according to the number 
of sales, and the value of the property brought to market ; and in 
those days of confiscation, and of rapid and frequent changes of prop- 
erty, through the inordinate ambition or luxury of some, the forfeitures 
or ruin of opulent landholders, and the extinction of noble families 
in the civil wars, the amount and value of the property brought to 
sale {sub hasta) was likely to enable a prudent public officer to make 
a decent fortune. This seems to have been the case with the elder 
Horace, who invested his acquisitions in a house and farm in the dis 
trict of Venusia, on the banks of the River Aufidus, close upon the 
doubtful boundaries of Lucania and Apulia. There he settled down 
into a respectable small farmer. In this house the poet was born, 
and passed his infant years. One incident, mentioned in Ode iii., 4, 
9-20, can not but remind the English reader of the old ballad of the 

1. Compare Pliny, H. N., xxxi., 2, for an instance of the literary son of a dis- 
tinguished man in those times paying a tribute of gratitude to his civil parent. 
L&urea Tullius, the poet, was a freedman of the great orator. A warm spring had 
broken out in the Academic Villa of Cicero, which was supposed to cure diseasea 
£a the eyes. The poetical inscription by L. Tullius (of which the feeling is better 
than the taste) described the spring as providentially revealed, in order tbat more 
eyes might be enabled to read the widely-disseminated works of his master. The 
freedman and freedwoman were admitted into the family mausoleum with those 
who had emancipated them. See several inscriptions, especially a very beautiful 
one, Gruler, p. 715 ; damping p. 173. 

2. " Coactor exauctionunv' — Suet, in Vu. .Another reading, cxaclionum, would 
itiake him a collector of the indirect taxes, farmed by the publicani ; the Roman 
municipalities in Italy being exempt from all direct taxation. 



UV LiFE o* 1IOKACE. 

Children m he Wood, " and Robin Redbreast pioush did cover thcrt 
with leaves." 

The names and situation of the towns in this romantic district (the 
Basilicata) still answer to the description of the poet, the high-hung 
chalets of Acerenza, the vast thickets of Banzi, and the picturesque 
peaks of Mount Voltore. There are no monuments to mark the site 
of Bantia ; bones, helmets, pieces of armor, and a few bad vases, have 
been picked up near Acerenza. 1 The poet cherished through life 
his fond reminiscences of these scenes, the shores of the sounding 
Aufidus (to whose destructive floods he alludes in one of his latest 
odes), and the fountain of Bandusia. 3 He delights also in reverting 
to the plain life and severe manners of the rustic population. Shrewd, 
strenuous, and frugal, this race furnished the best soldiers for the Ro- 
man legion; their sun-burned wives shared in their toils (Epod. ii., 
41-2). They cultivated their small farms with their own labor and 
that of their sons (Sat. ii., 2, 114). They worshipped their rustic 
deities, and believed in the superstitions of a religious and simple 
people, witchcraft and fortune-telling {Sat. i., 9, 29, 30). The 
hardy but contented Ofella (Sat. ii., 2, 112, scqq.) was a kind of 
type of the Sabine or Apulian peasant. 

At about ten or twelve years old commenced the more serious and 
important part of the Roman education. It does not appear how 
Horace acquired the first rudiments of learning ; but, as he grew to 
youth, the father, cither discerning some promise in the boy, or from 
paternal fondness, determined to devote himself entirely to the edu- 
cation of his son. lie was by no means rich, his farm was unpro- 
ductive, yet he declined to send his son to Venusia, to the school of 
Flavins, to which resorted the children of the rural and municipal 
aristocracy, the consequential sons of consequential fathers, with 
their satchels and tablets on their arms, and making their regular 
payments every month. 3 Ho took the bold step of removing him at 
once to Rome, to receive the liberal education of a knight's or a 
senator's son ; and, lest the youth should be depressed by "he feel- 
ing of inferiority, provided him with whatever was necessary to make 
* respectable appearance, dress and slaves to attend him, as if he 
lad been of an ancient family. But. though the parent thus removed 
.lis son to the public schools of the metropolis, and preferred that ho 

1. Koppel Craven's Tour in the Abruzzi. Lombardi, sopra la Baeilicata, in 
Uemorie dell' Institute- Archajologico. 

2. The biographers of Horace bad transferred this fountain to the neighborhood 
of the poet's Sabine villa. M. Capmartin de Chaupy proved, by a bull of Popo 
Paschal II., that it was to be sought in the neighborhood of Venusia. Some mod- 
ern writers are so pertinaciously set on finding it in the Sabine district, that they 
Lave supposed Horace to have called some fountain in that valley by the name en- 
deared to him by his youthful remembrances. But do we know enough o/ the 
life of Horace to pronounce that he may not have visited, even more than once 
the scenes of his childhood, or to decide that he did not address the famous ods 
to the Venusian fountain? (Capmartin de Ckaupy, Maison d' Horace, torn, ii., p 
k>3/> 3, Sat. i. 6. 71. aeqq. 



LIFE OF HOB ICE. X> 

*nould associate with the genuine youthful nobility oi the capita) 
rather than the in) less haughty, but more coarse and unpolished 
gentry (the retired centurions) of the provinces, he took great caw 
that while he secured the advantages, he should be protected from 
the dangers of the voluptuous capital. Even if his sou should rise 
no higher than his own humble calling as a public crier or collector, 
his good education would be invaluable ; yet must it not be purchased 
by the sacriiice of sound morals, lie attended him to the differer* 
schools; watched with severe but affectionate control over his char- 
acter ; so that the boy escaped not merely the taint, but even the re- 
proach of immorality. 1 The poet always speaks of his lather with 
grateful reverence and with honest pride. 

His first turn for satire was encouraged by his father's severe an- 
imadversions on the follies and vices of his compatriots, w T hich he 
held up as warning examples to his son. 2 To one of his school- 
masters the poet has given imperishable fame. Orbilius, whose 
flogging propensities have grown into a proverb, had been an ap- 
paritor, and afterward served in the army ; an excellent training for 
a disciplinarian, if not for a teacher ; but Orbilius got more reputa- 
tion than profit from his occupation. 3 The two principal, if not the 
only authors read in the school of Orbilius, were Homer in Greek, 
and Livius Andronicus in Latin. 4 Homer was, down to the time of 
Julian, an indispensable part of Greek, and already of Roman edu- 
cation. 6 Orbilius was, no doubt, of the old school ; a teacher to the 
heart of rigid Cato ; an admirer of the genuine Roman poetry. Liv- 
ius Andronicus was not only the earliest writer of tragedy, but had 
translated the Odyssey into the Saturnian verse, the native vernacu- 
lar metre of Italy. 6 Orbilius may not merely have thought the Eu- 
emerism of Ennius, or the Epicurianism of Lucretius, unfit for tho 
study of Roman youth, but have considered Accius, Pacuvius, or 
Terence too foreign and Grecian, and as having degenerated from 
the primitive simplicity of the father of Roman verse. The mor« 
modern and Grecian taste of Horace is constantly contending with 



1. Sat. i., 6, 81, seqq. 2. Sat. i., 4, 105, scqq. 

3. " Docuit majoro fama quam cmolumento." — Suel$n., de Grammat. 

4. Bentley doubted whether any patrician schoolmaster, at that time, would uso 
the works of a poet so antiquated as Livius Andronicus. He proposed to read 
Laavius, the name of an obscure writer of love- verses ^Mfx^TOTtaiyvia), to whom 
he ascribes many of the fragments usually assigned to Livius, and which bear no 
marks of obsolete antiquity. But, with due respect to the great critic, the elder 
Horace night have objected still more strongly to the modern amatory verses of 
Lsevius than to the rude strains of Livius. 

5. Epist. ii., 2, 41-2. Compare Quint., i., 8; Plin., Epist. ii., 15; Statins, Sylv. ; 
v., 3. D. Heinsius quotes from Theodoret, tovtwv 5k oi irXelcroi oifie ri)v n?n>t> 
Xaaoi tt]v \A%AAfo)f. Even as late as that father of the Church it was a mark of 
ignorance not to have read Homer. 

6. Cicero thought but meanly of Livius : " Nam ct Odyssca Latina, est sic tai> 
quam opus aliquod Dsedali, et Livianffl tabula? non satis dignas qua3 iterum lo 
jantur.**— Brutus, c. 18. 



Xvi L1FU OF HORACE. 

this antiquarian school of poetry, and his unpjeasing remembrance 
of the manner in which the study of Livius was enforced by his earl} 
teacher may have tended to confirm his fastidious aversion from the 
•■uder poetry. 

Horace, it may I e concluded, assumed the manly robe (toga virilis) 
in his sixteenth or seventeenth year. It is probable that he lost his 
excellent and honored father before he set out to complete his edu- 
cation at Athens. But of what stirring events must the boy have 
been witness during his residence at Rome ! He might possibly, 
soon after his arrival (B.C. 52), have heard Cicero speak his oration 
for Milo. Into the subsequent years were crowded all the prepara- 
tions for the last contest between Pompcy and Cesar. The peace- 
ful studies of the Roman youth must have been strangely interrupt- 
ed by these political excitements. What spirited hoy would not have 
thrown aside his books to behold the triumphant entrance of Cbb tax 
into Rome after the passage of the Rubicon? And while that de- 
cisive step was but threatened, how anxiously and fearfully must 
Rome have awaited her doom — ignorant who was to be her master, 
and how that master would use his power ; whether new proscrip- 
tions would more than decimate her patrician families, and deluge 
her streets with blood ; whether military license would have free 
scope, and the majesty of the Roman people be insulted by the out- 
rages of an infuriated soldiery ! No man was so obscure, so young, 
or so thoughtless, but that he must have been deeply impressed with 
the insecurity of liberty and of life. During the whole conflict, what 
must have been the suspense, the agitation, the party violence, the 
terror, the alternate elevation and prostration of mind ! In the un- 
ruffled quiet of his manhood and age, how often must these turbulent 
and awful days have contrasted themselves, in the memory of Horace, 
with his tranquil pursuits of letters, social enjoyment, and country 
retirement. 

It was about the time of (probably the year after) the battle of 
Pharsalia (for the state of Greece, just at the period of the final con- 
flict, must have been insecure, if not dangerous) that the youthful 
Horace left his school at Rome to study in Athens. If his father 
was dead, the produce of the Venusian estate would no doubt suffice 
for his maintenance ; if still living, the generous love of the parent 
would not hesitate at this further expense, if within his power. 
During many centuries of the Roman greatness, down to the time 
when her schools were closed by Justinian, Athens was the univer- 
sity, as it has been called, of the world, where almost all the dis- 
tinguished youth, both of the East and West, passed a certain period 
of study in the liberal arts, letters, and philosophy. This continued 
even after the establishment of Christianity. Basil and Gregory of 
Nazianzus studied together, and formed their youthful friendships , 
as Horace did, no doubt, with some of the noble or distinguished 
youth of the day. On this point, however, his poems are silent, and 
contain no allusions to his associates and rivals in studv Tbo 



LIFE OP HORACE. .-evil 

younger Quintus Cicero was at this timo likewise a student at 
Athens, but there is no clew to connect these two names. 1 

The advantages which Horace derived from bis residence iu 
Athens may be traced in his familiarity with Attic literature, or, 
rather, with the whole range of Greek poetry, Homeric, lyric, and 
dramatic. In the region of bis birth Greek was spoken almost a«r 
commonly as Latip;'- and Horace; had already, at Rome, been in- 
structed in the poetry of Homer. In Athens, he studied, particular- 
ly, the comic writers ; the great models of that kind of poetry which 
consists in shrewd and acute observation on actual human life, on 
society, manners, and morals, expressed in terse, perspicuous, and 
animated verse, which he was destined, in another form, to carry 
to such unrivalled perfection in his own language. But he incurred 
a great danger, that of sinking into a third or fourth rate Greek 
poet, if, in a foreign language, ho could have attained even to that 
humble eminence. He represents the genius of his country under 
the form of Romulus, remonstrating against this misdirection of his 
talents. Romulus, or, rather, the strong sense of Horace himself, 
gave good reason for this advice. 3 The mine of Grecian poetry was 
exhausted ; every place of honor was occupied ; a new poet, particu- 
larly a stranger, could only be lost in the inglorious crowds. But 
this is not all. It is a law of human genius, without exception, that 
no man can be a great poet except in his native speech. Inspira- 
tion seems impatient of the slower process of translating our thoughts 
into a second language. The expression must be as free and spon- 
taneous as the conception ; and, however we may polish and refine 
our native style, and substitute a more tardy and elaborate for an 
instantaneous and inartificial mode of composition, there is a facility, 
a mastery, a complete harmony between " the thoughts that breathe 
and the words that burn," which can never be attained except in our 
mother tongue. 

The death of Caesar, and the arrival of Brutus at Athens, broke 
up the peaceful studies of Horace. It had been surpi ising if the 
whole Roman youth, at this ardent and generous period of life, 
breathing the air of Pericles, Aristides, and Demosthenes, imbibing 
the sentiments of republican liberty from all which was the object 
of their study, had not thrown themselves at once into the ranks of 
Brutus, and rallied round the rescued but still imperillol freedom of 
Rome. Horace was at once advanced to the rank of military trib- 
une, and the command of a legion; Excepting at such critical 
periods, when the ordinary course of military promotion was super- 
seded by the exigencies of the times, when it was no doubt difficult 
for Brutus to find Roman officers for his newly-raised troops, the son 
of a freedman, of no very robust frame, and altogether inexperienced 
in war, would not have acquired that rank. His appointment, as he 
acknowledges, on account of his ignoble birth excited jealousy. 4 

1. Wekhert de L. Verio, &c, p. 328. 2. Sat. i., 10, 30. 

3. Sat i , 10, 31, seqq. 4. Sat i. 6, 46, seqy 



XV111 LIFE OF HORACE. 

Yet he acquired the confidence of his commanders, and, unless h« 
has highly colored his hard service, was engaged in some difficulties 
and perils. 1 It is probable that while in the army of Brutus he 
crossed over into Asia. Though it is not quite clear that he was 
present at Clazomenae when the quarrel took place between Persius 
and Rupilius Rex, which forms the subject of Sat. i., 7, and his local 
knowledge of Lebedos, which has been appealed to, is not absolute- 
ly certain ; 2 yet some of his descriptive epithets appear too distinct 
and faithful for mere borrowed and conventional poetic language 
He must have visited parts of Greece at some period of his life, m 
ne speaks of not having been so much struck by the rich plain of 
Larissa, or the more rugged district of Laceda?nion, as by the head 
long Anio and the grove of Tibur. 3 

The battle of Philippi closed the military career of Horace. His 
conduct after the battle, his flight, and throwing away his shield, 
have been the subject of much grave animadversion and as grave 
defence. Leasing wrote an ingenious essay to vindicate the morals 
and the courage of Horace. 4 Wieland goes still further in his as- 
sertion of the poet's valor: "Horace could not have called up the 
remembrance of the hero (Brutus), by whom he was beloved, with 
out reproaching himself for having yielded to the instinct of person 
al safety instead of dying with him ; and, according to my feeling 
non bene is a sign of regret which he offers to the memory of that 
great man, and an expression of that shame of which a noble spirit 
alone is capable.'" 3 The foolish and fatal precipitancy with which 
Brutus and Cassias, upon the first news of defeat, instead of attempt- 
ing to rally their broken troops, and to maintain the conflict for liber- 
ty, took refuge in suicide, might appear, to the shrewd good sense 
of Horace, very different from the death of Cato, of which he has ex- 
pressed his admiration. And Wieland had forgotten that Horace 
fairly confesses his fears, and attributes his escape to Mercury, the 
god of letters.'"' Lessing is no doubt right that the playful allusion 
of the poet to his throwing away his shield has heen taken much 
more in earnest than was intended; and the passage, after all, is an 
imitation, if not a translation, from Alcanas. In its most literal sense, 
it amounts to no more than that Horace fled with the rest of the de- 
feated army, not that he showed any want of valor during the battle 
He abandoned the cause of Brutus when it was not merely desperate 
fcut extinct. Messala had refused to take the command of the broken 
.roops, and had passed over to the other side ; a few only, among 
whom was the friend of Horace, Pompoms Varus, threw themselves 
intc the fleet of Sextus Pompcius, a pirate rather than a political 



1. Ode ii., 7, 1. 2. Epist L, 11, G. 3. Ode i., 7, 11 

4. Werke, ix., p. 126, 173. Lessing 13 completely successful in repelling a uiorv 
disgraceful imputation upon the memory of the poet. In a passage of Seneca, 
Ecme foolish commentator had substituted the name of Iloratius for a certain L. 
Hostius, a man of peculiar profligacy. 

5. Wiclard, Horazens Briefe, b. ii., p. 161. 6. Odo ii.. 7 13 



LIFE OF HORACE. XI X 

leader. 1 Liberty may bo suit! to have deserted Horace rather thar. 
Eioraoi liberty} and, happily for mankind, he felt that his calling 
was to more peaceful pursuits. 

Horace found his wav back, it is uncertain in what manner, to 
Rome. 9 But his estate was confiscated ; some new coactor was col- 
Lecting the price of his native fields, which his father had perhaps 
acquired through former confiscations; tfbr Venusia was one of the 
eighteen cities assigned by the victorious triumvirate to their soldiers. 9 
On his return to Rome, nothing can have been well more dark or 
hopeless than the condition of our poet. He was too obscure to bn 
marked by proscription, or may have found security in some gen- 
eral act of amnesty to the inferior followers of Brutus. But the 
friends which he had already made were on the wrong side in poli- 
ties; he had no family connections, no birth to gild his poverty. It 
was probably at this period of his life that he purchased the place 
of scribe in the quaestor's ollicc ; but from what source he derived 
the purchaso money — the wreck of his fortunes, old debts, or the 
liberality of his friends — we can only conjecture. 4 On the profits of 
this place he managed to live with the utmost frugality. His or- 
dinary fare was but a vegetable diet, his household stuff of the 
meanest ware. He was still poor, and his poverty emboldened 
and urged him to be a poet. 



CHAPTER II. 

STATE OF ROMAN POETRY THEORY OF EARLY ROMAN POETRY 

CAUSES OF ITS TOTAL LOSS ENNIUS INTRODUCTION OF HEXAME- 
TER VERSE GREEK INFLUENCES DRAMA LUCRETIUS CATUL- 
LUS HORACE THE FRIEND OF VIRGIL AND OF VARILS POVERTY 

MAKES HIM A POET INTRODUCTION TO MAECENAS INTIMACY WITH 

MAECENAS CIRCLE OF MEN OF LETTERS FIRST BOOK OF SATIRES. 

The state of Roman poetry, and its history, up to the time when 
Horace began to devote himself to it, is indispensable to a just esti- 
mate of his place among the poets of Rome. Rome, according to 

1. Manilius, i., 859, seqg. 

2. It is difficult to place the peril of shipwreck off Cape Palinurus, on the west- 
ern coast of Lucania (Ode iii., 4, 28), in any part of the poet's life. It is not impos- 
sible that, by the accident of finding a more ready passage that way, or even for 
concealment, ho may have made the more circuitous voyage toward Rome, and 
so encountered this danger. 3. Appian, B. C, iv., 3. 

4. " Scriptum quaestorium comparavit." (Sucton., in Vit.) There is only one 
passage in his poetry which can be construed into an allusion to this occupation, 
unless the "hated business" (invisa negotia) which compelled him to go, at times, 
to Rome, related to the duties of his office. The college of scribes seem to have 
thought that they had a claim to his support in something which concerned thcif 
common interest (Sat. ii., 6, 36, seq.). But in the account which he gives of thfl 
manner in which he usually spent the day (Sat. i., 6, 120), there is no allusion tc 
official business. 



XX LIFE OF HORACE. 

the modern theory, had her mythic and Homeric age ; her early his- 
tory is but her epic cycle transmuted into prose. The probability 
that Rome possessed this older poetry, and the internal evidence foi 
its existence, are strong, if not conclusive. 

If from the steppes of Tartary to the shores of Peru — if in various 
degrees of excellence from the inimitable epics of Homer to the wild 
ditties of the South Sea islanders — scarcely any nation or tribe is 
without its popular songs, is it likely that Rome alone should have 
been barren, unimaginative, unmusical, without its sacred bards, or, if 
its bards were not invested with religious sanctity, without its popu- 
lar minstrels ; Rome, with so much to kindle the imagination and stir 
the heart ; Rome, peopled by a race necessarily involved in adven- 
turous warfare, and instinct with nationality, and with the rivalry 
of contending orders ? In Rome every thing seems to conspire, 
which in all other countries, in all other races, has kindled the song 
of the bard. When, therefore, we find the history as it is handed 
down to us, though obviously having passed through the chill and 
unimaginative older chronicle, still nevertheless instinct with infclt 
poetry, can we doubt where it had its origin ? 

" The early history of Rome," observes Mr. Macaulay, "is in 
deed far more poetical than any thing else in Latin literature. Tho 
loves of the Vestal and the God of War, the cradle laid among the 
reeds of the Tiber, the fig-tree, the she-wolf, the shepherd's cabin, 
the recognition, the fratricide, the rape of the Sabines, the death of 
Tarpeia, the fall of Hostus Hostilius, the struggle of Mettus Curtius 
through the marsh, the women rushing with torn raiment and di- 
shevelled hair between their fathers and their husbands, the nightly 
meetings of Numa and the Nymph by the well in the sacred grove, 
the fight of the three Romans and the three Albans, the purchase of 
the Sibylline books, the crime of Tullia, the simulated madness of 
Brutus, the ambiguous reply of the Delphian oracle to the Tarquins, 
the wrongs of Lucretia, the heroic actions of Horatius Codes, of 
Scaevola, and of ClcBlia, the battle of Regillus won by the aid of 
Castor and Pollux, the fall of Cremera, the touching story of Corio- 
lanus, the still more touching story of Virginia, the wild legend 
about the draining of the Alban Lake, the combat between Valerius 
Corvus and the gigantic Gaul, are among the many instances which 
will at once suggest themselves to every reader." 1 

But this poetic cycle had ceased to exist in its original metrical 
form long before the days of Livy and of Horace. We read of the 
old arval songs, of the Salian verses, of songs sung at triumphs or at 
feasts, by individual guests, in praise of illustrious men, and at funer- 
als. But these were mostly brief, religious, or occasional. Of the 
panegyric, or family songs, Cicero deplores f Ae total loss. The 
verses to which Ennius 2 alludes, as sung by the Fauns and Bards 
the ancient verses which existed before there was any real poetry, 

1. Macaulay, Preface to " L ays of Rome." 

2. Quoted in the Brutus of Cicero, which refers them to the verses of Navlus 



LIFE OP HORACE. XXI 

any general inspiration of the Moses (Ennius, do doubt, means poetry 
in Greek metres, and Lnitative of Greek poets) were from the Saturn- 
tan poem of Najvius on the First Punic War. 

Yet how did this old poetic cycle so utterly perish that no vestige 
should survive? 1 Much, no doubt, is to be attributed to the ordinary 
causes of decay — change of manners, of tastes, the complete dominion 
of ihe Grecian over the Roman mind, the misfortune that no patriotic 
or poetic antiquarian rose in time, no Percy or Walter Scott, to 
search out and to record the fragments of old song, which were dy- 
ing out upon the lips of the peasantry and the people. There are, 
however, peculiar to Rome, some causes for the total oblivion of this 
kind of national record which may also seem worthy of consideration. 
The Grecian ballad poetry, the Homeric (distinguished from all other 
ballads, and, indeed, from almost all other human compositions, by 
transcendent merit), had an inestimable advantage besides its other 
inimitable excellences. At the time of its earliest, undoubtedly its 
most complete development in the Iliad and Odyssey, the wonder- 
fully and naturally musical car of the Greeks had perfected that most 
exquisite vehicle of epic song, the hexameter verse. From Homer to 
Nonnus this verse maintained its prescriptive and unquestioned right 
to be the measure of heroic and narrative poetry. None, indeed, could 
draw the bow like the old bard; but even in this conscious feeble- 
ness the later poets hardly ever ventured to innovate on this estab- 
lished law of epic song. The Saturnian verse was the native meas 
are of Roman, or, rather, of Italian poetry. This Saturnian verse was 
unquestionably very rude, and, if we are to trust the commentator 
on Virgil, only rhythmical. 8 When, therefore, Ennius naturalized 
the hexameter in Latin poetry, it is 210 wonder that all eyes were 
turned on the noble stranger, who at once received the honors of a 
citizen, and from that time was established in supremacy over Latin 
as well as Greek narrative poetry. In this verse Ennius himself em- 
bodied all the early history of Rome ; and we have only to look back 
from the fragments of his work, which, though yet indulging in cer- 
tain licenses which were dropped by Virgil and the later writers, 
have some lines of very free flow and cadence, to the few Saturnian 
verses which survive from the Punic war of his rival Nasvius, and 
we shall not wonder that the Roman ear became fastidious and dis- 
tasteful of its old native melodies. The ballads, if they had still sur- 
vived in common currency, were superseded by the new and more 
popular poetic history of Ennius. 3 The Saturnian verse was aban 
doned to farce and popular satire ; though even satire began to set up 
for a gentleman, and, with Zucilius, to speak in hexameters. Tha 
Atellan 'arces (pantomimes in dialogue, according to our use of the 
* r ord, not that of the classic writers) were still true to the Saturnian 

I. Mr. Macaulay has acutely observed that the words of Dion. Hal., (Ls iv ro?i 
xaTpioiS vfjivols v7Td'Fwnaio)v Iti vvv qdcrai, are either translated, or, at farthest 
paraphrased, from Fabius Pietor, one of the earliest of the Roman annalists. 

2 Servius in Virg., Goorg. ii., LJ85. 3. Hor., Epist. ii., h 153 



XX11 LIFE OF HORACE. 

measure. But the Atcllan farces were Italian, not properly Roman 
entertainments ; they were, perhaps, originally in the Oscan dialect; 
and whether or not they learned to speak Latin before they migrated 
to Rome, they were then taken up by popular poets, Pomponius and 
Novius, and became one of the regular amusements of the people. 1 

But probably the most extensively operative cause of the rapid 
extinction of the Roman popular poetry was the dissolution of the 
Roman people. The old plebeian families which survived had be- 
come a part of the aristocracy. As they had attained, either, 
like Cicero, having struggled upward, the higher rank, or having 
reached it by less honorable courses, whichever side they might take 
in the great contest between the senate and the democracy, they as- 
sumed patrician manners, tastes, and habits. Except here and '.here 
some sturdy " laudator temporis acti," some rough Cato, who af- 
fected the old republican manners, they belonged to that class which 
had surrendered itself — which prided itself on its surrender — to Greek 
influences. If family pride was still Roman in its reminiscences, if 
it delighted to recall its ancestral glories, it would disdain the rude 
old verse, and content itself with the chronicles which had now as- 
sumed the more authentic tone of history. It would appeal to more 
authoritative public records or private archives. The man of rank 
would l»e ashamed or afraid, in a more prosaic age, of resting tho 
fame of his ancestors," or the truth of his genealogy, on such suspi- 
cious testimonies. Cicero might have taste and wisdom enough to 
regret the loss of these ancient songs, both as poetry and as trust- 
worthy records of former times ; but in his day they had entirely, 
and, it should seem, long vanished from the more refined banquets 
of the higher classes ; they found no place amid the gorgeous mag- 
nilicencc of the Luculli, or the more enervating luxuries of the 
Clodii. 

If, then, they lingered any where, they would be on the lips and in 
the hearts of the Roman people. But where were the Roman peo. 
pie ? where was that stern, and frugal, and strongly national plebe- 
ian race, which so long maintained the Roman character for order, 
virtue, freedom ; and which, if factious and unruly, was factious foi 
noble ends, and unruly in defence or assertion of its rights ? In the 
city there was, and there always had been, a populace, w T hich, from 
the first, to a great extent, was not of Roman descent, the mechanics 
and artisans, the clients of the wealthy — now swelled in numbers, 
and, though always held in low estimation, debased in character by 
the constant influx of strangers, not merely from Italy, but from re- 
moter regions. This half-foreign population was maintained in a kind 
of insolent pauperism by largesses of corn and other provisions, and 
by the distributions of the wealthy with political views. This hybrid 

1 . Ths Saturnism was the common measure, no doubt, of all the rude Italic verse 
bi its various dialects. Grotefend professes to have found it in the Umbrian in ■ 
Kcriptions of the tabuke Euu r ubinau. See a learned treatise, De Fabulis Atclkmw J 
by Dr K. Muuk. Lipsiit, 1p40. 



LIFli OF HORACE. XAlll 

diiU shifting race, hugely formed of enfranchised slaves and men o{ 
servile descent, would be but precarious and treacherous guardians 
of national song, probably in an antiquated dialect: they would keep 
up the old Italic license (so indelible, it should seem, in the Italian 
character) of poetic lampoon and pasquinade: any wild traditions 
which heightened the fun and the revel of the Saturnalia might live 
among them ; they would welcome, as we have seen, the low and 
farcical dramatic entertainments ; but their ears would be unmoved, 
and their hearts dead, to ihe old stirring legends of the feuds and 
factions, the wars of neighboring tribes, and the heroic deeds of 
arms of the kings or of the early republic. The well-known ancc 
dote of Scipio iEmilianus may illustrate the un-Roman character of 
this populace of Rome. When the mob raised a furious clamor ai 
his bold assertion of the justice of the death of Tiberius Gracchus,, 
" Silence, ye step-sons of Italy ! What ! shall I fear these fellows, 
now they are free, whom I myself have brought in chains to Rome?" 
These were the operatives (opene) who flocked, not merely from the 
workshops of Rome, but from all the adjacent districts, to swell the 
turbulent rabble of Clodius. 1 

The territory of Rome, the demesne-lands formerly cultivated by 
Roman citizens, in which resided the strength of the Roman people, 
had been gradually drained of the free population. For several cen- 
turies it had filled tho legions, and those legions had achieved the 
conquest of the world. But that conquest was not won without 
enormous loss. The best blood of the Roman people had fertilized 
the earth almost from the Euphrates to the Western Ocean. Tho 
veterans who returned received apportionments of land, but, more 
frequently in remote parts of Italy : the actual Roman territory, there- 
fore, that in which the old Roman language was the native dialect, 
and in which might survive that Roman pride w 7 hich would cherish 
the poetic reminiscences of Roman glory, was now, for the most part, 
either occupied by the rising villas of tho patricians, or by the large 
farms of the wealthy, and cultivated by slaves. The homestead 
whence a Camillus issued to rescue his country from the Gauls 
may now have become a work-house, in which crouched the slaves 
of some Verres, enriched with provincial plunder, or some usurious 
knight ; a gang of Africans or Asiatics may have tilled the field 
where Cincinnatus left his plough to assume the consular fasces. Foi 
centuries this change had been gradually going on ; tho wars, and 
even the civil factions, were continually wasting aw r ay the Roma* 
population, while the usurpation of wealth and prido was as constant 
ly keeping up its slow aggression, and filling up the void with th* 
slaves which poured in with every conquest. The story of Sparta- 
cus may tell how large a part of the rural population of Italy was 
servile ; and probably, the nearer to Rome, in the districts former- 
ly inhabited by the genuine Roman people, the change (with some 

L Veil, raterc, il.. 2 ; Vol. Max., vi., 2; Cic, ad Q. Frat., ii., 3 : fif. Petron., v., 164, 



XXIV LIFE OF IIOXACE. 

exceptions) was most complete ; the Sabine valleys might retain sonic 
of the old rough hereditary virtues, the hardihood and frugality , but 
at a distance from the city it would be their own local or religious 
traditions which would live among the peasantry, rather than the 
fiongs which had been current in the streets among the primitive 
commons of Rome. 

Thus, both in city and in country, had died away the genuine old 
Roman people ; and with them, no doubt, died away the last echo 
of national song. The extension of the right of Roman citizenship, 
the diffusion of the pride of the Roman name through a wider sphere, 
tended still more to soften away the rigid and exclusive spirit of na- 
tionality ; and it was this spirit alone which would cling pertinacious 
ly to that which labored under the unpopularity of rudeness and bar 
barism. The new Romans appropriated the glories of the old, but 
disregarded the only contemporary, or, at least, the earliest witnesses 
to those glories. The reverse of the fate of the Grecian heroes hap- 
pened to those of Rome — the heroes lived, the sacred bards perished 

The Latin poetry, that which Rome has handed down to posteri- 
ty, was, like philosophy, a stranger and a foreigner. 1 She arrived, 
though late, before philosophy ; at least she was more completely 
naturalized before philosophy was domiciled, except in a very few 
mansions of great statesmen, and among a very circumscribed intel- 
lectual aristocracy. It is rcmarkablo that most of her early poets 
were from Magna Graccia. Naevius alone, the Saturnian or Italian 
poet, was from Campania, and even Campania was half Greek. Livius 
Andronicus was from Tarcntum ; 2 Ennius from Rudia3 in Calabria ; 
Accius was the son of a freedman from the south of Italy ; Pacuvius 
was a Brundisian ; Plautus, of the comic writers, was an Umbrian ; 
Terence was an African ; Coecilius was from the north of Italy. In 
every respect the Romans condescended to be imitative, not directly 
of Nature, but of Grecian models. Ennius had confined her epic 
poetry to the hexameter, whence it never attempted to emancipate 
itself. The drama of Rome, like all her arts, was Grecian ; almost 
all the plays (excepting here and there a tragazdia prcetcxtata) of 
Livius Andronicus, Accius, Pacuvius, Plautus, Terence, were on 
Grecian subjects. So completely was this admitted by the time of 
Horace, that his advice to the dramatic poet is to study Grecian 
models by night and day. (Ep. ad Pis., 268, seq.) But, on the 
other hand, the wonderful energies which were developed in the 
universal conquests of Rome, and in her civil factions, in which the 
great end of ambition was to be the first citizen in a state which 

1. " Punico bello secundo musa pinnato gradu 

Intulit ee bellicosam Romuli in gentcm feram." 

P. Licinius apud A. Gelliun. 

2. Cicero, Brutus, c. 18. Livius was taken prisoner at the capture of Tarentum. 
It is gupposed that he was a freedman of M. Livius Salinator. The Tareatinet 
were great admirers of the theatre. Plant., MenaBchmi, Trolog. 29, seqg. ; Ilcyne, 
Opusc., ii. 225 seqg. Livius represented his own plays. Liv., vii, 2; Fal. Max^ 
U. * 



LIFE OF HORACE. XX 

ruled the world, could not but awaken intellectual powers of the 
highest order. The force and vigor of the Roman character are man- 
ifest in the fragments of their early poetry. However rude and in- 
linrmonious these translations (for, after all, they are translations), 
they are full of bold, animated, and sometimes picturesque expres- 
sions ; and that which was the natural consequence of the domicilia- 
tion of a foreign literature among a people of strong and masculine 
minds invariably took place. Wherever their masters in the art had 
attained to consummate perfection, wherever the genius of the peo- 
ple had been reflected in their poetry with complete harmony, there, 
however noble might be the emulation of the disciple, it was impos- 
sible that ho should approach to his model, especially where his own 
genius and national character were adverse both to the form and to 
the poetic conception. 

Hence, in the genuine epic, in lyric, in dramatic poetry, the Greeks 
stood alone and unapproachable. Each of these successive forms of 
the art had, as it were, spontaneously adapted itself to the changes 
in Grecian society. The epic was tjjat of the heroic age of the 
warrior-kings and bards ; the lyric, the religious, that of the temple 
and the public games ; the dramatic, that of the republican polity, the 
exquisite combination of the arts of poetry, music, gesture, and spec- 
tacle, before which the sovereign people of Athens met, which was 
presided over by the magistrate, and maintained either at the public 
cost or at that of the ruling functionary, which, in short, was the 
great festival of the city. 

But the heroic age of Rome had passed away, as before observed, 
without leaving any mythic or epic song, unless already transmuted 
into history. Her severe religion had never kindled into poetry, ex- 
cept in rude traditional verses, and short songs chanted during the 
solemn ceremony. The more domestic habits of her austere days 
had been less disposed to public exhibitions ; theatrical amusements 
were forced upon her, not freely developed by the national taste. 
No doubt, from the close of the second Punic war to the age of Au- 
gustus, dramatic entertainments were more or less frequent in Rome. 
The tragedies of Ncevius, Ennius, Pacuvius, and Accius, as well as 
the comedies of Plautus, Coecilius, Afranius, and Terence, formed 
part of the great games which were celebrated during periods of 
public rejoicing. The fame of iEsopus and Roscius as actors im- 
plies great popular interest in the stage. Still, as has been said, al- 
most all, if not all, the tragedies, and most of the comedies, were 
translations or adaptations from the Greek. 1 The ovation and the 
triumph were the great spectacles of Rome ; and, when these be- 
came more rare, her relaxation was the rude Atellan farce, or the 
coarse mime ; but her passion was the mimic war, the amphitheatre 
with its wild beasts and gladiators, the proud spectacle of barbarian 

1. Lange, in his "Vindiciie Romanae Tragoedise," and Welcker (" Griechiscba 
TrtgOBdie") are indignant at tJr ^ general, and as they aseert unjust disparagement 
f Roman tragedy. 

2 



X.XV1 LIFE OF HORACE. 

captives slaughtering each other for her amusement. Rome thus 
wanted the three great sources of poetic inspiration — an heroic period 
of history, religion, and scenic representation. She had never, at 
least there appears no vestige of their existence, a caste or order of 
bards ; her sacerdotal offices, attached to her civ.3 magistracies, dis- 
dained the aid of high-wrought music, or mythic and harmonious 
hymns. Foreign kings and heroes walked her stage, 1 and even her 
comedy represented, in general, the manners of Athens or of Asia 
Minor rather than those of Italy. 

Still, however, in those less poetic departments of poetry, if we 
may so speak, which the Greeks had cultivated only in the later and 
less creative periods of their literature, the Romans seized the unoc- 
cupied ground, and asserted a distinct superiority. Wherever poetry 
would not disdain to become an art — wherever lofty sentiment, ma- 
jestic, if elaborate verse, unrivalled vigor in condensing and express- 
ing moral truth, dignity, strength, solidity, as it were, of thought 
and language, not without wonderful richness and variety, could 
compensate for the chastene^ fertility of invention, the life and dis- 
tinctness of conception, and the pure and translucent language, ip 
which the Greek stands alone — there the Latin surpasses all poetry 
In what is commonly called didactic poetry, whether it would com 
vey in verse philosophical opinions, the principles of art, descriptions 
of scenery, or observations on life and manners, the Latin poets are 
of unrivalled excellence. The poem of Lucretius, the Georgics of 
Virgil, the Satires and Epistles of Horace, and the works of Juvenal, 
were, no doubt, as much superior even to the poem of Empedocles 
(of which, nevertheless, there are some very fine fragments), or to 
any other Greek poems to which they can fairly be compared, as 
the Latin tragedians were inferior to ^Eschylus and Sophocles, or 
Terence to Menandcr. 

Ennius, in all points, if he did not commence, completed the de- 
naturalization of Roman poetry. He was in every respect a Greek • 

1. Nine names of TragoediiB Preetextatae, tragedies on Roman subjects, have 
survived, more than one of which is doubtful ; four only claim to be of the ear- 
ier age. I. The Paulus of Pacuvius, which Neukirch (" De Fabula Togata") and 
IVelcker (" Griechische Tragcedie," p. 1384) suppose to have represented, not 
Paulus iEmilius Macedonicus, but his father, L. iEmilius Paulus, who, after the 
battle of Cannae, refused to survive the defeat. (Liv., xxii., 49.) Yet, noble aa 
was the conduct of Paulus, the battle of Cannae would have been a strange subject 
for Roman tragedy. II. The Brutus of Accius (Cic, Ep. ad Att., xvi., 2 and 5). 
Caseius Parmensis wrote also a Brutus ( JVelcker, p. 1403). See the dream of Brutus 
hi Cic. De Divinat., i., 22, and Bothe (Scenic. Lat. Fragm., i., 191). From this fraj 
ment Niebuhr (Rom. Hist, vol. i., note 1078) rather boldly concludes that these 
were not imitations of the Greek drama, but historical tragedies, like those of 
Shakspeare. III. The ^Eneada?, or Decius of Accius. IV. The Marcellus of Accius 
s doubtful. V. The Iter ad Lentulum, by Balbus, acted at Gades, represented a 
passage in the author's own life. (Cic, Ep. ad Fam., x., 32.) The later preetex- 
tatae were, VI The Cato ; and, VII. The Domitius Nero of Maternus, in the reign 
of Vespasian. Vlll. The Vescio of Persius; and, IX. The Octavia, in tho works 
of Seneca, probably at the time of Trajan. 



LIFE OF HORACE. XXVlt 

the fine old Roman legends spoke- not in their fuli grandeur to hift 
ear. The fragments of the Annals, which relate the exploits of Ro- 
man valor, are by no means his most poetic passages ; in almost ail 
his loftier flights we trace Grecian inspiration, or more than inspira- 
tion. If it be true that the earliest annalists of Rome turned their 
old poetry into prose, Ennius seems to have versified their tame his- 
tory, and to have left it almost as prosaic as before. It may bo 
doubted, notwithstanding the fame of Varius, whether there was anj 
fine Roman narrative poetry till the appearance of the iEneid. But 
Lucretius had shown of what the rich and copious, and, in his hands, 
flexible Latin language was capable ; how it could paint as well as 
describe, and, whenever his theme would allow, give full utterance 
to human emotion. It is astonishing how Lucretius has triumphed 
over the difficulties of an unpromising subject, and the cold and un- 
poetio tone of his own philosophy. His nobler bursts are not sur 
passed in Latin poetry. Notwithstanding the disrepute in which 
Cicero's poetic talents have been held, there are lines, especially in 
his translation of Araftis, which, by their bold descriptive felicity and 
picturesque epithets, rise above the original. Lucretius was dead 
before Horace settled at Rome, and so, likewise, was the only other 
great Roman poet who has survived (excluding the dramatists), Ca 
tullus. Notwithstanding their grace, sweetness, and passion, the 
lyric poems of Catullus do not seem to have been so pleasing at 
might have been expected to the Roman ear. His fame and popu 
larity rested chiefly on his satirical iambics. His lyrics are men 
tioned with disparagement by Horace, and arc not noticed by Quin 
tilian 5 yet in his happier moments, what Latin poet equals Catul 
lus ? Even if more of his poems than we suppose are translation? 
some of them, which we know to be translations, have all the fir 
and freedom of original poetry. If the Atys be but a feeble ech? 
of a Greek dithyrambic, what must the dithyrambics of Greece havt 
been? 

When Horace returned to Rome, Virgil and Varius, with Asiniu 
Pollio, the statesman and tragic writer, were the most celebrate< 
names in Roman poetry. These two great poets soon admitted th* 
young Horace to their intimacy. The fame of Varius, as an epic 
poet, does not appear to have been recognized even by his Roman 
posterity. Quintilian speaks of his Thyestes wi*h the highest praise, 
as worthy to be compared with the noblest Greek tragedies ; he does 
not mention his name among the epic writers. Varius, it should 
seem, wrote fine verses on the events and characters of the times ; a 
poem on the death of Caesar, and a panegyric on Augustus. That 
kind of poetry obtains higt reputation in its own day, but loses its 
interest with the events which it celebrates. Yet of the few epio 
lines of Varius which survive, all show vigor and felicity of expres- 
sion, some great beauty. The Eclogues of Virgil appeared in their 
collective form about the same time with the earliest publication of 
Horace, his first book of Satires But Virg j had already acquired 



XIV111 LIFL OF HORACE. 

fame ; some of his shorter poems had excited great admiration and 
greater hope ; a few of his Eclogues must have been already known 
among his friends ; he had the expectation, at least, of recovering 
his forfeited lands through the friendship of Asinius Pollio ; he was 
already honored with the intimate acquaintance of Maecenas. 

The introduction of Horace to Maecenas was the turning-point of 
h s fortunes ; but some time (at least two or three years) must have 
invervencd between his return to Rome, and even his first presenta- 
tion to his future patron, during which he must have obtained some 
reputation for poetic talent, and so recommended himself to the friend- 
ship of kindred spirits like Varius and Virgil. Poverty, in his own 
words, was the inspiration of his verse. 

" Paupertas impulit audax 
Ut versus fuccrem." — EpisL ii., 2, 51, seq. 

The interpretation of this passage is the difficult problem in tlie 
ea.'ly history of Horace. What was his poetry ? Did the author 
expect to make money or friends by it ? Or did he write mere- 
ly to disburden himself of his resentment and his indignation, at that 
crisis of desperation and destitution when the world was not his 
friend, nor the world's law, and so to revenge himself upon that 
world by a stern and unsparing exposure of its vices ? Did the de- 
feated partisan of Brutus and of liberty boldly hold up to scorn many 
of the followers and friends of the triumvir, whose follies and vices 
might offer strong temptation to a youth ambitious of wielding the 
scourge of Lucilius ? Did he even venture to ridicule the all-power- 
ful Maecenas himself? This theory, probable in itself, is supported 
by many recent writers, and is, perhaps, not altogether without founda- 
tion. 1 In the second satire, one unquestionably of his earliest com- 
positions, most of the persons held up to ridicule belonged to the 
Cassaria» party. The old scholiast asserts that, under the name of 
Malchimis, the poet glanced at the effeminate habit of Maecenas, of 
wearing his robes trailing on the ground, while more malicious 
scandal added that this was a trick in order to conceal his bad legs 
and straddling gait. To judge of the probability of this, we must 
look forward to the minute account of his first interview with Maece- 
nas. If Horace was conscious of having libelled Maecenas, it must 
have been more than modesty, something rather of shame and con- 
fusion, which overpowered him, and made his words few and broken. 8 

The dry and abrupt manner of Maecenas, though habitual to him, 
might perhaps be alleged as rather in favor of the notion that he had 
been induced to admit a visit from a man of talent, strongly recom- 
mended to him by the most distinguished men of letters of the day, 
though he was aware that the poet had been a partisan of Brutus, 
and had held himself up to ridicule in a satire, which, if not publish- 
ed, had been privately circulated, and must have been known at 
least to Varius and Virgil. The gentlemanly magnanimity of Mae- 
cenas, or even the policy, which would induce him to reconcile all 

L JValkenaer, Histoire de la Vie d'Horace, i., p. 88. 2. Sat i., 6, 54. 



LIFE OF HORACE. XXIX 

men of talent with the government, might dispose him to overlook 
with quiet contempt or easy indifference, or even to join in the laugh 
at this touch of satire against his own peculiarity of person or man 
ner ; but, still, the subsequent publication of a poem containing such 
an allusion, after the satirist had been admitted into the intimacy of 
Maecenas (and it is universally admitted that the satire was first pub- 
lished after this time), appears improbable, and altogether inconsistenl 
with the deferential respect and gratitudo shown by Horace to his 
patron, with the singular tact and delicacy through w T hich the poet 
preserves his freedom by never trespassing beyond its proper bounds, 
and with that exquisite urbanity which prevents his flattery from de- 
generating into adulation. This is still less likely if the allusion in 
the satire glanced at physical deformity or disease. After all, this 
negligence or effeminate affectation w T as probably much too common 
to point the satire against any individual, even one so eminent as 
Maecenas. The grave observation of the similarity between the 
names of Maecenas and Malchinus, being each of three syllables and 
beginning with an M, reminds us irresistibly of old Fluellin's Mace- 
don and Monmouth. 

The other circumstances of the interview seem to imply that 
Horace felt no peculiar embarrassment, such as he might have ex- 
perienced if he was conscious of having libelled Maecenas. There 
was no awkw T ard attempt at apology, but a plain independence in 
his manner ; he told him merely that he was neither a man of fami- 
ly nor fortune, and explained who and w r hat he was. 1 The question 
then recurs, what were these verses to which Horace was impelled 
by poverty ? Poetry can not have been of itself a gainful occupa- 
tion. The Sosii were not, like the opulent booksellers of our own 
day, ready to encourage, and to speculate in favor of, a young and 
promising author. In another passage, written late in life, the poet 
pleasantly describes himself as having grown rich and indolent, and 
as having lost that genial inspiration of want wh ch heretofore had 
so powerfully excited his poetic vein. Pope has imitated the hu- 
morous illustration of the old soldier with more than his usual felicity 
M In Anna's wars, a soldier, poor and old, 

Had dearly earn'd a little purse of gold. 

Tired with a tedious march, one luckless night 

He slept (poor dog), and lost it to a doit. 

This put the man in such a desperate mind, 

Between revenge, and grief, and hunger join'd, 

Against himself, the foe, and all mankind, 

He leap'd the trenches, scaled a castle wall 

Tore down a standard, took the fort and all. 

■ Prodigious well !' his great commander cried, 

Gave him much praise, and some reward beside. 

Next pleased his excellence a town to batter 

(It3 name I know not, and 'tis no great matter; ; 

* Go on, my friend,' he cried ; ' see yonder walls ! 

Advance and conquer 1 go where gk-ry caTs ! 

1. Sat. i., 6, 58, aegg. 



XXX L1JE OF HORACE. 

Moi e honors, more rewards, attend the brave V 
Don't you remember what reply he gave ? 
' D'ye think me, noble general, such a sot ? 
Let him take castles who has ne'er a groat. 1 r 

From these lines it appears that the influence of poverty was more 
man the independent desire of exhaling his indignation against the 
partisans of the triumvirs, or of wreaking his revenge ; it was the 
vulgar but prudential design, in some way or other, of bettering his 
condition, which was his avowed inspiration. In truth, literary dis- 
tiaction in those times might not unreasonably hope for reward. 
The most eminent of the earlier poets had not disdained the patron- 
age and friendship of the great statesmen. Ennius had been domi- 
ciliated in the family of the Scipios, and his statue was admitted 
after his death into the family mausoleum. Lucilius had been con- 
nected with the same family. Lucretius lived in the house of the 
Memniii; Terence with Scipio Africanus and Laelius. Decimus 
Brutus was the admirer and patron of Accius ; as Messala of Tibul- 
lus ; Vulcatius, or iElius Gallus, of Propertius. Varius was him- 
self a man of rank and birth ; bu: Virgil owed to his poetical fame 
the intimate friendship of Pollio an 1 Maecenas ;' and though Horace, 
as a known republican, could hardiy have hoped for the patronage 
of Maecenas, there were others to whom the poet might have been 
welcome, though much prudence might be required in both parties 
on account of his former political connections. 

But, whatever the motives which induced him to write, the poeti- 
cal talents of Horace must soon have begun to make themselves 
known. To those talents he owed, in the first place, the friendship 
of Varius and Virgil, of Pollio, and perhaps of some others in that 
list of distinguished persons, which he recounts in the tenth satire of 
the first book. Some of these, no doubt, he first encountered after 
he had been admitted to the society of Maecenas. Under what other 
character, indeed, could the son of a provincial freedman, who had 
been on the wrong side in the civil wars, had lost all his property, 
and scarcely possessed the means of living, make such rapid progress 
among the accomplished and the great? Certainly not by his socia. 
qualities alone, his agreeable manners, or convivial wit. Nothing 
but his well-known poetical powers can have so rapidly endeared 
him to his brother poets. When Virgil and Varius told Maecenas 
" what he was," they must have spoken of him as a writer of verses, 
not merely of great promise, but of some performance. But were 

1 If Donatus is to be credited, Virgil received from the liberality of his friends 
not less than centics sestertii.m (£80,729 3s. 4d.), besides a house in Rome on tho 
Esquiline, a villa near Nola, perhaps another in Sicily. (Donati, Vita Virg, ri., 
Hence Juveml's well-known lines : 

" Magna? mentis opus, nee de lodice paranda 
Attonitae, currus et equos, faciemque Deorum 
Aspicore, et qualis Rutulum confundat Eriny6 • 
Nam si Virgilio puer et tolerabile deesset 
ilospitium, caderent oranes e crinibus hydri."' — Sat. viii. Gi> 



EIFE OF HORACE. XXXI 

thb two or three satires, which we may suppose to have been writ- 
ten before his introduction to Maecenas, sufficient to found this poetic 
reputation? That some of the opodes belong to this early part of 
'.lis poetical career, I have no doubt; the whole adventure with 
Canidin (that one of his poetical intrigues which has a groundwork 
ut least of reality) belongs to a period of his life when he was loose, 
as it were, upon the world, without an ascertained position in society, 
nnsettled in habits, and to a certain degree in opinions. Nor does 
•here appear to me any difficulty in the supposition that some of the 
sdes, which bear the expression of youthful feelings and passions, 
,'iowever collected afterward, and published in books, may have been 
jimong the compositions which were communicated to his friends, 
And opened to him the society of men of letters and the patronage 
Df the great. 1 

Nino months claps. 2d between the first cold reception of Horace 
by Maecenas and his advances to nearer friendship. 

Maecenas, though still engaged in public affairs, and though he 
had not yet built his splendid palace on the Esquiline, had neverthe- 
less begun to collect around him all the men either eminent, or who 
promised to become eminent, in arts and letters. The friendship 
with Horace grew up rapidly into close intimacy. In the following 
year Horace accompanied him on his journey to Brundisium ; to 
which Maecenas proceeded, though on a political negotiation of the ut- 
most importance (the reconciliation of Antony and Octavianus), as 
i m a party of pleasure, environed by the wits and poets who had be- 
^un to form his ordinary circle. 

The mutual amity of all the great men of letters in this period 
gives a singularly pleasing picture of the society which was har- 
monized and kept together by the example and influence of Maece- 
nas. Between Virgil, Plotius, Variu.3, and Horace, between Horace 
and Tibullus, there was not merely no vulgar jealousy, no jarring 
rivalry, but the most frank mutual acHmixation. If an epigram of 
Martial be not a mere fancy of the poet, Virgil carried his delicacy 
so far that he would not trespass on the poetic provinces which 
seemed to belong to his friends. Though hs might have surpassed 
Varius in tragedy, and Horace in lyric poetry, he would not attempt 
either, lest he should obscure their fame. 2 

1. The most untenable part of the Bentleian chronology, which, however, as fur 
as the publication of the separate books, is no doubt true, ia his peremptory as* 
scrtion that Horace employed himself only on one kind of poetry at a time ; that 
he wrote all the satires, then the epodes, then the three books of odes. Dr. Tato. 
the faithful and unshaken disciple of Bentley, quoting the lines, 

"Neque, si quis scribat, uti nos, 
Sermoni propiora, putes hunc esse poetam," 
does not scruple to assert that Horace, Sat. i., 4, " says, aa plainly as a man caa 
say it, that he had not then written any thing which could entitle him to the namo 
of a poet;" therefore, no single ode. "But Horace," aa has been well observed, 
c uses language much like this in his epistles (Epist. ii., 1, 250, &c), written afto? 
all his odes."— Dyer, in Cla»3. Muse »m, No. V , p. 215, &c. 

2 Martial, Epig. viii.. 18. 



XXX11 LIFE OF HORACE. 

In the enjoyment of this society Horace completed the earliest of 
his works which has reached posterity (if, indeed, we hare not hL 
whole published works), the first book of satires. 1 



CHAPTER III. 

SATIRIC POETRY ITS ORIGIN THE COMEDY OF ROME STATE Of 

SOCIETY SABINE FARM CHRONOLOGY OF THE BOOKS OF SAT1RE8 

EPODES DATE OF COMPOSITION OF COMPLETION. 

The satiric style of poetry was admirably suited to this way of 
iving. It was the highest order of the poetry of society. It will 
bear the same definition as the best conversation — good sense and 
wit in equal proportions. Like good conversation, it dwells enough 
on one topic to allow us to bear something away, while it is so des- 
ultory as to minister perpetual variety. It starts from some sub- 
ject of interest or importance, but does not adhere to it with rigid 
pertinacity. The satire of Horace allowed ample scope to follow 
out any train of thought which it might suggest, but never to pro- 
lixity. It was serious and gay, grave and light ; it admitted the 
most solemn and important questions of philosophy, of manners, of 
literature, but touched them in an easy and unaffected tone ; it was 
full of point and sharp allusions to the characters of the day ; it in 
troduced in the most graceful manner the follies, the affectations, 
even the vices of the times, but there was nothing stern, or savage, 
• or malignant in its tone ; we rise from the perusal with the convic- 
tion that Horace, if not the most urbane and engaging (not the per- 
fect Christian gentleman), must have been the most sensible and de- 
lightful person who could be encountered in Roman society. There 
is no broad buffoonery to set the table in a roar ; no elaborate and 
exhausting wit, which turns the pleasure of listening into a fatigue , 
if it trespasses occasionally beyond the nicety and propriety of mod- 
ern manners, it may fairly plead the coarseness of the times, and the 
want of efficient female control, which is the only true chastener of 

1. Even on the publication of the satires, odes, and epistles in separate books, 
there are more difficulties than at first sight appear in the chronology of Bentley. 
Several of the satires in the first, but especially the fourth, show that Horace had 
already made enemies by his satiric poetry. Horace was averse to the fashion of 
reciting poems in public, which had been introduced by Asinius Pollio, and com- 
plains that his own were read by few : 

" Cum mea nemo 
Scripta legat, vulgo recitare timentis." 
Compare line 73, et seqq. Some recited their works in the forum, some in the 
public baths. 

No doubt he is in jest in this comparison between his poems and those of hia 
rivals Crispinus and Fannius : but it seems to imply that his poems were already, 
some way or other, exposed to popular approbation or neglect. Our notion of 
publication, the striking off at once a whole edition, probably misleads us. Before 
the invention of printing, each poem must have been copied and recopied sepa- 
rately; perhaps they may not have been exposed for sale till made up in books. 



LIFE UF HORACE. KXXU 

conversation, but whim can only command respect where the fe- 
males themselves deserve it. 

The satiric form of poetry was not original ; there was something 
like it in the Silli of the Greeks, and Lucilius had already introduced 
this style of writing into Rome with great success. The obligationa 
of Horace to Lucilius it is impossible fairly to estimate from the few 
and broken passages of that writer which have survived. Horace 
can hardly be suspected of unworthy jealousy in the character which 
he gives of his predecessor in the art. Notwithstanding Quintilian's 
statement that there were some even in his own day who still pre- 
ferred the old satirist, not merely to all poets of his class, but even 
to every other Roman poet, there can be no doubt that Lucilius was 
rude, harsh, and inharmonious ; and it is exactly this style of poetry 
which requires ease, and that unstudied idiomatic perspicuity of lan- 
guage, that careless, as it may seem, but still skillful construction 
of verse which delights the ear at the same time that it is widely 
different from the stately march of the Virgilian hexameter, or the 
smooth regularity of the elegiac poets. It is so near akin to prose 
as to require great art to keep up the indispensable distinction from it. 

The poetry of Horace was the comedy of an untheatrical people. 
If the Romans had been originally a theatrical people, there would 
have been a Roman drama. Their praetextatre were but Greek 
dramas on Roman subjects. The national character of the people 
was, doubtless, the chief cause of the want of encouragement to the 
drama, but we may go still further. The time sphere of the drama 
seems to be a small city, like Athens (we reckon its size by its free 
population), London in the time of Elizabeth and James, Paris in 
that of Louis XIV., or Weimar at the close of the last century. In 
these citiee, either all orders delight in living in public, or there is a 
large and predominant aristocracy, or a court which represents or 
leads the public taste. Rome was too populous to crowd into a thea- 
tre, where the legitimate drama could be effectively performed. The 
people required at least a Colosseum ; and directly, as elsewhere, 
their theatres rivalled their amphitheatres, the art was gone. So 
ciety, too, in Rome, was in a state of transition from the public spec 
tacle to the private banquet or entertainment ; and as our own pres- 
ent mode of living requires the novel instead of the play, affords a 
hundred readers of a book to one spectator of a theatrical perform- 
ance, so Roman comedy receded from the theatre, in which she had 
never been naturalized, and concentrated her art and her observation 
on human life and manners in the poem, which was recited to the 
private circle of friends, or published for the general amusement of 
the whole society. 

Lucilius, as Horace himself says, aspired to be in Rome what 
Eupolis, Cratinus, and Aristophanes had been in Athens {Sat. i., 5, 
1, seqq.) ; and more than Caecilius, Plautus, and Terence, excellent 
as the two latter at least appear to us, were at Rome. 

The tone of society, of which Horace is the representative, wa3 

2* 



XXXIV LIFE CF HORACE 

that into which Rome, weary and worn out with civil contests, wtu 
delighted to collapse. The peace of the capital was no more dis- 
turbed ; though the foreign disturbances in Spain and on the othei 
frontiers of the empire, the wars with the sons of Pompey, and, final- 
ly, with Antony in the East, distracted the remoter world, Rome 
"piietly subsided into the pursuits of peace. It was the policy no less 
than the inclination of Augustus and his true friends to soften, to 
amuse, to introduce all the arts, and tastes, and feelings which could 
induce forgetfulness of the more stirring excitements of the rostra 
and the senate ; to awaken the song of the poet, that the agitating 
eloquence of the orator might cause less regret ; to spread the couch 
of luxury, of elegant amusement, and of lettered ease, on which Rome 
might slumber away the remembrance of her departed liberties. 
Agrippa and Augustus himself may be considered as taking charge 
of the public amusements, erecting theatres, and adorning the city 
with magnificent buildings of every description, transmuting the 
Rome of brick into the Rome of marble ; exhibiting the most gor- 
geous shows and spectacles; distributing sumptuous largesses; and 
compensating, by every kind of distraction and diversion, for the pri- 
vation of those more serious political occupations in the forum or at 
the comitia, which were either abolished by the constitution, or had 
languished into regular and unexciting formalities. 1 Maecenas, in 
the mean time, was winning, if not to the party, or to personal attach- 
ment toward Augustus, at least to contented acquiescence in his 
sovereignty, those who would yield to the silken charms of sociai 
enjoyment. Though in the Roman mansion or Baian villa, as after- 
ward in the palace on the Esquiline, no test of opinion might be de- 
manded, and no severe or tyrannous restriction be placed on the ease 
and freedom of conversation, republican sentiments, or expressions 
of dissatisfaction at the state of public affairs, would be so out of 
place at the hospitable banquets of Maecenas as to be proscribed by 
the common laws of courtesy or urbanity. Men's minds would be 
gradually reconciled to the suppression, if not to forgetfulness or 
abandonment, of such thoughts and feelings ; they were gradually 
taught how agreeably they might live under a despotism. 

Horace was not the only republican, nor the only intimate friend 
of Brutus, who took refuge in letters : 

" Haec est 
Vita solutorum misera ambitione gravique." 

He excused himself from the hopelessness of the cause, of which he 
still cherished some generous reminiscences. He still occasionally 
tetrayed old associations, as in his flashes of admiration at the un- 

1. The pantomimes had begun to supersede the regular drama. Pylades was ex- 
pelled by a faction, but recalled from exile by Augustus. In a dispute with Bathyl 
lus, who was patronized by Maecenas, Pylades cried out, " It is well for you, Csb- 
sar, that the people trouble themselves so much about us, the less, therefore, aboul 
you."— Dio Cass., liv., 17. See, on tbe pantomimes of the Romans, an excel' en/ 
dissertation by E. J. Grysar, Rhcinisches Museum, 1834 



LIFE OF UJKACE. XXX\ 

nroken .spirit and noble death c£ Cato ; yet, nevertheless, he gradual- 
ly softened into the friend of the emperor's favorite, and at length 
into the poetical rourlier of the emperor himself. Horace, indeed, 
asserted and maintained greater independence of personal character 
than most subjects of the new empire ; there is a tone of dignity and 
self-respect even in the most adulatory passages of his writings. 

Between the publication of the two books of satires, Horace 10 
ceived from MflBcenas the gift of the Sabine farm, the only product- 
ive property which he ever possessed, and on which he lived in mod- 
erate contentment. Nothing could be more appropriate than this 
gift, which may have been softened off, as it were, as a compensa 
tion for his confiscated personal estate ; the act of generosity may 
have recommended itself as an act of justice. Virgil had recovered 
his own native fields, but the estate of Horace had no doubt been 
irrevocably granted away. The Sabine farm had the recommenda- 
tion of being situated in a country as romantic, nearer to Rome, and 
at no great distance from the scenes in which Horace delighted be- 
yond all others in Italy. 

The Sabine farm of Horace was situated in a deep and romantic 
valley about fifteen miles from Tibur (Tivoli). The description of 
the farm, its aspect, situation, and climate, exactly correspond with 
the valley of Licenza, into which modern Italian pronunciation has 
mt/lted the hard Digentia. The site, with some ruins of buildings, 
was first discovered, and discussed at length by Capmartin de 
Chaupy, in his " Maison de Campagne d'Horace." It has since 
been visited by other antiquarians and scholars, who have found al- 
most every name mentioned by the poet still clinging to the mount- 
ains and villages of the neighborhood. 

The estate was not extensive ; it produced corn, olives, and vines ; 
it was surrounded by pleasant and shady woods, and with abundance 
of the purest water 5 it was superintended by a bailiff (villicus), and 
cultivated by five families of free coloni (Epist. i., 14, 3) 5 and Horace 
employed about eight slaves (Sat. ii., 7, 118). 

To the munificence of Maecenas we owe that peculiar charm of 
^he Horatian poetry that it represents both the town and country life 
of the Romans in that age ; the country life, not only in the rich and 
luxurious villa of the wealthy at Tivoli or at Baise, but in the se- 
cluded retreat and among the simple manners of the peasantry. It 
might seem as if the w T holesome air w T hich the poet breathed during 
his retirement on his farm remvigorated his natural manliness of mind 
There, notwithstanding his love of convivial enjoyment in the palace 
of Maecenas and other wealthy friends, he delighted to revert to his 
own sober and frugal mode of living. Probably at a later period of 
life he indulged himself in a villa at Tivoli, which he loved for its 
inild -winter and long spring j 1 and all the later years of his life were 
passed between these two country residences and Rome. 

1 For Tibur, see Can**. \, 7, 10-14 ; ii., 6, 5-8 ; id., 4, 21-24 : h\, 2, 27-31 : id., a 
10-12 ; Epod. i.. 29, 30; Epist. i . 7. 44-5 ; 8, 32. 



XXXVI LIFE OF HORACE. 

The second book of satires followed the first. It is evident, from 
the first lines of this book, that the poet had made a strong impres- 
sion on the public taste. No writer, with the keen good sense of 
Horace, would have ventured on such expressions as the following, 
unless he had felt confident of his position : 

" Sunt quibus in Satira videor nimis acer, et ultra 
Legem tendere opus ; sine nervis altera, quicquid 
Composui, pars esse putat, eimilesque meorum 
Mille die versus deduci posse." — Sat. ii., 1, 1, scqq. 1 

This is the language of a privileged egotist ; of one who had ac- 
quired a right, by public suffrage, to talk of himself. The victim of 
his satire will be an object of ridicule to the whole city : 

" Nee quisquam noceat cupido mihi pacis ! et ille 
Qui me commorit (melius non tangere 1 clamo) 
Flebit, et insignis tota cantabitur urbc." — lb., 45, seqq* 

The sixth satire of this book is the most important in the chronolo- 
gy of the life and works of Horace. 3 It was in the eighth year 4 of 
his familiarity with Maecenas that this satire was composed. To 
his must be added the nine months after his first introduction. If 
Horace returned to Rome in the winter after the battle of Philippi 
(A.U.C. 712, 713), time must be allowed for him to form his friend- 
ship with Virgil and with Varius, and to gain that poetic reputation 
by pieces circulated in private which would justify their recommenda- 
tion of their friend to Maecenas. The first introduction could scarce 

L I subjoin tbe imitation of bis best interpreter, at least, if not commentator : 
" There are (I scarce can think it, but am told), 

There are to whom my satire seems too bold ; 

Scarce to wise Peter complaisant enough, 

And something said of Chartres much too rough ; 

The lines are weak, another's pleased to say, 

Lord Fanny spins a thousand such a day." — Pope. 
" Peace is my dear delight, not Fleury's more ! 

But touch me, and no minister so sore. 

Whoe'er offends, at some unlucky time, 

Slides into verse, or hitches in a rhyme ; 

Sacred to ridicule his whole life long, 

And the sad burden of a merry song." — Pope. 
JL See Sat ii., 6, 40-47. This pleasant passage is exquisitely adapted by Swift 
" 'Tis (let me see) three years and more 

(October next it will be four) 

Since Harley bid me first attend, 

And chose me for an humble friend ; 

Would take me in his coach to chat, 

And question me of this and that ; 

As, What's o'clock ? or How's the wind ? 

Whose chariot's that we left behind ? 

Or, Have you nothing new to-day 

From Pope, from Parnell, or from Gay?" &c, &e. 
4. Some construe " Septimus octavo propior jam fugerit annus" as only tix 
years and a half. The past fugerit, surely implies that the seventh year had ac 
rually elapsed, and above half a year more 



LIFE OF HORACE XXXVI 

ly, therefore, be earlier than A.U.C. 715. It is lmriossiblc, therefore, 
that this book could be completed before late in A.U.C. 722, the 
year before the battle of Actium. If, however, there be an allusion 
to the division of lands tD the soldiers engaged in that war, the date 
can not be before A.U.C. 721. * 

The book of cpodes may be cons Jered as in one sense the transi. 
tion from satire to lyric poetry. Though not collected or completed 
till the present period of the poet's life, this book appears to contain 
some of the earliest compositions of Horace. In his sweet youth, 
his strong passions drove him to express himself in the sharp iambic 
verse (Carm. i., 16, 22-4). Bentley's observation, which all would 
wish to be true, is perhaps more so than would appear from his own 
theory ; that, as it proceeds, the stream of the Horatian poetry flows 
not only with greater elegance, but with greater purity. 3 

The moral character of the poet rises in dignity and decency ; he 
has cast ofF the coarseness and indelicacy which defile some of his 
earliest pieces ; in his odes he sings to maidens and to youths. The 
two or three of the epodes which offend in this manner, I scruple not 
to assign to the first year after the return of the poet to Rome. But 
not merely has he risen above, and refined himself from, the grosser 
licentiousness, his bitter and truculent invective has gradually soft 
ened into more playful satire. Notwithstanding his protestation, 
some of his earlier iambics have much of the spirit as well as the 
numbers of Archilochus. 

The book of epodes was manifestly completed not long after the 
last war between Octavianus and Antony. The dominant feeling in 
the mind of Horace seems now to have been a horror of civil war. 
The war of Perugia, two years after Philippi, called forth his first 
indignant remonstrance against the wickedness of taking up arms, 
not for the destruction of Carthage, the subjugation of Britain, but to 
fulfill the vows of the Parthians for the destruction of Rome by her 

1. This part of the Bentleian chronology is, it may almost be asserted, impossi 
Lie. Bentley refers the partition of land alluded to in the celebrated line, 

" Promissa Triquetra 
Praedia Caesar an est Itala tellure daturas," 
to the division which followed the defeat of Sex. Pompeius. This defeat took 
place A.U.C. 718 ; the death of Pompeius A.U.C. 719. The eight years and a half 
alone would throw the presentation to Maecenas above the date of the battle of 
Philippi, A.U.C. 712. The only way of escape is to suppose that the division was 
promised, not fulfilled, and took several years to carry out. But this is irreconcila- 
ble with the accounts of this division in the historians, and the allusion in Horace 
to its first enactment as to where the lands were to be assigned. 

2. " In caeteris autem singulis praecedentis aotatis gradus plenissimis signis in 
dicat ; idque tali ex hac serie jam a me demonstrata jucundum erit animadvertere 
cum operibus juvenilibus multa obscena et flagitiosa insint, quanto annis provec 
tior erat, tanto eum et poetica virtute et argumetitorum dignitate gravitatoque mo- 
liorem semper castioremque evasisse." — Bentleius in pnefat. But by Bentley's 
theory the worst of the cpodes were written when he was 32 or X\ years old 
hardly "annis juvenilibus. ' The 14th bears date after the intimacy was formed 
•vith Mreconas 



XXXV11I LIFE OF HORACE. 

owb hands. 1 Both at that time and several years later likewise, just 
before the war of Actium, the date of the first epode, the most arden 
lover of liberty might deprecate the guilt and evil of civil war. It 
was not for freedom, hut for the choice of masters between the sub- 
tle Octavianus and the profligate Antony, that the world was again to 
be deluged with blood. The strongest republican, even if ho retain- 
ed the utmost jealousy and aversion for Octavianus, might prefer his 
cause to that of an Eastern despot, so Antony appeared, and so he 
was represented at Rome, supported by the arms of a barbarian 
queen. 2 It might seem that the fearful and disastrous times had 
broken up the careless social circle, for whose amusement and in- 
struction the satires were written, and that the poet was thrown 
back by force into a more grave and solemn strain. Maecenas him- 
self is summoned to abandon his delicious villa, his intellectual friends, 
his easy luxury, and to mount the hard deck of the tall ships of war : 
" Ibis Liburnis inter alta navium, 
Amice, propugnacula." — Epod. i., 1. 

Horace was in doubt whether he should accompany his patron. Mae- 
cenas, however, remained in Italy ; and, after a short absence, re- 
sumed the government of Rome. The first epode expresses the 
poet's feelings on this trying occasion, and perhaps has never been 
surpassed by any composition of its kind. There is hardly any piece 
of the same length in which the delicacy of compliment is so blended 
with real feeling, or gratitude and attachment expressed with so 
much grace and dignity. The exquisite second epode might natu- 
rally appear to have been written after the possession of the Sabine 
estate ; the close, in which he seems to turn all his own rural senti- 
ment into ridicule, is a touch of playfulness quite in his own man- 
ner. The ninth epode is, as it were, the poet's first song of triumph 
for the victory at Actium ; the triumph, not in a civil war, but over 
a foreign foe. In the fourteenth there is an apology for his tardi- 
ness in completing the book of epodes which he had promised to 
Maecenas : 

"Inceptos olim promissum carmen iambos 
Ad umbilicum ducere." 

1. Read the seventh epode : 

" Quo quo scelesti ruitis ! aut cur dexteris," &c. 
The tone of this poem agrees better with the entirely independent situation of 
Horace at the time of the war of Perugia, than later, when he was at least (aj- 
jhough he was yet unfavored by Octavianus) the friend of the friend of Octavianus 
The seventeenth ode, in which he poetically urges the migration of the Roman 
people to some happier and secluded land, seems likewise to belong to that period 

2. " Interque signa, turpe, militaria 

Sol aspicit conopium." — Epod. ix., 15. 



So Virgil, 



" Hinc ope barbarica, variisque Antonius armis, 
Victor ab aurora? populis et litore rubro 
JEgyptum, viresque Orientis, et ultima sccum 
Bactra tratit- sequiturque (nefas) ^Egyptia conjux." 

Mucid, viii.. 685 



LIFE OF HUUACE. XXXL\ 

The whole b^ok appeared most probably A.U.C 72o, the second 
year piter the battle of Actium, in the thirty-sixth of the life of Horace. 



CHAPTER IV. 

HORA.CE A LYRIC WRITER ORIGINALITY OF HIS ODES DATE OF COM- 
POSITION MERITS OF THE ODES EPISTLES GENERAL, COMPOSI- 
TION CHARACTER OF HORATIAN POETRY. 

Horace now became a lyric poet, or, rather, devoted himself en- 
tirely to the cultivation of that kind of poetry. The nine or ten 
years of his life after the battle of Actium (A.U.C. 724 to 734, life 
of Horace 35 to 4o) were employed in the composition, or the com- 
pletion, of the first three books of odes. 

The odes bear the character of the poet's life during this long 
period. "He has reverted to his peaceful enjoyment of society. The 
sword of civil war is sheathed ; one of his earliest and noblest bursts 
is the song of triumph for Actium, with the description of the death 
of Cleopatra. There is just excitement enough of foreign warfare 
on the remote frontiers of Spain, in Britain, in Arabia, to give an 
opportunity for asserting the Roman's proud consciousness of uni- 
versal sovereignty. Parthia consents to restore the standards of 
Crassus, or, at all events, has sent a submissive embassy to Rome : 
the only enemies are the remotest barbarians of the North and Earl 
with harsh-sounding names. 

" Urbi solicitus times 

Quid Seres, et regnata Cyro 

Bactra parent, Tanaisquc discors." — Carm. iii., 29, 26-8. 

Octavianus has assumed the name of Augustus ; the poet has ac- 
quiesced in his sole dominion, and introduces him, for the first time, 
into his poetry under this his imperial title. Public affairs and 
private friendships — the manners of the city — the delights of the 
country — all the incidents of an easy and honorable literary life — sug- 
gest the short poem which embodies the feelings and sentiments of 
Horace. His philosophical views and his tender attachments enable 
him to transport into Rome such of the more pleasing and beautiful 
lyrics of Greece as could appear with advantage in a Latin dress. 
Horace not only naturalizes the metres, but many of the poems of the 
Greek lyrists. Much ingenuity has been wasted in forming a chron- 
icle of the amours of Horace, almost as authentic, no doubt, as that 
in the graceful poem of our own Cowley. However fatal to the 
personality of the poet in many of his lighter pieces, I must profess 
my disbelief in the real existence of the Lalages, and Lydias, and 
Glyceras, andLyccs, and Chloes. Their names betray their origin ; 
though many damsels of that class in Rome may have been of Greek 
or servile birth, many of them, no doubt, occupy the same place in 
the imitation of the Greek poem which they did in the original.' 
L Compare an essay of Buttmann, in German, in the Berlin Transactions, and in 



XJ L1FK OF HORACE. 

By a careful examination of each ode, with a fine critical perception 
and some kindred congeniality with a pontic mind, much might per- 
haps be done to separate the real from the imitative, the original 
from the translated or transfused. This would, at least, be a more 
hopeful and rational work of criticism than the attempt to date every 
piece from some vague and uncertain allusion to a contemporary 
event. Some few indeed, but very few, bear their distinct and un- 
deniable date, as the ode on the death of Cleopatra (Carm. i., 37). l 

According to the rigid chronology of Bentley, this poem must 
have been the first, or nearly the first, attempt of Horace to write 
lyric poetry. But it is far more probable that the books of odes con- 
tain poems written at very different periods in the life of Horace, 
finished up for publication on the separate or simultaneous appear- 
ance of the first three books. Even if written about the same time, 
they are by no means disposed in chronological order. The arrange- 
ment seems to have been arbitrary, or, rather, to have been made 
not without regard to variety of subject, and, in some respects, of 
metre. In the first book, the first nine and the eleventh might seem 
placed in order to show the facility with which the poet could com- 
mand every metrical variety, the skill with which, in his own words 
he could adapt the Grecian lyric numbers to Latin poetry. The 
tenth, the Sapphic ode to Mercury, is the first repetition. There is, 
likewise, a remarkable kind of moral order in the arrangement of 
these odes. The first is a dedicatory address to his friend and patron 
Maecenas, the object of his earliest and of his latest song. The sec- 
ond is addressed to the emperor, by his new title, Augustus. The 
third relates to his dear friend and brother poet, Virgil ; then comes 
the solemn moral strain to Sestius, followed by perhaps the most 
finished of his love songs, to Pyrrha Throughout the whole book, 
cr, rather, the whole collection of odes, there seems this careful 
study of contrast and variety ; the religious hymn to the god of 
mercurial men is succeeded by the serious advice to Leuconoe. 

The just estimate of Horace, as a lyric poet, may be more closely 

his Mythologus, and translated in the Philological Museum, vol. i., p. 439, seqq 
Buttmann carries out to the extreme his theory, that most of the love-lyrics are 
translations or imitations from the Greek, or poems altogether ideal, and withoul 
any real ground- work. 

1. Within a few years there have been five complete chronologies of the whole 
works of Horace, which pretend to assign the true year to the composition of every 
one of his poems : I. Kirschner, Quaestiones Horatianee, Leipzig, 1834. II. Franke, 
Fasti Horatiani, Eerlin, 1839. III. Histoire de la vie et des Poesies de Horace, par 
M. le Baron Walckenaer, 2 vols., Paris, 1840 ; a pleasing romance on the life and 
times of Horace. IV. Quintus Horatius Flaccus, als Mensch und Dichter, von 
D. \V. E. Weber, Jena, 1844. V. Grotefend. The article Horatius in Ersch and 
Gruber's Encyclopaedie. Besides these, there are, among later writers., the live* 
of Horace by Passow and by Zumpt ; the notes in the French translation of tho 
odes by M. Vanderbourg ; the notes of Heindorf on the satires ; and o 1 Bclimid 
on the epistles. The irreconcilable discrepancies among all these ingenious au 
thors show the futility of the attempt ; almost every one begins by admitting thfl 
unpossibility of success, and then proceeds to frame a new scheme 



T.IFE OF HORACE. Xl 

connected than appears at first with these considerations. Neithei 
was his the age, nor was Latin the language for the highest lyric 
song. The religious, and what we may call the national, the second 
inspiration of the genuine lyric, were both wanting. The religion in 
the Horatian odo is, for the most part, the common-place machinery 
of the established creed, the conventional poetic mythology, of which 
the influence was effete. There is no deep and earnest devotion ; 
even the gods arc rather those of Greek poetry than of the old Ro 
man faith. The allusion to passing events are those of a calm and 
self-possessed observer, ingeniously weaving them into his occasional 
pieces ; not the impassioned overflow of the poetic spirit, seizing and 
pouring forth, in one long and incxhausted stream, all the thoughts, 
and sentiments, and images, and incidental touches, which arc trans- 
muted, as it were, by the bard into part of his own moral being. As 
compared with the highest lyric poetry, the odes of Horace are 
greatly deficient ; but as occasional pieces inspired by friendship, by 
moral sentiment, or as graceful and finished love verses, they are 
perfect ; their ease, spirit, perspicuity, elegance, and harmony com- 
pensate, as far as may be, for the want of the nobler characteristics 
of daring conception, vehemence, sublimity, and passion. 

The separate or simultaneous publication of the first three books 
of odes, and the date of their publication, mainly depends on one 
question. If the voyage of Virgil to the East, on which the third 
ode of the first book w r as written, be that mentioned in the life of 
Virgil by Donatus, that book can not have appeared before the year 
U.C. 735, and in such case the three books must have been publish* 
ed together about that time. 

The epistles were the work of the mature man. The first book 
was written about B.C. 20, 19, A.U.C. 734, 735. No one doubts 
that these delightful compositions are the most perfect works oi 
Horace ; but it is singularly difficult to define, even xo our own con- 
ception, still more in language, in w T hat consists their felt and ac 
knowledged charm. They possess every merit of the satires in a 
higher degree, with a more exquisite urbanity, and a more calm and 
commanding good sense. In their somewhat more elevated tone, 
they stand, as it were, in the midway between the odes and the 
satires. They are that, in short, which Pope, their best, if not their 
one successful imitator, is to English poetry. 

The aesthetic law, which would disfranchise Horace and Pope, 
and this whole class of writers, from the venerable guild of poets, 
must depend upon what we mean by the word poetry. This ques- 
tion had already occurred to Horace himself. Some doubted wheth- 
er comedy was a form of poetry, and whether Aristophanes and Me- 
nander were to be honored with the name of poets (Sat. i., 4, 45). If 
poetry must necessarily be imaginative, creative, impassioned, digni- 
fied, it is also clear that it must become extinct in a certain state of 
society, or, instead of transcribing the actual emotions and sentiments 
of men, it must throw itself back into a more stirring and romantic 



Xlii LIFE OF HORACE. 

period. It must make for itself a foreign realm in the past or in ths 
future. At all events, it must have recourse to some remote or ex- 
traordinary excitement ; the calm course of every-day events can af- 
ford no subject of aspiration ; the decencies and conventional pro 
prieties of civilized life lie upon it as a deadening spell ; the assim 
Hating and levelling tone of manners smooths away all which is 
striking or sublime. 

But may there not be a poetry of the most civilized and highly- 
rultivated state of human society ; something equable, tranquil, 
serene ; affording delight by its wisdom and truth, by its grace and 
elegance ? Human nature in all its forms is the domain of poetry, 
and though the imagination may have to perform a different office, 
and to exercise a more limited authority, yet it can not be thought, 
or, rather, can not b^e feared, that it will ever be so' completely ex- 
tinguished in the mind of man as to leave us nothing but the every. 
day world in its cold and barren reality. 

Poetry, indeed, which thrills and melts; which stirs the very depths 
of the heart and soul ; which creates, or stretches its reanimating 
wand over the past, the distant, the unseen, may be, and no doubt 
is. a very different production of the wonderful mechanism of the 
human mind from that which has only the impressive language and 
the harmonious expression, without the fiction of poetry ; but human 
life, even in its calmest form, will still delight in seeing itself re- 
flected in the pure mirror of poetry ; and poetry has too much real 
dignity, too much genuine sympathy with universal human naturo 
to condescend to be exclusive. There is room enough on the broad 
heights of Helicon, at least on its many peaks, for Homer and Menan 
der, for Virgil and Horace, for Shakspearc, and Pope, and Cowper. 
May we not pass, without supposing that we arc abandoning the 
jacred precincts of the Muses, from the death of Dido to the epistle 
:o Augustus ? Without asserting that any thing like a regular cycle 
brings round the taste for a particular style of composition, or that 
the demand of the human mind (more poetic readers must not be 
shocked by this adoption of the language of political economy) re- 
quires, and is still further stimulated by the supply of a particular 
kind of production at particular periods ; it may be said, in general, 
that poetry begets prose, and prose poetry — that is to say, when 
poetry has long occupied itself solely with more imaginative subjects, 
when it has been exclusively fictitious and altogether remote from 
the ordinary affairs of life, there arises a desire for greater truth — 
for a more close copy of that which actually exists around us. Good 
sense, keen observation, terse expression, polished harmony, then 
command and delight, and possess, perhaps in their turn too exclu- 
sively, for some time, the public ear. But directly this familiarity 
with common life has too closely approximated poetry to prose — 
when it is undistinguished, or merely distinguished from prose by a 
conventional poetic language, or certain regular forms of verse — 
then the poetic spirit bursts away again into freedom ; and, in gen- 



MPE 01 BORAGE. xllll 

crul, Li its first stinggie for emancipation, breaks out into cv rava* 
ganco ; tho unfettsred imagination nms riot, and altogether scorn* 
the alliance of truth and nature, to which it falsely attributes its long 
and ignoble thraldom, till some happy spirit weds again those which 

sin mid never have been dissevered, and poetry heeomes once more. 
in the language of one of its most enchanting votaries, 

"Truth severe in faery fiction die /d." 

Hiii.'O may, perhaps, be formed a jusl estimate of the poetical chai- 
acter of Horace. Of him it may be said, with regard to tho most 
perfect form of his poetry, the epistles, that there is a period in the 
literary taste of every accomplished individual, as well as of every 
country, not certainly in ardent youth, yet far from the decrepitude 
of old age, in which we become sensible of tho extraordinary and 
undefinable charm of these wonderful compositions. It seems to re- 
quire a certain maturity of mind ; but that maturity by no means 
precludes the utmost enjoyment of the more imaginative poetry. It 
is, in fact, the knowledge of the world which alone completely quali- 
fies us for judging the writings of a man of the world ; our own 
practical wisdom enables us to appreciate that wisdom in its most 
delightful form. 



CHAPTER V. 

POSITION OF HORACE DURING THE DECLINE OF LIFE FRIENDSHIP 

WITH AUGUSTUS RELIGION OF HORACE PHILOSOPHY CLOSE OF 

HIS LIFE POETICAL CRITICISM EPISTLES TO AUGUSTUS AND ART 

OF POETRY DEATH HIS PERSON. 

Never was position more favorable than that of Horace for the 
development of this poetic character. The later years of his life 
«vere passed in an enviable state of literary leisure. He has gradual- 
ly risen from the favorite of the emperor's friend to the poet in whose 
compositions the shrewd and sagacious emperor is said himself to 
have desired to be enshrined for the admiration of posterity. The 
first advances to intimacy with the poet came from the emperor him- 
self. Augustus had at first been his own secretary ; he had written 
his own letters to his friends ; he offered that honorable and confiden 
tial post to the poet. He requested Maecenas to transfer our Horace, 
as he condescended to call him, into his service. When the poet de 
clines the offer, Augustus is not in the least offended, and does not 
grow cool in his friendship. He almost tempts him to ask favors ; he 
assures him of his undiminished regard : " If you," he says, " are so 
proud as to disdain my friendship, I shall not become haughty in my 
turn." He writes of him in terms of familiar, and, it may almost be 
said, coarse admiration. 1 The fourth book of odes and the secular 

1. " Ante ipse Bufficiebam scribendis epistolis Amicorum ; nunc occupatissimus 
nt infirmus, Horatium nostrum te cupio addicere. Veniat igitur ab ista parasitica 
o-ensa ad haac regiam, et noa in epistolis scribendis adjuvet" See the fragments 



xliv LIFE OF HORACE. 

hymn were "written at the express desire of the en pern-, who was 
ambitious that the extraordinary virtues of his step-sons, Tiberius 
and Drusus, should be commemorated in the immortal s rains of the 
poet. 

There is no reason to reproach Horace either with insincerity or 
with servility in his praises of the emperor. It is remarkable ho* 
much his respect for Augustus seems to strengthen, and his affection 
to kindle into personal attachment, as we approach the close of his 
poetical career. The epistle to Augustus is almost, perhaps may 
have been quite, his latest poem. In the second book of epistles 
(which no doubt comprehended the Epistle to Piso, vulgarly called 
the Art of Poetry), the one addressed to Augustus, whether prior or 
not in time of composition, would of course assume the place of 
honor. Nor is it difficult to account for the acquiescence of the re- 
publican in the existing state of things, and that with no degrada- 
tion of his independence. With declining years increases the lovo 
of quiet ; the spirit of adventure has burned out, and body and mind 
equally yearn after repose. Under the new order of things, as wo 
have shown, Horace had found out the secret of a happy and an 
honorable life. His circumstances were independent ; at least they 
satisfied his moderate desires. He enjoyed enough of the busy so- 
ciety of the capital to give a zest to the purer pleasures of his coun- 
try retirement. He could repose in his cottage villa near Tivoli, 
amid the most lovely scenery, by the dashing and headlong Anio, 
at the foot of the Apennines. Hither his distinguished friends in 
Rome delighted to resort, and to partake of his hospitable though 
modest entertainment. Should he desire more complete retirement, 
he might visit his Sabine farm, inspect the labors of his faithful 
steward, survey his agricultural improvements, and wander among 
scenes which might remind him of those in which he had spent his 
childhood. He could not but contrast the happy repose of this period 
of his life with the perils and vicissitudes of his youth ; do we won- 
der that he subsided into philosophic contentment with the existing 
order of things ? 

Augustus himself possessed that rare policy in an arbitrary mon- 
arch not to demand from his subjects the sacrifice of their independ- 
ence further than was necessary for the security of his dominion. 
The artful despot still condescended to veil his unlimited power un- 
der constitutional forms ; he was in theorv the re-elected president 
of a free people ; and though these politic contrivances could only 
deceive those who wished to be deceived, yet they offered, as it were, 
honorable terms of capitulation to the opposite party, and enabled 
them to quiet the indignant scruples of conscience. Horace is a 
striking illustration of the success of that policy which thus tran- 
quilly changed Rome from a republic to a monarchy ; it shows how 
well Augustus knew how to deal with all classes of men ; how wise- 

of the other letters of Augustus, in Suetonii Vit. Horat : " neque enim si tu eupe* 
bus amicitiam nostram sprevisti, ideo dos quoque diOvncprjibavoviiev.^ 



LIFE OF HORACE. xlv 

Iv he wound the fetters of his personal influence over the Romar 
mind. Horace, on the other hand, may fairly be taken as a repre- 
sentative of a large, particularly the more intellectual, class of Ro- 
mans. We see the government stooping to flatter that order of men 
by familiarity, and receiving, in turn, that adulation which could not 
but work into the public mind. For the first time, probably, writers 
bogan to have much effect on the sentiments of the Roman people; 
and when Virgil and Horace spoke in such glowing terms of Augus- 
tus, when they deified him in their immortal verses, we may be as- 
sured that they found or made an echo in the hearts of multitudes. 
This deification, indeed, though we can not altogether exculpate its 
adulatory tone, must be judged according to the religious notions of 
Rome, not of Christianity. 

The religion of Horace is the religion of Rome — the religion of 
the age of Augustus. Almost every god in the Pantheon receives 
his tribute of a hymn from Horace ; each has his proper attributes, 
his traditional functions ; but it is the painter or the sculptor framing 
the divinity according to the rules of his art, and according to an 
established type, and setting it up for the worship of others, not the 
outpouring of real devotion. The very neatness and terseness of ex- 
pression shows the poverty of religious sentiment. Almost the 
latest of his lyric hymns is the Carmen Sacculare. In this there is 
something more of the energy and life of inspiration ; but even this 
faint flash of enthusiasm is in character with the whole of the later 
Roman religion. The worship of the gods is blended with natural 
pride. They are the ancestral and tutelary deities of the Eternal 
Omnipotent City which are invoked ; the sun, which, in its course, 
can behold nothing so great as Rome. It is a hymn rather to the 
majesty of Rome than to the gods. The poetical apotheosis of the 
emperor is but this deification of Rome in another form ; in him cen- 
tered the administration of the all-powerful republic, and in him, 
therefore, its divinity. 

Yet Horace, if we pursue the subject of his religion, is not with 
out his apprehensions, his misgivings, his yearnings after more serious 
things ; the careless and Epicurean scorner of Divine worship is, or 
fancies, or feigns himself to be, startled from his thoughtless apathy 
by thunder from a clear sky; he is seized with a sudden access of 
respect for all-ruling Providence. As in the romantic adventure of 
his youth, so in the later accidents of life, his escape from perils by 
land and sea — from the falling of a tree — he speaks with gratitude, 
apparently not insincere, of the Divine protection ; nor is he without 
some vague sentiment of the general moral government of the gods. 
The depravation of manners is at once the cause and the consequence 
:>f neglected religion : 

•' Delicta majorum immcritus lues, 
Romane, donee templa refeceria, 
./Edesque labentes deorum et 
Fu?>l9 nigro simulncrH fumu. 



XiVl LIFE OF HORACE. 



Dii multa neglccti dederant 
HespcriaB mala luctuosae." 

And the cauvb of this vengeance is the gene a.x corruption of mar 
ners : 

" Foecunda culpse ssecula nuptias 
Frimum inquinavere, et genus, et domod, 
Hoc fonte derlvata clades 

In patriam populumque iluxit." 

Nor is ho altogether above the vulgar superstitions of the times, 
During his morning stroll through the city, whether for amusement, 
or not without some lurking belief in their art, he stops to consult 
the itinerant diviners, " who kept a kind of shop for the sale of ora- 
cles.'' 1 The Canidia of Horace wants, indeed, the terrific earnest- 
ness of Lucan's Erichtho. The twin passions of unbelief and super- 
stition had by the time of Nero grown to a greater height. As Gib- 
bon justly observes, Canidia is but a vulgar witch ; yet, if we may 
judge from the tone, Horace is at least as earnest in his belief in her 
powers as in those of Mercury or Diana. 2 The ingredients of her 
cauldron thrill him with quite as real horror as the protection of 
Faunas, or the rustic deities, which he invokes,* fills him Math hope or 
reverence. It is singular enough that we learn from Horace the 
existence of the Jews and their religion in the great capital of the 
world, and may conjecture the estimation in which they were held. 
It seems to have been a kind of fashionable amusement to go to the 
(synagogue for the purpose of scoffing. Yet there is an indication of 
respect extorted, as it were, from the more sober-minded by the ration- 
al theism and simpler worship of this strange and peculiar people. 

The philosophy of the Horatian age, and of Horace himself, can 
not but force itself upon our notice in connection with his religion. 
How far had our poet any settled philosophical opinions ? To what 
extent did he embrace the doctrines of Epicurus ? The secret of 
his inclination toward these opinions was probably that which had 
influenced many Romans during the disastrous period of the civil 
wars. Weary with faction, unwilling to lend themselves to the am 
bition of the leaders in either party, when the great and stirring striie 
between the patrician and popular interests had degenerated into the 
contest for personal supremacy between aspiring and unprincipled in- 
dividuals, some from temperament and apathy of character, like At- 
ticus, others from bitter disappointment or sober determination, took 
refuge in the philosophy of self-enjoyment. In hortulis quiescet suis, 
lobi recubans molliter et delicate nos avocat a rostris, a judiciis, a curia, 
fortasse sapienter, hac prcesertim republica : even Cicero, in these 
expressive words, betrays a kind of regret that he has not abandon- 
ed the barren, ungrateful, and hopeless labors of a public man, and 

1. "Assisto divinis," which the worthy Mr. Creech renders "weDt to church 
^very day !" 

2. Compare the witch of Middleton with those of Shakspc&re. 



fAFE OF HORACE. vl Vll 

joined the happy idlers in the peaceful villa or shaly garden. It is 
a remarkable observation of M. Constant, and shows, after all, the 
singular discrepancy which so frequently exists between the opinions 
and actions of men, that, instead of unnerving the Roman spirit of 
liberty, or inducing a contemptuous apathy toward the public in- 
terests, the Grecian philosophy might seem to have inspired the last 
champions of Roman freedom with their generous sentiments of self 
sacrifice — the devotion of their lives to the sacred cause of their 
country. Brutus was a student of every branch of Grecian philoso- 
phy j the genius which appeared to him on the field of Philippi is al- 
most in the spirit of the later Platonism. Cato died reading the 
Pha?do. Cicero, notwithstanding the occasional feebleness of his 
character, was unquestionably a victim to his own exertions in the 
cause of freedom. Cassius, the dark, and dangerous, and never- 
smiling Cassius, was an avowed disciple of Epicurus. 

The doctrines of Epicurus became doubly acceptable to those who 
sought not merely an excuse for withdrawing from public offices, but 
a consolation for the loss of all share in the government. Epicurean- 
ism and Stoicism began to divide the Roman mind. Those of easier 
temper, and whose intellectual occupations were of a more graceful 
and amusing kind, forgot, either in the busy idleness of a gay town 
life, or in the sequestered case of the beautiful villa, that the forum 
or the senate had ever been open to the generous ambition of their 
youth. Those of a sterner cast, who repudiated the careless indo- 
lence of the Epicureans, retired within themselves, and endeavored, 
by self-adoration, to compensate for the loss of self-respect. The 
Stoic, although he could not disguise from his own mind that he was 
outwardly a slave, boasted that within he was king of himself. The 
more discursive, and, if we may so speak, tentative spirit of inquiry, 
which distinguished the earlier attempts of the Romans to naturalize 
Grecian philosophy — the calm and dispassionate investigation, which, 
with its exquisite perspicuity of exposition, is the unrivalled charm 
of Cicero's philosophic Avritings, seems to have gone out of vogue. 
Men embraced extreme opinions, either as votaries of pride or of 
pleasure, because they centered their whole energies upon the sub- 
ject, and, in the utter want of all other noble or lofty excitement, threw 
themselves with desperate vehemence into philosophy. With Horace, 
however, that period was not arrived, nor docs he seem to have em 
braced any system of opinions with that eager and exclusive earnest- 
ness. His mind was by no means speculative. His was the plain, 
practical philosophy of common sense. Though he could not elude 
those important questions in which the bounds of moral and religious 
inquiry meet ; though he is never more true and striking than in nis 
observations on the uncertainty of life, the dark and certain approaches 
of death — 

" nee quidquam tibi prodest, 
Aerias tentasse domos, animoquo rotund 2m 
Percurrisse polura, movituro 1" 



Xlvil'i LIFE )F HORACE. 

though these sentences are more solemn, occurring as they do among 
the gayest Epicurean invitations to conviviality and enjoyment, yet 
the wisdom of Horace — it may be said without disparagement, for it 
was the only real atvainable wisdom — was that of the world. 

The best evidence, indeed, of the claims of the poet as a moral 
philosopher, as a practical observer, and sure interpretei of human 
nature in its social state, are the countless quotations from his works, 
which are become universal moral axioms. Their triteness is the 
seal of their veracity ; their peculiar terseness and felicity of expres- 
sion, or illustration, may have commended them to general accept- 
ance, yet nothing but their intuitive truth can have stamped them 
as household words on the memory of educated men. Horace might 
seem to have thrown aside all the abstruser doctrines, the more re- 
mote speculations, the abstract theories of all the different sects, and 
selected and condensed the practical wisdom in his pregnant poetical 
aphorisms. 

So glided away the later years of the life of Horace : he was never 
married ; he indulged that aristocratical aversion to legitimate wed- 
cck which Augustus vainly endeavored to correct by civil privileges 
and civil immunities. 

The three epistles which occupy the last four or five years of his 
life treat principally on the state of Roman poetry. Horace now 
has attained the high place, if not of dictator of the public taste, of 
one, at least, who has a right to be heard as an arbiter on such subjects. 

The first of these, addressed to the emperor, gains wonderfully in 
point and perspicuity if wo take the key which is furnished by a 
passage in the life of Augustus by Suetonius. Horace is throughout 
of a modern school of taste ; he prefers the finer execution, the fault- 
lessness, the purer harmony, the more careful expression, to the ruder 
vigor, the bolder but more irregular versification, the racy but anti- 
quated language of the older writers. In this consisted much of his 
own conscious superiority over Lucilius. But Augustus himself was 
vulgar enough to admire the old comedy ; he was constantly com- 
manding in the theatre the coarse and somewhat indecent plays of 
Afranius and Plautus. 1 The privileged poet does not scruple play- 
fully to remonstrate against the imperial bad taste. His skill and 
address are throughout admirable. The quiet irony is perfectly free, 
yet never offensive ; the very flattery of the opening lines, which ex- 
alt to the utmost the power and wisdom of Augustus, which repre- 
sent him as an object of divine power and worship to the vulgar, in 
chastened, as it were, and subdued, because the emperor himself, in 
critical judgment, is to appear but one of the vulgar. The art with 
which the poet suggests, rather than unfolds, his argument, seems 
at one moment to abandon and the next to resume it, is inimitable. 
He first gracefully ridicules the fashion of admiring poetry because 
•t is old, not because it is good ; then turns to the prevailing mad 

1. " Sed plane poematum non imperitus, delectabatur etiam comaodia retell, el 
ttepe earn exbibuit pu v jlieid spcctaculid." — Sueton.., Octavius, ch. 89. 



LIFE OF HORACE. xfu' 

ness ol writing poetry, which had seized all ranks, and thus having 
cast asL'de the mass of bad modern poetry, he nobly asserts the dig- 
nity and independence of the poetic function. He then returns, by a 
happy transition, to the barbarous limes which had given birth to the 
old Roman poetry; contrasts the purity of the noble Greek models 
with their rude Roman imitators, first in tragedy, and then in come- 
dy ; and introduces, without effort, the emperor's favorite Plautus, 
Knd even Dossennus, to whose farces Augustus had probably listen 
ed with manifest amusement. He does not, however, dwell on that 
delicate topic ; he hastens away instantly to the general bad tasto 
of the Roman audience, who preferred pomp, spectacle, noise, and 
procession, to the loftiest dramatic poetry ; and even this covert in- 
sinuation against the emperor's indifferent taste in theatrical amuse- 
ment is balanced by the praise of his judgment in his patronage of 
Virgil and of Varius, and (though with skillful modesty he affects to 
depreciate his own humbler poetry) of Horace himself. 

The Epistle to the Pisos was already, in the time of Quintilian, 
called the Art of Poetry ; but it is rather an epistle of poetry com- 
posed in a seemingly desultory manner, yet with the utmost felicity 
if transition from one subject to another, than a regular and syste- 
matic theory. It was addressed to Lucius Piso and his two sons. 
The elder Piso was a man of the highest character, obtained a 
triumph for victories in Thrace, but was chiefly distinguished for the 
dignity and moderation with which he afterward exercised for a long 
period the high and dangerous office of prajfect of the city. 

The happy conjecture of Wicland had been anticipated by Colman 
'.hat the epistle was chiefly addressed to i..c elder of the sons of Piso, 
who aspired to poetical fame without very great poetical genius It 
was intended to be at once dissuasive and instructive ; to show the 
difficulties of writing good poetry, especially in a refined and fastid- 
ious age ; and, at the same time, to define some of the primary laws 
of good composition. It maintains throughout the superiority of the 
modern, and what we may call the Grecian, school of Roman poetry. 

After all, the admiration of Horace for the poetry of Greece was 
by no means servile ; though he wished to introduce its forms, its 
simplicity of composition, and exquisite purity of style, he would 
have even tragedy attempt Roman subjects. And, with Horace, we 
must acknowledge that even if the poet had felt ambition, it was now 
indeed too late for Rome to aspire to originality in the very highest 
branches of poetry. She was conquered, and could only bear the 
yoke with as much nobleness and independence as she might. To 
give her song a Roman character, if it still wore a Grecian form, was 
all which was now attainable. Literature was native, as it were, to 
Greece, at least the higher branches, poetry and history. It princi- 
pally flourished when the political institutions of Greece were in the 
highest state of development and perfection ; being a stranger and 
foreigner at Rome, it was only completely domiciliated when the 
national inst.-tutions, and, with them, the national character, had ex- 

3 



I LIFE OF HORACE. 

pcrieneed a total change. It was not till the Roman constitution 
approached, or had arrived at a monarchical form, that letters were 
generally or successfully cultivated. It was partly, indeed, her con 
"mest of the world which brought Rome the literature and philoso. 
phy, as well as the other spoils of foreign nations. The distinction, 
nevertheless, must not be lost sight of; the genuine Roman char- 
acter, even under the Grecian forms, might and did appear in her 
literary language, and in all the works of her greater writers : and 
in the didactic or common-life poetry, she could dare to be complete- 
ly original. 

In none was this more manifest than in Horace ; he was, after all, 
m most respects, a true Roman poet. His idiom, in the first place, 
was more vernacular (in all the better parts of his poetry he depart- 
ed less from common language, they were "sermoni propiora"). In 
the lyric poems we may sometimes detect the forms of Greek ex- 
pression ; he has imitated the turn of language, as well as the cast 
of thought and mechanism of verse. The satires and epistles have 
throughout the vigor and racincss of originality; they speak, no 
doubt, the language of the better orders of Rome, in all their strength 
and point. But these works arc not merely Roman in their idiomati 
expression, they are so throughout. The masculine and practical 
common sense, the natural but not undignified urbanity, the stronger 
if not sounder moral tone, the greater solidity, in short, of the whole 
style of thought and observation, compensate for the more lively 
imagination, the greater quickness and fluency, and more easy ele 
gance of the Greek. Of the later Grecian comedy, for which the* 
poetry of Horace, as we have observed, was the substitute, we have 
less than of almost any other part of his literature ; yet, if we compare 
t lie fragments which we possess, we shall perceive the difference — 
on one side the grace and lightness of touch, the exquisite and un- 
studied harmony, the translucent perspicuity, the truth and the sim- 
plicity ; on the other, the ruder but more vigorous shrewdness, the 
more condensed and emphatic justness of observation, the serious 
thought, which is always at the bottom of the playful expression. 
Horace is addressing men accustomed to deal with men — men form- 
ed in the vigorous school of public life ; and though now reposing, 
perhaps, from those more solid and important cares, maintaining that 
practical energy of character by which they had forced their way to 
eminence. That sterner practical genius of the Roman people sur- 
vived the free institutions of Rome ; the Romans seemed, as it were, 
in their idlest moods, to condescend to amusement, not to consider it, 
like the Greek, one of the common necessities, the ordinary occupa- 
tions of life. Horace, therefore, has been, and ever will be, the 
familiar companion, the delight, not of the mere elegant scholar 
alone or the imaginative reader, but, we had almost written, the 
manual of the statesman and the study of the moral philosopher, 
Of Rome or of the Roman mind, no one can know any thing who is 
not profoundly versed in Horace ; and whoever really undorstajula 



LIFE OF IIOhACE. Il 

Horace will have a more perfect and accurate knowledge of the Ro- 
man manners and Roman mind than the most diligent and laborious 
investigator of the Roman antiquities. 

The same year (U.C. 746, B.C. 8) witnessed the death of Mae- 
cenas and of Horace. The poet was buried near his friend, on the 
verge of the Esquilino Hill. Maecenas died toward the middle of 
the year, Horace in the month of November, having nearly com- 
pleted his 57th y&ir. His last illness was so sudden and severe 
that he had not strength to sign his w T ill; according to the usage of 
the time, he declared the emperor his heir. 

Horace has described his own person (Epist. i., 20, 24). He 
was of short stature, with dark eyes and dark hair {Art. Poet., 37), 
but early tinged with gray {Carm. iii., 14, 25). Tn his youth ho 
was tolerably robust {Epist. i., 7, 26), but suffered from a complaint 
in his eyes {Sat. i., 5, 20). In more advanced age he grew fat, and 
Augustus jested about his protuberant belly {Aug., Epist. Fragm. 
apud Sueton. in Vita) . His health was not always good ; he was 
not only weary of the fatigue of war, but unfit to bear it {Carm. ii., 
6, 7 ; Epod. i., 15) ; and he seems to have inclined to valetudinarian 
habits {Epist. i., 7, 3). When young, he was irascible in temper, 
but easily placable {Carm. i., 16, 22, &c. ; iii., 14, 27; Epist. i., 
20, 25). In dress he was somewhat careless {Epist. i., 1, 94). 
His habits, even after he became richer, were generally frugal a;id 
abstemious ; though, on occasions, both in youth and in mature age, 
he indulged in free conviviality. He liked choice wine, and, in tha 
society of friends, scrupled not to enjoy the luxuries of his time. 



LIFE OF MJJCENAS. 

(SMITH'S DICTIONARY OF BIOGRAPHY, fee. ) 



Maecenas, C. Cilnius. Of the life of Maecenas we mnst be con 
tent to glean what scattered notices we can from the poets and his 
torians of Rome, since it does not appear to have been formally re- 
corded by any ancient author. We are totally in the dark bota a* 
to the date and place of his birth, and the manner of his education. 
It is most probable, however, that he was born some time between 
B.C. 73 and 63; and we learn from Horace (Ode iv., 11) that his 
birth-day was the 1 3th of April. His family, though belonging only 
to the equestrian order, was of high antiquity and honor, and traced 
its descent from the Lucumones of Etruria. The scholiast on Horace 
(Ode i., 1) informs us that he numbered Porsena among his ances- 
tors ; and his authority is in some measure confirmed by a fragment 
of one of Augustus's letters to Maecenas, preserved by Macrobius 
(Sat. ii., 4), in which he is addressed as " berylle Porsence" His 
paternal ancestors, the Cilnii, are mentioned by Livy (x., 3, 5) as 
having attained to so high a pitch of power and wealth at Arretium, 
about the middle of the fifth century of Rome, as to excite the jeal- 
ousy and hatred of their fellow-citizens, who rose against and ex- 
pelled them ; and it was not without considerable difficulty that they 
were at length restored to their country, through the interference of 
the Romans. The maternal branch of the family was likewise of 
Etruscan origin, and it was from them that the name of Maecenas 
was derived, it feeing customary among the Etruscans to assume the 
mother's as well as the father's name (Muller, Etrusker^ ii., p. 404) . 
It is in allusion to this circumstance that Horace (Sat. i., 6, 3) men- 
tions both his avus maternus atque paternus as having been distin- 
guished by commanding numerous legions, a passage, by the way, 
from which we are not to infer that the ancestors of Maecenas had 
ever led the legions of Rome. Their name does not appear in tho 
Fasti Consulares ; and it is manifest, from several passages of Latin 
authors, that the word legio is not always restricted to a Roman 
legion. (See Liv., x., 5 ; Sail., Cat., 53, &c.) The first notice 
that occurs of any of the family, as a citizen of Rorce, is in Cicero's 
speech for Cluentius (§ 55), where a knight named C. Maecenas is 
mentioned among the robora populi Jlomani, and as having been in- 
strumental in putting down the conspiracy of the tribune M. Livius 
Drusus, B.C. 91. This person has been generally considered the 
father of the subject of this memoir, but Frandsen in his life of 



liv 



LIFE 3F MAECENAS. 



Maecenas, thinks, and perhaps with more probability, that it was hu 
grandfather. About the same period, also, we find a Maecenas men- 
tioned by Sallust in the fragments of his history (lib. iii.) as a scribe. 

Although it is unknown where Maecenas received his education, it 
must doubtless have been a careful one. We learn from Horace that 
he was versed in both Greek and Roman literature ; and his taste 
for literary pursuits was shown, not only by his patronage of the 
most eminent poets of his time, but also by several performances of 
his own. That at the time of Julius Caesar's assassination he was 
with Octa/ianus at Apollonia, in the capacity of tutor, rests on pure 
conjecture. Shortly, however, after the appearance of the latter on 
the political stage, we find the name of Maecenas in frequent con- 
junction with his ; and there can be no doubt that he was of great 
use to him in assisting to establish and consolidate the empire ; but 
the want of materials prevents us from tracing his services in this 
way with the accuracy that could be wished. It is possible that he 
may have accompanied Octavianus in the campaigns gf Mutina, 
Philippi, and Perusia ; but the only authorities for the statement 
are a passage in Propertius (ii., 1), which by no means necessarily 
bears that meaning ; and the elegies attributed to Pedo Albinovanus, 
but which have been pronounced spurious by a large majority of the 
critics. The first authentic account we have of Maecenas is of his 
being employed by Octavianus, B.C. 40, in negotiating a marriage 
for him with Scribonia, daughter of Libo, the father-in-law of Sextus 
Pompeius ; which latter, for political reasons, Octavianus was at that 
time desirous of conciliating. (Appian, B. C, v., 53 ; Dio Cass., 
xlviii., 16.) In the same year, Maecenas took part in the negotia- 
tions with Antony (whose wife, Fulvia, was now dead), which led 
to the peace of Brundisium, confirmed by the marriage of Antony 
with Octavia, Caesar's sister. (Appian, B. C. v., 64.) Appian's 
authority on this occasion is supported by the scholiast on Horace 
(Sat. i., 5, 28), who tells us that Livy, in his 127th book, had re- 
corded the intervention of Maecenas. According to Appian, how- 
ever, Cocceius Nerva played the principal part. About two years 
afterward Maecenas seems to have been employed again in negotia- 
ting with Antony (App., B. C, v., 93), and it was probably on this 
occasion that Horace accompanied him to Brundisium, a journey 
which he has described in the fifth satire of the first book. Maece- 
nas is there also represented as associated with Cocceius, and they 
are both described as "aversos solid componere amicos." 

In B.C. 36 we find Maecenas in Sicily with Octavianus, then en- 
gaged in an expedition against Sextus Pompeius, during the course 
of which Maecenas was twice sent back to Rome for the purpose of 
quelling some disturbances which had broken out there. (Appian, 
B. C, v., 99, 112.) According to Dio Cassius (xlix.. 16), this 
was the first occasion on which Maecenas became Caesar's vicege- 
rent ; and he was intrusted with the administration not only of 
Rome, but of all Italy. His fidelity and talents had now been test 



LIFE OF MAECENAS 



b 



«1 by several years' experience ; and it has probably been found that 
fbe bent of his genius fitted him for the cabinet rather than the field, 
since his services could be so easily dispensed with in the latter. 
From this time till the battle of Actium (B.C. 31) history is silent 
concerning Maecenas ; but at that period we again find him intrust- 
ed with the administration of the civil affairs of Italy. It has indeed 
been maintained by many critics that Maecenas was present at the 
sea-fight of Actium ; but the best modern scholars who have discuss- 
ed the subject have shown that this could not have been the case, and 
that he remained in Rome during this time, where he suppressed the 
conspiracy of the younger Lepidus. By the detection of this con- 
spiracy, Maecenas nipped in the bud what might have proved another 
fruitful germ of civil war. Indeed, his services at this period must 
have been most important and valuable ; and how faithfully and ably 
he acquitted himself may be inferred from the unbounded confidence 
reposed in him. In conjunction with Agrippa, we now find him em- 
powered not only to open all the letters addressed by Caesar to the 
senate, but even to alter their contents as the posture of affairs at 
Rome might require, and for this purpose he was intrusted with his 
master's seal (Dio Cass., li., 3), in order that the letters might bo 
delivered as if they had come directly from Octavianus's own hand. 
Yet, notwithstanding the height of favor and power to which he had 
attained, Maecenas, whether from policy or inclination, remained 
content with his equestrian rank, a circumstance which seems some- 
what to have diminished his authority w T ith the populace. 

After Octavianus's victory over Antony and Cleopatra, the whole 
power of the triumvirate centered in the former ; for Lepidus had 
\>een previously reduced to the condition of a private person. On 
his return to Rome, Caesar is represented to have taken counsel with 
Agrippa and Maecenas respecting the expediency of restoring the 
republic. Agrippa advised him to pursue that course, but Maecenas 
strongly urged him to establish the empire. 

The description of power exercised by Maecenas during the ab- 
sence of Caesar should not be confounded with the prcefectura urbis. 
It was not till after the civil wars that the latter ofiice was establish- 
ed as a distinct and substantive one ; and, according to Dio Cassius 
(Hi., 21), by the advice of Maecenas himself. This is confirmed by 
Tacitus (Ann., vi., 11), and by Suetonius (Aug., 37), who reckons it 
among the nova officia. The prcefectus urbis was a mere police 
magistrate, whose jurisdiction was confined to Rome and the adja- 
cent country, within a radius of 750 stadia ; but Maecenas had the 
charge of political as well as municipal affairs, and his administra- 
tion embraced the whole of Italy. It is the more necessary to at- 
tend to this distinction, because the neglect of it has given rise to the 
notion that Maecenas was never intrusted with the supreme adminis- 
tration after the close of the civil wars. It must be confessed, how 
ever, that we have no means of determining with certainty on what 
occasions, and for how long, after the establishment of the empire. 



.VI LIFE OF MiECENAf*. 

Maecenas continued to exercise his political power, though, as be 
fore remarked, we know that he had ceased to enjoy it in B.C. 16 
That he retained the confidence of Augustus till at least B.C. 21 
may be inferred from the fact that about that time he advised bin 
to marry his daughter Julia to Agrippa, on the ground that he had 
made the latter so rich and powerful that it was dangerous to al 
low him to live unless he advanced him still further. (Dio Cassius 
liv., 6.) Between B.C. 21 and 16, however, we have direct evi- 
dence that a coolness, to say the least, had sprung up between tha 
emperor and his faithful minister. This estrangement, for it cat 
not be called actual disgrace, is borne out by the silence of histo 
rians respecting the latter years of Maecenas's life, as well as by tli€ 
express testimony of Tacitus, who tells us [Jinn., iii., 30) that, during 
this period, he enjoyed only the appearance, and not the reality, of 
his sovereign's friendship. The cause of this rupture is enveloped 
in doubt. Dio Cassius, however, positively ascribes it to Tcrentia, 
the beautiful wife of Maecenas. 

The public services of Maecenas, though important, were unob- 
trusive ; and, notwithstanding the part that he played in assisting to 
establish the empire, it is by his private pursuits, and more particu- 
larly by his reputation as a patron of learning, that he has been known 
to posterity. His retirement was probably far from disagreeable to 
him, as it was accompanied by many circumstances calculated to 
recommend it to one of his turn of mind, naturally a votary of ease 
and pleasure. He had amassed an enormous fortune, which Tacitus 
{Ann., adv., 53, 55) attributes to the liberality of Augustus. It has 
been sometimes insinuated that he grew rich by the proscriptions ; 
and Pliny (II. N., xxxvii., 4), speaking of Maecenas's private seal, 
which bore the impression of a frog, represents it as having been an 
object of terror to the tax-payers. It by no means follows, however, 
that the money levied under his private seal was applied to his pri- 
vate purposes ; and, had he been inclined to misappropriate the taxes, 
we know that Caesars own seal was at his unlimited disposal, and 
would have better covered his delinquencies. 

Maecenas had purchased, or, according to some, had received from 
Augustus a tract of ground on the Esquiline Hill, which had former- 
ly served as a burial-place for the lower orders. (Hor., Sat. ?., 8, 
7.) Here he had planted a garden, and built a house remarkable for 
its loftiness, on account of a tower by which it was surmounted, and 
from the top of which Nero is said to have afterward contemplated 
the burning of Rome. In this residence he seems to have passed 
the greater part of his time, and to have visited the country but sel- 
dom ; for, though he might possibly have possessed a villa at Tibur, 
near the falls of the Anio, there is no direct authority for the fact, 
Tacitus tells us that he spent his leisure urbe in ipsa ; and the deep 
tranquillity of his repose may be conjectured from the epithet by 
which the same historian designates it, " vclut peregrinum otium." 
(Ayin., xiv.. 63.) The height of the situation seems to have render 



LIFE OF M.T.i.KNAS. /VI 

ed it a healthy abode (Hor., Sat. i., 8, 14), anj we learn fiom Sue- 
tonius (Aug., 72) that Augustus had on one occasion retired thithei 
to recover from a sickness. 

Maecenas's house was the rendezvous of all the wits and virtuosi 
of Rome ; and whoever could contribute to the amusement of tho 
company was always welcome to a seat at his table. In this kind 
of society he does not appear to have been very select ; and it was 
probably from his undistinguishing hospitality that Augustus called 
his board "parasitica mensa." (Suet., Vit. Hor.) Yet he was nat- 
urally of a reserved and taciturn disposition, and drew a broad dis- 
tinction "between the acquaintances that he adopted for the amuse- 
ment of an idle hour, and the friends whom he admitted to his inti- 
macy and confidence. In the latter case he was as careful and 
chary as he was indiscriminating in the former. His really intimate 
friends consisted of the greatest geniuses and most learned men of 
Rome ; and if it was from his universal inclination toward men of 
talent that he obtained the reputation of a literary patron, it was by 
his friendship for such poets as Virgil and Horace that he deserved 
it. In recent times, and by some German authors, especially the 
celebrated Wieland in his Introduction and Notes to Horace's Epis 
ties, Maecenas's claims to the title of a literary patron have been de- 
preciated. It is urged that he is not mentioned by Ovid and Tibul- 
lus; that the Sabine farm which he gave to Horace was not so very 
large ; that his conduct was perhaps not altogether disinterested, and 
that he might have befriended literary men either out of vanity or 
from political motives ; that he was not singular in his literary pa- 
tronage, which was a fashion among the eminent Romans of the 
day, as Messalla Corvinus, Asinius Pollio, and others ; and that ho 
was too knowing in pearls and beryls to be a competent judge of tho 
higher works of genius. As for his motives, or the reasons why ho 
did not adopt Tibullus or Ovid, we shall only remark, that as they 
are utterly unknown to us, so it is only fair to put the most liberal 
construction on them ; and that he had naturally a love of literature 
for its own sake, apart from all political or interested views, may be 
inferred from the fact of his having been himself a voluminous author. 
Though literary patronage may have been the fashion of the day, it 
would be difficult to point out any contemporary Roman, or, indeed, 
any at all, who indulged it so magnificently. His name had become 
proverbial for a patron of letters at least as early as the time of Mar- 
tial ; and though the assertion of that author (viii., 56), that the poets 
enriched by the bounty of Maecenas were not easily to be counted, 
is not, of course, to be taken literally, it would have been utterly 
ridiculous had there not been some foundation for it. That he was 
no bad judge of literary merit is shown by the sort of men whom ne 
patronized — Virgil, Horace, Propertius, besides others almost their 
equals in reputation, but whose works are now unfortunately lost, as 
Varius, Tucca, and others. But as Virgil and Horace were by fai 
tho greatest geniuses of the %ge, so it is certain that they were mnrn 

2* 



iVlll LIFE OF MiECENAh. 

beloved by Maecenas, the latter especially, than any of their coniem 
por&ries. Virgil was indebted to him for the recovery of his tarn: 
which had been appropriated by the soldiery in the division of lands, 
B.C. 41 ; and it was at the request of Maecenas that he undertook 
the Georgics, the most finished of all his poems. To Horace he was 
a still greater benefactor. He not only procured him a pardon for 
having fought against Octavianus at Philippi, but presented him with 
the means of a comfortable subsistence, a farm in the Sabine country, 
if the estate was but a moderate one, we learn from Horace him- 
self that the bounty of Maecenas was regulated by his own content- 
ed views, and not by his patron's want of generosity (Carm. ii., 18 
14; iii., 16, 38). Nor was this liberality accompanied with any 
servile and degrading conditions. The poet was at liberty to write 
or not, as he pleased, and lived in a state of independence creditable 
alike to himself and to his patron. Indeed, their intimacy was rather 
that of two familiar friends of equal station, than of the royally-de- 
scended and powerful minister of Caesar with the son of an obscure 
freedman. But on this point we need not dwell, as it has been al- 
ready touched upon in the life of Horace. 

Of Maecenas's own literary productions only a few fragments ex 
ist From these, however, and from the notices which we find of his 
writings in ancient authors, we are led to think that we have not 
suffered any great loss by their destruction; for, although a good 
judge of literary merit in others, he does not appear to have been an 
author of much taste himself. It has been thought that two of his 
works, of which little more than the titles remain, were tragedies, 
namely, the Prometheus and Octavia. But Seneca (Ep. 19) calls tho 
former a book (librum) ; and Octavia, mentioned in Priscian (lib. 10), 
is not free from the suspicion of being a corrupt reading. An hex- 
ameter line supposed to have belonged to an epic poem, another line 
thought to have been part of a galliambic poem, one or two epigrams, 
and some other fragments, are extant, and are given by Meibom and 
Frandsen in their lives of Maecenas. In prose he wrote a work on 
Natural History, which Pliny several times alludes to, but which 
seems to have related chiefly to fishes and gems. Servius (ad Virg., 
j£n., viii., 310) attributes a Symposium to him. If we may trust 
the same authority, he also composed some memoirs of Augustus , 
and Horace (Carm. ii., 12, 9) alludes to at least some project of the 
kind, but which was probably never carried into execution. Mae- 
Mioas's prose style was affected, unnatural, and often unintelligible 
&r.i\ for these qualities he was derided by Augustus. (Suet., Aug , 
26.) Macrobius (Saturn., ii., 4) has preserved part of a letter of the 
emperor's, in which he takes off his minister's way of writirfg. The 
author of the dialogue De Causis Corrupts. Eloquentice (c. 26) enu- 
merates him among the orators, but stigmatizes his affected style 
by the term calamistros Mcecenatis. Quintilian (Inst. Orat., xi., 4, 
$ 28) and Seneca (Ep. 114) also condemn his style; and the lattei 
author gives a specimen of it which is almost wholly imintelligibic 



LIFE OP MAECENAS ll* 

Fet ne likewise tells as (Ep- 19) that he would have been verj 
eloquenl if he had not been spoiled by his good fortune, and allows 
him to have possessed an ingenium grandc ct virile (Ep. 92). Ac- 
cording to Dio Cassius (lv., 7), Maecenas first introduced short hand, 
and instructed many in the art through his freedman Aquila. By 
other authors, however, the invention has been attributed to various 
persons of an earlier date ; as to Tiro, Cicero's freedman, to Cicero 
himself, and even to Ennius. 

But, though seemingly in posscssipn of all the means and appli 
ances of enjoyment, Maecenas can not be said to have been altogether 
happy in his domestic life. His wife, Terentia, though exceedingly 
beautiful, was of a morose and haughty temper, and thence quarrels 
w r ere continually occurring between the pair. Yet the natural ux- 
oriousness of Maecenas as constantly prompted him to seek a recon- 
ciliation; so that Seneca [Ep. 114) remarks that he married a wife 
a thousand times, though he never had more than one. Her influence 
over Mm was so great, that, in spite of his cautious and taciturn tem- 
per, he was on one occasion weak enough to confide an important 
state secret to her, respecting her brother Muraena, the conspirator 
{Suet., Aug., 66; Dio Cass., liv., 3). Maecenas himself, however, 
was probably in some measure to blame for the terms on which he 
lived with his wife, for he w T as far from being the pattern of a good 
husband. In his w T ay of life Maecenas was addicted to every species 
of luxury. We find several allusions in the ancient authors to the 
effeminacy of his dress. Instead of girding his tunic above his knees, 
tie suffered it to hang loose about his heels, like a woman's petticoat; 
and when sitting on the tribunal he kept his head covered with his 
pallium (Sen., Ep. 114). Yet, in spite of this softness, he was capa- 
ble of exerting himself when the occasion required, and of acting 
with energy and decision (Veil. Pat., ii., 88). So far was he from 
wishing to conceal the softness and effeminacy of his manners, that 
he made a parade of his vices ; and, during the greatest heat of the 
civil wars, openly appeared in the public places of Rome with a couple 
of eunuchs in his train (Sencc., 1. c.). He was fond of theatrical en- 
tertainments, especially pantomimes, as may be inferred from his 
patronage of Bathyllus, the celebrated dancer, who was a freedman 
of his. It has been concluded from Tacitus (Ann., i., 54) that he 
first introduced .that species of representation at Rome ; and, with the 
politic view of keeping the people quiet by amusing them, persuaded 
Augustus to patronize it. Dio Cassius (lv., 7) tells us that he was 
the first to introduce warm swimming baths at Rome. His love of 
ointments is tacitly satirized by Augustus (Suet., Aug., 86), and his 
passion for gems and precious stones is notorious. According to Pliny, 
he paid some attention to cookery ; and as the same author (xix., 
67) mentions a book on gardening which had been dedicated to him 
by Sabinus Tiro, it has been thought that he was partial to that pur 
suit. His tenacious, and, indeed, unmanly love of life, he has him 
self painted in some verses preserved by Seneca (Ep. 101), and 
which, as affording a specimen of his style, we here insert. 



. X LlPi! OF M/ECENAS. 

Debilein facito manu 
Debiljm pede, coxa ; 
Tuber adetruc gibberuni, 
Lubricos quate dentes : 
Vita dum supercst, bene est 
Ilanc mibi, vcl acuta 
Si sedeain cruce, sugtine. 

From thete li nes it has been conjectured that he belonged to the sect 
of the Epicureans ; but of his philosophical principles nothing certain 
is known. 

That moderation of character which led him to be content with 
his equestrian rank, probably arose from the love of ease and luxury 
which we have described, or it might have been the result of more 
prndent and political views. As a politician, the principal trait in 
his character was his fidelity to his master {Mcecenatis erunt vera 
tropaia fides, Property iii., 9), and the main end of all his cares was 
the consolidation of the empire. But, though he advised the establish- 
ment of a despotic monarchy, he was at the same time the advocate 
of mild and liberal measures. He recommended Augustus to put no 
check on the free expression of public opinion ; but, above all, to avoid 
that cruelty which, for so many years, had stained the Roman an 
nals with blood {Scncc., Ep. 114). To the same effect is the anec- 
dote preserved by Cedrenus, the Byzantine historian, that when on 
some occasion Octavianus sat on the tribunal, condemning numbers 
to death. Maecenas, who was among the by-standers, and could not 
approach Caesar by reason of the crowd, wrote on his tablets, " Rise, 
hangman I" {Surge, tandem carnifex !), and threw them into Caesars 
lap, who immediately left the judgment-seat (comp. Dio Cass., lv., 7). 

Maecenas appears to have been a constant valetudinarian. If 
Pliny's statement (vii., 51) is to be taken literally, he labored under 
a continual fever. According to the same author, he was sleepless 
during the last three years of his life ; and Seneca tells us {De Provide 
iii., 9) that he endeavored to procure that sweet and indispensablo 
refreshment by listening to the sound of distant symphonies. We 
may infer from Horace [Carm. iii., 17) that he was rather hypo- 
chondriacal. He died in the consulate of Gallus and Censorinu?., 
B.C. 8 {Dio Cass., lv., 7), and was buried on the Esquiline. He 
left no children, and thus, by his death, his ancient family became ex- 
tinct. He bequeathed his property to Augustus, and we find that 
Tiberius afterward resided in his house {Suet., Tib., 15). Though 
the emperor treated Maecenas with coldness during the latter years 
of his life, he sincerely lamented his death, and seems to have some- 
times felt the want of so able, so honest, and so faithful a counsel! ni 
{Dio Cass, liv., 9; lv., 7; Senec, dc Benef., vi., 32). 



METRES OF HORACE. 



1. DACTYLIC HEXAMETER. 

Laudd\bunt ali\l ctd\rdm Rhudun | aut MyVl\lenti. 

The structure of this species of verse is sufficiently wel 
known ; it consists of six feet, the fifth of which is a dactyl, and 
the sixth a spondee, while each of the other four feet may be 
either a dactyl or spondee. Sometimes, however, in a solemn, 
majestic, or mournful description, or in expressing astonish- 
ment, consternation, vastness of size, &c, a spondee is admit- 
ted in the fifth foot, and the line is then denominated spondaic. 

The hexameters of Horace, in his Satires and Epistles, are 
written in so negligent a manner as to lead to the opinion that 
this style of composition was purposely adopted by him to suit 
the nature of his subject. Whether this opinion be correct or 
not must be considered elsewhere. It will only be requisite 
here to state, that the peculiar character of his hexameter versi- 
fication will render it unnecessary for us to say any thing re 
epecting the doctrine of the csesural pause in this species of 
verse, which is better explained with reference to the rhythm 
and cadence of Virgil. 



•&* 



2. DACTYLIC TETRAMETER a JJOSteHore. 1 

The tetrameter a posteriore, or spondaic tetrameter, con 
sists of the last four feet of an hexameter ; as, 

Certus e\nim pro\misit Apollo. 

Sometimes, as in the hexameter, a spondee occupies the last 
place but one, in which case the preceding foot ought to be a 
dactyl, or the line will be too heavy ; as, 

Menso\rem cdlii\bent Ar\chytd. 

1. The expression a posteriore refers to the verse being considered as taken from 
the latter part of an hexameter line (a posteriore parte versus hcxametri), and is, rxmsn 
quently, opposed to the dactylic tetrameter a prio^e. This last is taken from tne first 
part <a priore. parte) of an rrxnn otor, and must always have the last foot n darty' 



IXli METRES OF HORACE. 

3. D43TYLIC TRIMETER CATALECTIC. 

Tho trimet JT catalectic is a lino consisting of tho first five 
half-feet of an hexameter, or two feet and a half; as, 

Arburl\bficquc cu\m(e. 
Horace uniformly observes this construction, viz., two dactyls 
and a semi- foot. Ausonius, however, sometimes makes the first 
foot a spondee, and twice uses a spondee in the second placo ; 
but the spondee injures the harmony of tho verse. 1 

4. ADONIC 2 

Tho Adonic, or dactylic dimeter, consists of two feet, a dat; 
Url and spondee ; as, 

Rlslt A\j)ullO. 
Sappho is said to have written entire poems in this measure 
now lost. Boethius has a piece of thirty-one Adonic lines (lib. 
I. mcir. 7), of which the following are a specimen : 

NubibtU atris 
Condita nullum 
Fundcrc possunt 
Sidcra lumen. 
Si mare volvcns 
Turbidus auster 
Misccat astum, S^-c. 

The measure, however, is too short to be pleasing, unless ac- 
companied by one of a different kind. Hence an Adonic is used 
•n concluding the Sapphic stanza. (No. 10.) In tragic chorus- 
es it is arbitrarily added to any number of Sapphics, without 
regard to uniformity. (Vid. 9 Senec, QZdip., act 1; Troadcs, 
act 4 ; Here. Fur., act 3 ; Thyest., act 3.) 

5. IAMBIC TRIMETER. 

Iambic verses take their name from the iambus, which, in 



L This measure is sometimes called Archilochran penthemlmeris, since it forms, 
in fact, an heroic penthemimeris, that is, as already remarked, the first five half-feel 
of art heroic or dactylic hexameter line. 

2. This verse derives its name from the circumstance of its being used by the 
Greeks in the music which accompanied the celebration of the festival of .Ydcnis 
*iiit part-, probably which represented tbo restoration of Adonis to life- 



METRES OP HORACE. lxih 

pure limbics, was .he only foot admitted. They are Bcanned 
by measures oftwu feel : and it was usual, in reciting them, to 
make a short pause at the eod of every second foot, with an 

emphasis (arsis) on its final syllable. 

The iambic trimeter (called likewise scnarius, from its con- 
taining six feet) consists of three measures (mctra). The feet 
which compose it, six in number, are properly all iambi; ic 
which case, as above stated, the line is called a pure iambic. 
The caesura] pause most commonly occurs at the penthemime- 
ris ; that is, after two feet and a half; as, 

P1idse\lus ll\\le quern \ videos hus\]Hles.\\ 

The metres here end respectively where the double lines are 
marked, and the caesural pause takes place at the middle of the 
third foot, after the word Hie. 

The pure iambic, however, was rarely used. This seems to 
have been owing partly to the very great difficulty of producing 
any considerable number of good verses, and partly to the wish 
of giving to the verse a greater degree of weight and dignity 
In consequence of this, the spondee was allowed to take the 
place of the iambus in the first, third, and fifth feet. 1 The ad 
mission of the spondee paved the way for other innovations 
Thus, the double time of one long syllable was divided into two 
single times, or two short syllables. Hence, for the iambus of 
three times was substituted a tribrach in every station except 
the sixth, because there, the final syllable being lengthened by 
the longer pause at the termination of the line, a tribrach would, 
in fact, be equal to an anapaest, containing four times instead of 
three. For the spondee of four times was substituted a dactyl 
or an anapaest, and sometimes, in the first station, a proceleus- 
raaticus. 

The scale of the mixed iambic trimeter is, therefore, as fol- 
lows : 3 

1. The reason why the iambus was retained in the even places, that is, the sec- 
ond, fourth, and sixth, appears to have been this : that by placing the spondee first, 
and making the iambus to follow, greater emphasis was given to the concluding 
syllable of each metre on which the ictics and pause took place, than would havo 
been the case had two long syllables stood together. 

2. The scale of the Greek trimeter iambic is much more strict, and must tot be 



Lxiv 



METE US OF HORACE, 



1 


2 


3 


4 5 


6 ' 


**~r — 


-* — 


■^ — 


~ -- 


w_ 








S^- Nw* 




^^_ 



As an exemplification of this scale, wo shall subjoin some 4 
the principal mixed trimeters of Horace. 

Epod. Line. 

1. 27. Pecus\ve Cdld\\brls dn\te si\\dus fer\vldum. 

2. 23. Libit \jdcc\\re, modo \ sub dn\\tlqua l\licc. 
33. Aut d?ru\te le\\vl rd\rd ten\\dit re\tla. \ 

Aut d\niite lt\\vl rd\rd ten\\dlt re\tld. > 
35. Pdvldum\ve lcj)d\\rem, et dd\vend?n || laquto | grttlm, 
39. Quod si | ]7iidl\\cd mul"i\cr in || partem \juvet. 
57. Aut hcr\bd ldpd\\thl prd\ta dmdn\fis, It \ grdvl. 
61. Has ln\ter cj)u\\lds, fit \ jurat \\ pastas \ ores. 
65. Posltos\que vcr\nds, di\tis ex\\amen \ domus. 
67. Hcec ubl \ locu\\tus j7k\ncra\\tor Al\phius. 

3. 17. Nee mu\nus hume\\rls ef\flcd\\cls Her\culis. 
5. 15. Cdnldi\d brivl\\bus lm\pllcd\\td vl\ perls. 

25. At ex\pedl\\td Sdgd\nd, per \\ totdm | domum. 

43. Quid d~ix\U? aut \\ quid tdcu\lt? O \\ rebus \mtls 

63. Sed dubl\iis, un\\de rum\peret || s1len\tlum. 

69. Quln, ubl | pcrl\\re jus\sus cx\\splra\vero. 

7. 1. Quo, quo | sctles\\tl rui\tls? aut \\ cur dex\terU. 

9. 17. Ad hoc \frcmen\\ies ver\terunt \\ bis mll\le equos 

10. 7. Insur\\gdt Aqui\lo, qudn\tus dl\\ tls mon\tibus. 

19. Ioiii\us u\\do quum \ remu\\&icns | sinus.' 1 



confounded with this. Porson (Pra>f. ad Hec, 6) has denied the admissibility of the 
anapaest into the third or fifth place of the Greek tragic trimeter, except in the casa 
of proper names with the anapaest contained in the same word. In Latin tragedy, 
however, it obtained admission into both stations, though more rarely into the 
third. In the fifth station the Roman tragedians not only admitted, bvt seemed to 
have a strong inclination for, this foot. 

1. The quantity of the a in amite depends on that of the e in levi. If we read 
levi, it is amite, but if levi, amite. This results from the principles of the trimeter 
Iambic scale. We can not say amite levi without admitting an anapaest into the 
second place, which would violate the measure ; neither can we read amite levi 
without admitting a pyrrhich into ttie second place, which is unheard of. 

2. Ionius, from the Greek 'lovtog. Hence the remark of Maltby (MorelL, Lex 
Grac. Pros., ad voc.) : 'Iwrioj cpud poetas milu nondum occurrit ; nam ad PincL, 
N'cii).. 4. 87. rette dcdiX Hevriius 'Ibvtov non metro solum jubentf. icrum etiam hue 



METREd OF HORACE. lXY 

Epod. Liue 

17. 6. Cdnldl\d, parcel vu\cibus || tandem \ sdcfls. 

12. Al1d\bus dt\\que cdru\hus hdmt\\cldam Hec\t6rlm. 

41. Infd\niis Helc\\nce Cds\tur of\\fensus \ vice". 

54. /w«ra|£a mls£||r<5 w|^Z Jw||c£n<itf es£, | 2» ^dc. 

56. Cty^ | quU\\tSm PUu\p1,s ln\\fldl \ pater. 

65. Vectd\bor hunit\\r~is tunc \ ego int\\mlczs \ Zqucs. 

69. Defipl\rl Lfi\\ndm vO\clbus || posstm \ mcls. 

G. IAMBIC TRIMETER CATALECTIC. 

This is the common trimeter (No. 5) wanting the final sylla- 
ble. It consists of five feet, properly all iambi, followed by a 
catalectic syllable ; as, 

Vucd\tus dt\\que non \ mdrd\\tus au\dit. 

Like the common trimeter, however, it admits the spondee 
into the first and third places, but not into the fifth, which 
would render the verse too heavy and prosaic. 

Trdliunt\que sic\\cas md\c]iina \\ cdri\nas. 
Nonnul\la quer\\cu sunt\cdvd\\ta et ul\mo. 

Terentianiis Maurus, without any good reason, prefers scau 
nmg it as folkrws : 

Trdhunt\que slc\cds || mdchi\nce cd\flnds. 
This species of verse is likewise called Archilochian, from the 
poet Archilcchus. 

7. IAMBIC DIMETER. 

The iambic dimeter consists of two measures, or four feet, 
properly all iambi ; as, 

Perun\xU hoc \\ 1d\s6nem,. 
It admits, however, the same variations as the trimeter, though 
Horace much more frequently employs a spondee than any 
other foot in the third place. The scale of this measure is as 
follows : 



1 


2 


3 


4 


>w* — 


v->- — 


•ss - «— 


vx ^— 


— *^ >-^ 

>_• V-' — 




— s_/ •»• 

N^ V^ — 



Daumii rcgula, " Si de gcnte Gnzca scrmo est, semper hoc nomen soribi, per a : ud 
w de mari Ionia, semper per o piicpSv"' 



Ix>i METRES OF HORACE. 

This species of verse is also called Archilochian dimetei 
The following line.* from the Epodes will illustrate the scale . 

Epod. Line. 

2. 6'2. Vtde\re 2irdjpc\\rdntes\dumum. 

3. 8. Cdrii(h\d trdc\\tdvll \ ddpes. 
5. 48. Cdmdl\d ro \\ dens f>ol\l1.ccm. 

8. IAMBIC DIMETER HYPERMETER. 

This measure, also called Archilochian, is the iambic dimetei 
(No. 7) with an additional syllable at the end ; as, 

Rcde\git dd \\ verus \ Vimo\\res. 
Horaco frequently uses this species of verse in conjunction 
with the Alcaic, and always has the third foot a spondee ; foi 
\he line, which in the common editions runs thus, 

Dlsjec\td nOn \\ tivl \ rul\\nd y 
is more correctly read with leni in place of Uvi. 

9. ACEPHALOUS IAMBIC DIMETER. 

This is the iambic dimeter (No. 7) wanting the first sylla 
ble ; as, 

Non | tbur || ntquc au\rtum. 

It may, however, be also regarded as a trochaic dimeter cata- 
lectic, and scanned as follows : 

Non t\bur nZ\\quc aurc\um ; 

though, if we follow the authority of Terentianus (De Metr. s 
738), we must consider the first appellation as the more correct 
one of the two, since he expressly calls it by this name. 

10. SAPPHIC. 

This verse takes its name from the poetess Sappho, who in 
rented it, and consists of five feet, viz., a trochee, a spondee, a 
dactyl, and two more trochees ; as, 

Dljlu\lt sdx\ls dgi\tdtus \ humor. 

But in the Greek stanza Sappho sometimes makes the sec 
ood foot a trcchee, in which she is imitated by Catullus; as, 

Ual Ai|of Sop^oTrAoKE, ?.toaofial rr. 
'Pauca | nuntl\ate mem puellte. 

Horace, however, uniformly has the spondee in the second 



METRES OF HORACE. i.KVl. 

place, which render! the verso much more melodious and flow 
ing. The Sapphic stanza, both in Greek and Latin, is composed 
of three Sapphics and one Adonic. (No. 4.) As the Adonic 
sometimes was irregularly subjoined to any indefinite number 
of Sapphics (vitl. Remarks on Adonic verse), so, on other occa- 
sions, the Sapphics were continued in uninterrupted succession, 
terminating as they had begun, without the addition of an Adon- 
ic even at the end, as in Bo'etliius, lib. 2, metr. G ; Seneca, Troa 
des, act 4. 

The caesura always falls in the third foot, and is of two kinds, 
namely, the strong and the weak. The strong caesura falls after 
the first syllable of the dactyl, and makes the most melodious 
\\i )s ; as, 

lntc\ ger vl\t<e \\ scclc\rlsquc \ purus 
Non c\get Mau\rl || jdcu\lls nlc \ area 
Ncc ve\nend\tls \\ grdvrl\dd sd\glttls. 

The weak caesura, on the other hand, falls after the second 
syllable of the dactyl ; as in the following : 

Laurc\d do\ndndus \\ A\jpdlli\ndfi 
Plniis | out lm\pnlsd || cu\prcssii8 \ Efir<5. 

Horace generally has the strong caesura. If the third foot, 
However, has the weak caesura, it must be followed by a word 
of two or more syllables. Thus, besides the two lines just giv 
on, we may cite the following : 

Concines majore || poeta plectro 
Caesarem quandoque || trahet feroces, &c. 

With regard to the caesura of the foot, it is worth noticing, that 
in the Greek Sapphics there is no necessity for any conjunction 
of the component feet by caesura, but every foot may be term- 
inated by an entire word. This freedom forms the characteris- 
tic feature of the Greek Sapphic, and is what chiefly distinguish 
es it from the Latin Sapphic, as exhibited by Horace. 

In Sapphics, the division of a word between two lines fre- 
quently occurs ; and, what is remarkable, not compound, but 
simple words, separately void of all meaning; as, 

Labitur ripa, Jove non prob ante, ux- 
orius amnis. 

This circumstance, together with the fact of such a divisior* 



«XV1U METRES OF HORACE. 

taking place only between the third Sapphic and the concluding 
Adonic, 1 has induced an eminent prosodian (Dr. Carey) to ec 
tertain the opinion that neither Sappho, nor Catullus, nor Hor 
ace ever intended the stanza to consist of four separate verses 
but wrote it as three, viz., two five-foot Sapphics and one of 
6even feet (including the Adonic) ; the fifth foot of the long 
verse being indiscriminately either a spondee or a trochee. 

The ordinary mode of reading the Sapphic verse has at length 
begun to be abandoned, and the more correct one substituted 
which is as follows : 

a i a i i- 

There is still, however, as has been remarked, some doubl 
which of the accented syllables ought to have the stronger ac 
cent and which the weaker. (Consult Journal of Education, 
vol. iv., p. 356 ; Penny Cyclopedia, art. Arsis.) 

11. CHORIAMBIC PENTAMETER. 

The choriambic pentameter consists of a spondee, three cku*- 
iambi. and an iambus ; as, 

Til ne | qucesieris, \ scire nefas, \ quern miJu, quern \ (Lbi. 

12. ALTERED CHORIAMBIC TETRAMETER. 

The proper choriambic tetrameter consists of three cjorurn 
bi and a bacchius (i. e., an iambus and a long syllable) ; is, 

Jane pater, \ Jane tuens, \ dive blccjis, \ btformn. 

(Sept. Serenua ) 
Horace, however, made an alteration, though not an imprt/e- 
ment, by substituting a spondee instead of an iambus in the fcrst 
measure, thus changing the choriambus into a second epitnte, 
viz., 

Te dlos 6\ro~ Sybdrln J cur proper es \ dmando. 

The choriambic tetrameter, in its original state, was called 

1. The divisions which take place between the other lines of the Sapphic stanza, 
when they are not common cases of synapheia (as in Horace, Csrn. ii., 2, 18), will 
be found to regard compound words only, and not simple ones. The ode of Hor- 
ace (iv., 2) which begins 

Pindarum quisquis studet amulari 

Iule— 
furnishes no exception to this remark. A synreresis operates in luU, which must 
b« read as if written Yule. 



METRB3 OF HORACE. lxix 

Phala)cian, from the poet Phaloccius, who used i( in some of his 
compositions. 

13. A3CLEPIADIC CIIORIAMBIC TETRAMETER. 

This verse, so called from the poet Asclepiades, consists of a 
spondee, two choriambi, and an iambus ; as, 

Mitcc\nds didvis \\ edUc rc\gibus. 
The Cficsural pause takes place at the end of the first chori- 
ambus, on which account some are accustomed to scan the line 
as a dactylic pentameter catalectic ; as, 

Mctcl\nds dtd\vis || edlte \ rZgibus. 

But this mode of scanning the verse is condemned by Teren- 
tianus. Horace uniformly adheres to the arrangement given 
above. Other poets, however, sometimes, though very rarely, 
make the first foot a dactyl. 

14. CHORIAMBIC TRIMETER, OR GLYCOJXIC. 

The Glyconic verse (so called from the poet Glyco) consists 
of a spondee, a choriambus, and an iambus ; as, 
Sic te || dlvd, patens \ Cyprl. 

But the first foot was sometimes varied to an iambus or a tro- 
chee ; as, 

Bonis || crcde fuga\cibus. (Boethius.) 
VlVis |! implicat ar\bores. (Catullus.) 

Horace, however, who makes frequent use of this measure, 
invariably uses the spondee in the first place. As the pause in 
this species of verse always occurs after the first foot, a Glyco- 
nic may hence be easily scanned as a dactylic trimeter, provid- 
ed a spondee occupy the first place in the line ; as, 

Sic te | divd, po\tens Cyprl. 

15. CHORIAMBIC TRIMETER CATALECTIC, OR PHERECRATIC 

The Pherecratic verse (so called from the poet Pherecrates) 
is the Glyconic (No. 14) deprived of its final syllable, and con- 
sists of a spondee, a choriambds, and a catalectic syllable ; as. 

Grata \ Pyrrhd sub dn\tro. 
Horace uniformly adheres to this arrangement, and hence in 
htm it may be scanned as a dactylic trimeter : 



IXX METRES OF HORACE. 

Grata J Pyrrhd sub \ antra. 

Other poets, however, make the first foot sometimes a tro 
thee or an anapaest, rarely an iambus. 

16. CHORIAMBIC DIMETER. 

The choriambic dimeter consists of a choriambus and a bac- 
chlus ; as, 

Lydtd, dtc, | per omnes. 

This measure occurs once in Horace, in conjunction with an- 
other species of choriambic verse. 

17. ionic a minore. 

Ionic verses are of two kinds, the Ionic a major e and the Ionic 
tt minore, called likewise Ionicus Major and Ionicus Minor, and 
so denominated from the feet or measures of which they are 
respectively composed. 

The Ionic a minore is composed entirely of the foot or meas 
ure of that name, und which consists of a pyrrhic and a spondee, 
as doculsscnt. It is not restricted to any particular number of 
feot or measures, but may be extended to any length, provided 
only that, with due attention to synapheia, the final syllable of 
'the spondee in each measure be either naturally long, or made 
long by the concourse of consonants ; and that each sentence 
or period terminate with a complete measure, having the spon- 
dee for its close. 

Horace has used this measure but once {Carm. Hi., 12), an* 1 
great difference of opinion exists as to the true mode of arrang- 
ing the ode in which it occurs. If we follow, however, the au- 
thority of the ancient grammarians, and particularly of Terenti- 
anus Maurus, it will appear that the true division is into stro- 
phes ; and, consequently, that Cuningam {Animadv. in Horat., 
Bcntl., p. 315) is wrong in supposing that the ode in question 
was intended to run on in one continued train of independent 
tetrameters. Cuningam's ostensible reason for this arrange- 
ment is, that Martianus Capella (De Nupt. Philol., lib. 4, cap. 
ult.) has composed an Ionic poem divided into tetrameters : the 
true cause would appear to be his opposition to Bentley. This 
hitter critic has distributed the ode into four strophes, each con- 
sisting of ten feet ; or in other words, of two tetrametors follow- 



METRES OF HORACE. 1XX1 

od by a dimeter. The strict arrangement, he remarks, would 
be into four lines merely, containing each ten feet ; but the size 
of the modern page prevents this, of course, from being done. 
The scanning of the ode, therefore, according to the division 
adopted by 136ntley, will be as follows : 

Mlserdrum est \ ncque dmorl \ dare ludum, j nequc dulci 
Mala vino \ laverc, aut ex\animari, \ metuentes 

Pdtruce ver\berd lingual. 
The arrangement in other editions is as follows : 

Miser drum est \ ncque dmorl \ dare ludum, 
Ncque dulci \ mala vino \ lavere, aut cx- 

-dnlmdrl \ metuentes \ pdtruce vei\berd lingua; 

Others, again, have the following scheme : 

Miscrarum est \ nequc amori \ dare ludum, 
Ncque dulci \ mala vino \ lavere^ aut cx- 

-animari \ metuentes \ patruce 
Verberd \ lingua, &c. 
Both of these, however, are justly condemned by Bentloy. 

18. GREATER ALCAIC. 

This metre, so called from the poet Alcams, consists of two 
feet, properly both iambi, and a long catalectic syllable, followed 
by a chori ambus and an iambus, the csesural pause always fall- 
ing after the catalectic syllable ; as, 

Vldes | ut dl\td \\ slct nlve cdn\dldum. 

But the first foot of the iambic portion is alterable, of course, 
to a spondee, and Horace much more frequently has a spondeo 
than an iambus in this place ; as, 

o md\tre pul\chrd \\ fdld pul\chrlor . 

The Alcaic verse is sometimes scanned with two dactyls in 
the latter member ; as, 

Vldes | ut dl\td || stet nlve \ cdndldum. 

The Alcaic stanza consists of four lires, the first and second 
boing greater Alcaics, the third an ia nbic dimeter hvpermctci 
(No. 8), and the fourth a minor Alcaic (No. 20). 

For some remarks on the structure of the Alcaic stanza con 
suit Anthonys Latin Versification, p 224, sequ. 



XX11 METRES OF HORACE. 

19. ARCHILOCHIA>~ HEPTAMETER 

This species of verse consists of two members, the first a cac- 
tylic tetrameter a priore (vid. No. 2, in notzs), and the latter a 
trochaic dimeter brachycatalectic ; that is, the first portion of 
the line contains four feet from the beginning of a dactylic hex- 
ameter, the fourth being always a dactyl, and the lattor portion 
consists of three trochees ; as, 

Sulvltur | acfis hy\cms grd\td vice \\ verts \ U Fd\von\ 

20. MINOR ALCAIC. 
s 

This metre consists of two dactyls followed by two trochees 
as, 

Levld | pcrsonii\crc \ sdxd. 

21. DACTYLIC0-IA3IBIC. 

This measure occurs in the second, fourth, and other even 
lines of the eleventh Epode of Horace, omitted in the present 
odition. The first part of the verse is a dactylic trimeter cata- 
lectic (No. 3), the latter part is an iambic dimeter (No. 7) ; as, 

Scrlbirc \ vcrsicu\lus \\ dmu\rc pcr\ctilsum \ grdvl. 

One peculiarity attendant on this metre will need explanation. 
In consequence of the union of two different kinds of verse into 
one line, a licence is allowed the poet with regard to the final 
syllable of the first verse, both in lengthening short syllables and 
preserving vowels from elision. 

Hence lines thus composed of independent metres are called 
anfvdpTTjTot, or inconnexi on account of this medial license. Ar- 
chilochus, according to Hephaestion, was the first who employ- 
ed them. (Bentley, ad Epod. 11.) Many editions, however, 
prefer the simpler, though less correct, division into two dis- 
tinct measures ; as, 

Scrlbcre | versicu\los 

Amo\rc j)lr\\culsum \ grdvl. 

22. IAMBIC0-DACTYL1C 

This measure occurs in the second, fourth, and other eion 
lines of the thirteenth Epode of Horace, as it is arranged in thia 
edition The first part of the verse is an iambic dimeter CNo 



METRES OF HORACE. IxXlll 

7), the latter part is a dactylic trimeter catalectic (No. 3). It 
is, therefore, directly the reverse of the preceding. 

Occd\slo\ncm de \ dU : || d unique vl\rent genu\d. 

The license mentioned in the preceding measure takes place 
also in this ; us, 
Epod. Line. 

13. 8. Redicct in scdem vice. Nunc, &c. 
10. Levure diris pectora sollicitudinibus 
14. Findunt Scamandri flumina, lubricus, &c. 

These lines are also, like those mentioned in the preceding 
section, called aowapTrjToi, or inconnexi. Many editions prefer 
the following arrangement, which has simplicity in its favor 
but not 8t*wt accuracy : 

Occd\stO\\nSm de | d\l : 
Ihhnqut &(\r£nt ge/ui\d. 
4 



METRICAL INDEX 



TO THE 



LYRIC COMPOSITIONS OF HORACE* 



£li, Vetusto 18, 18., 

.Equarn memento ... 18,18, 
Altera jam teritur ... 1, 5 
Angustam, amice.... 18, 18, 

At, O Deorum 5, 7 

Bacchum in remotis . 18, 18, 

Beatus ille 5, 7 

Coelo supinas 18,18, 

Coelo tonantem 18,18, 

Cam, tu. Lydia 14, lb 

Car me querelis 18, 18, 

Delicta majorum 18, 18, 

Descende coelo 18,18, 

Dianam, tenerae 13, 13, 

Diffugere nives 1, 3 

Dive, qaem proles ... 10, 10, 

Divis orte bonis 13, 13, 

Donarem pateras 13 

Donee gratus eram tibi 14, 13 

Kheu! fugaces 18,18, 

Est mihi nonam 10, 10, 

Et thare et fidibas .. 14. 13 
Exegi monimentam.. 13 
Faune. Nympharum . 10, 10, 
Fosto quid potius die 14, 13 

Herculis ritu 10, 10, 

Horrida tempestas. .- 1, 22 
Ibis Liburnis 5, 7 



8, 


20 


8, 


20 


8, 


20 


8, 


20 


8, 


20 


B, 


20 






B, 


20 


8, 


20 


B, 


20 


15, 


14 


10, 


4 


13, 


14 


8, 


20 


10, 


4 


10, 


4 


10 


4 



Icci, beatis 18. 18, 

Ille et nefasto 18,18, 

Impios parrae 10, 10, 

Inclusam Danaen 13,13, 

Intactis opuleutior.. . 14, 13 

Integer vitae 10, 10, 

Jam jam efficaci 5 

Jam pauca aratro.... 18, 18, 

Jam satis terris 10, 10, 

Jam veris comites ... 13, 13, 

Justum et tenacem .. 18, 18, 

Laudabunt alii 1, 2 

Lupis et agnis 5, ** 

Lydia, die, per omnes 16, 12 

Maecenas atavis 13 

Mala soluta 5, 7 

Martiis coelebs 10,10, 

Mater saovaCupidinum 14, 13 

Mercuri, facunde .... 10, 10, 

Mercuri, nam te 10, 10, 

Miseraram est 17 

Montium castos 10, 10, 

Motum ex Metello... 18, 18, 

Musis amicus 18, '. 8, 

Natis in usum '.3, 18, 

Ne forte credas 18, 18, 

Nolis longa ferae 13, 13, 

Non ebur, neqae 9, 6 



3, 20 

8, 20 

10, 4 

13, 14 

10, 4 

8. 20 
10. 1 
13, 14 

8, 2C 



10. 1 



10. 


4 


10, 


4 


10. 


4 


8, 


30 


8, 


21 


8, 


20 


8, 


20 


13, 


14 



* The numbers refer to the several metres, as they have just been explained 
Thus in the ode beginning with the words Ml'u Vetusto, the first and second lines 
of each stanza are Greater Alcaics (No. 18), the third line is an Iambic Dimeter (No 
fl), and the last line a Minor Alcaic (No. 20), and so of the rest. 



METRICAL INDEX. 



lxx\ 



Non semper imbrss -- 18, 18, 

Non usitata 18,18, 

Nullam, Vare 11 

Nullus argento 10, 10, 

Nunc est bibcndum .. 18, 18, 

Diva, gratum 18, 18, 

fons Bandusiae .... 13, 13, 

O matre pulchra 18, 18, 

nata mecum 18,18, 

O navis, referunt 13, 13, 

O soepe mecum 18,18, 

O Venus, regina 10, 10, 

Odi profanum 18, 18, 

Otium Divos 10,10, 

Parcus Deorum 18, 18, 

Parentis olim 5, 7 

Pastor quum traheret. 13, 13, 

Persicos odi 10,10, 

Phoebe, sylvarumque. 10, 10, 

Phoebus volentem 18,18, 

Pindarum quisquis ... 10,10, 
Poscimur: si quid ... 10, 10, 
Q.U1B oura patrum ... 18, 18, 



8, 


20 


8, 


20 


10, 


4 


8, 


20 


8, 


20 


15, 


14 


8, 


20 


8, 


20 


15, 


14 


8, 


20 


10, 


4 


8, 


20 


10, 


4 


8, 


20 


13, 


14 


10, 


4 


10, 


4 


8, 


20 


10, 


4 


10, 


4 


8, 


20 



Qualem ministrum... 18,18, 8,20 
Quando repostum ... 5, # 7 

Quantum distet 14, 13 

Quem tu, Melpomene 14, 13 

Quem virum 10,10, 

Quid bellicosus 18, 18, 

Quid dedicatum 18, 18, 

Quid immerentes.... 5, 7 

Quis desiderio 13, 11, 

Quis multa gracilis .. 13, 13, 
Quo, me, Bacche .... 14, 13 
Quo, quo, scelesti ... 5, 7 

Rectius vives 10, 10, 

Scriberis Vario 13,13, 

Septimi Gades 10,10, 

Sic te, Diva , 14, 13 

Solvitur acris hyems .19, 6 
Te maris et terrse ... 1, 2 

Tu ne quaesieris 11 

Tyrrhena regain 18,18, 8 20 

Velox amcenum 18, 18, 8. 20 

Vides ut alta 18, 18, 8, iO 

Vile potabia 10, 10, 10, 4 



10, 


1 


8, 


SO 


3, 


2(1 


13, 


11 


15 


1 


10. 


H 


13, 


11 


10, 


4 



Q. II R A T I I FLACC1 

CARMINUM 

LIBER PRIMUS. 



Carmen I. 

AD JVLECENATEM. 

Maecenas, atavis cdite regibus, 
O et presidium ct dulce dccus meuni, 
Sunt quos curriculo pulverem Olympicum 
Collegisse juvat, metaque fervidis 
Evitata rotis palmaque nobilis 4> 

Terrarum dominos evehit ad Deos ; 
ITuiic, si mobilium turba Quiritium 
Certat tergeminis tollere honoribus ; 
Ilium, si proprio condidit horreo 
Quidquid de Libycis verritur areis. 10 

Gaudentem patrios findere sarculo 
Agros Attalicis conditionibus 
Nunquam demovcas, ut trabe Cyp/ia 
Myrtoum, pavidus nauta, sccet mare. 
Luctantem Icariis fluctibus Africum 1.5 

Mercator rnetuens otium et oppidi 
Laudat rura sui ; mox reficit rates 
Quassas, indocilis pauperiem pati. 
Est qui uec vcteris pocula Massici, 
Nee partem solido demere .de die 2(1 

Spernit, nunc viridi membra sub arbuto 
Stratus, nunc ad aquaa lene caput sacras. 

A. 



a. flORATH FLACCf 

Multos castra juvant, et lituo tubs 

Permixtus sonitus, bellaque matribus 

Detestata. Manet sub Jove frigido 25 

Venator, tenera3 conjugis immcmor, 

Seu visa est catulis cerva fidelibus, 

Seu rupit terctes Marsus aper plagas. 

Me doctarum hedcrs pramia frontium 

Dis miscent superis ; me gclidum nemus 30 

Nvmpharumque levcs cum Satyris chori 

Seccrnunt populo, si neque tibias 

Euterpe cohibct, nee Polyhymnia 

Lesboum refugit tendcre barbiton. 

Quod si me lyricis vatibus inseris, oS 

Sublimi feriam sidcra vcrtice. 



Carmen II. 
AD AUGUSTUM CiESARE3\t 
Jam satis tcrris nivis atque dirs 
Grandinis misit rater, et, rubente 
Dextera sacras jaculatus arces, 
Terruit urbem : 

Terruit gentes, grave ne rediret 5 

Ssculam Pyrrhs nova menstra quests, 
Omne quum Proteus pecus cgit altos 
Viscre montes, 

Piscium et summa genus hssit uimo, 
Nota quae sedes fuerat palumbis, 10 

Et superjecto pavids natarunt 
iEquore dams. 

Vidimus flavum l^iberim, retortia 
Litore Etrusco violenter undis 



2 J CAUM1NUM. LIBER I 

Ire dojectum monimenta Regis, 
Templaquc Vesta3, 



Ilia) dum se uimiuzn querenti 
Jactat ultorem, vagus et sinistra 
Labitur ripa, Jcve non probante, ux 

orius amnis. 20 

Audiet civcs acuisse ferrum, 
Quo graves Persai melius perirent ; 
Audiet pugnas, vitio parentum 
Rara, juventus. 

Quern vocct Divum populus mentis 25 

Imperi rebus ? precc qua fatigent 
Virgines sanctac minus audientem 
Carmina Vestam ? 

Cui dabit partes scelus cxpiandi 
Jupiter ? Tandem venias, prccair ur> 30 

Nube candentes liumeros amictus, 
Augur Apollo ; 

Sive tu mavis, Erycina ridens, 
Quam Jocus circum volat et Cupido ; 
Sive neglectum genus et nepotes 35 

Respicis, auctor, 

Heu ! nimis longo satiate ludo, 
Quern juvat clamor galeasque lev* 8, 
Acer et Marsi peditis cruentum 

Vultus in hostem ; 40 

Sive mutata juvenem figura, 
Ales, in terris imitaris. almae 



Q. H0RAT1I FLACC1 | 2, 3 

Fiji us Maiao, patiens vocari 
Cacsaris ultor : 

Serus in caelum redeas, diuque 45 

Laotus intersis populo Quirini, 
Neve te, nostris vitiis iniquum, 
Ocior aura 

Tollat. Hie magnos potius triumphos, 
Hie ames dici Pater atque Princeps, 50 

Neu sinas Medos equitare inultos, 
Te duce, Caesar. 



Carmen 111. 
AD VIRGILIUM. 

Sic te Diva, potens Cypri, 

Sic fratres Helena}, lucida sidera, 
Ventorumque regat pater, 

Obstrictis aliis praeter Iapyga, 
Navis, quae tibi creditum 5 

Debes Virgilium finibus Atticis, 
Ileddas incolumem precor, 

Et serves anirnce dimidium meac. 
Illi robur et aes triplex 

Circa pectus erat, qui fragilem truci 10 

Commisit pelago ratem 

Primus, nee timuit praccipitem Africum 
Decertantem Aquilonibus, 

Nee tristes Hyadas, nee rabiem Noti, 
Quo non arbiter Hadriae 15 

Major, tollere sen ponere vult freta. 
Quern Mortis timuit gradum, 

Qui rectis oeulis mor.stra natantia, 



Si, 4. | CAKMiNUM. — LIBER I. 5 

Qui vidit mare turgidum et 

Infames scopulos Acroceraunia ? 20 

Nequidquam Deus abscidit 

Prudens Oceano dissociabili 
Terras, si tamen imp'ue 

Non tangenda rates transiliunt vada. 
Audax omnia perpeti 2b 

Gens human a rait per vetitum et nefas 
Atrox Iapeti genus 

Ignem fraude mala gentibus intulit : 
Post ignem rctheria domo 

Subductum, Macies et nova Febrium 30 

Terris incubuit cohors : 

Semotique prius tarda necessitas 
Leti corripuit gradum. 

Expertus vacuum Dcedalus aera 
Pennis non homini datis. 3*> 

Perrupit Acheronta Herculeus labor. 
Nil mortalibus ardui est : 

Ccelum ipsum petimus stultitia : neque 
Per nostrum patimur scelus 

Iracunda Jovcm ponere fulmina. 



Carmen IV. 
AD L. SESTTFJM. 

Solvitur acris hiems grata vice veris et Favoni, 

Trahuntque siccas machinse carinas. 
Ac neque jam stabulis gaudet pecus, aut arator igni ; 

Nee prata canis albicant pruinis. 
Jam Cytherea choros ducit Venus, imminente Luna, 

Juncta^que Nymph is Gratia? decentes 
Alterno terram quatiunt pede ; dum graves Cyclopum 

Vulcamis ardens urit officinas. 

A 2 



C U. HORATII FLACCI [4, 5 

Nunc dece ; aut viridi nitidum caput unpedire myrto, 

Aut flore, teme quern ferunt solutic ; 1 

Nunc et in umbrosis Fauno decet immolare lucis, 

Seu poscat agna, sive malit hsedo. 
Pallida Mors a;quo pulsat pede pauperum tabernas 

Regumque turres. O beate Sesti, 
Vitae summa brevis spem nos vetat inchoare longam. 15 

Jam te premet nox, fabulaeque Manes, 
Et domus exilis Flutonia : quo simul mearis, 

Ncc regna vim sortiere talis, 
Ndc tenerum Lycidan mirabere, quo calct juvcntus 

Nunc omnia, et mox virgines tepebunt. 



Carmen V. 
AD PYRRHAM. 
Quis multa gracilis te puer in rosa 
Perfusus liquidis urget odoribus 
Grato, Pyrrha, sub antro ? 
Cui flavam religas comarn, 

Simplex munditiis ? lieu ! quoties fldem 6 

Mutatosque Deos flebit, et aspera 
Nigris aequora vcntis 
Emirabitur insolens, 

Qui nunc te fruitur credulus aurea ; 
Qui semper vacuam, semper amabilem JO 

Sperat, nescius aura3 

Fallacis. Miseri, quibus 

Intentata nites ! Me tabula sacer 
Yotiva paries indicat uvida 

Suspendisse potenti 1 5 

Vestimenta maris Deo. 



(5, 7 J CARMINUM. LIBER I. / 

Carmen VI. 
AD AGRIPPAM. 
Scriberis Vario fortis et hostium 
Victor, Majonii carminis alitc, 
Quam rem cunque ferox navibus aut equis 
Miles, tc duce, gcsserit 

Nos, Agrippa, neque ha)C dicere, nee graven* 5 

Pelidse stomachum cedere nescii, 
Nee cursus duplicis per mare Ulixei, 
Nee sa3vam Felopis domum 

Conamur, tenucs grandia ; dum pudor, 
Imbellisque lyrae Musa potens vetat 10 

Laudes egregii Ccesaris et tuas 
Culpa deterere ingeni. 

Quis Martem tunica tectum adamantina 
Digne scripserit ? aut pulvere Troico 
Nigrum Merionen ? aut ope Palladis 15 

Tydiden Superis parem ? 

Nos convivia, nos proslia virginum 
Sectis in juvenes unguibus acrium 
Cantamus, vacui, sive quid urimur, 

Non prater solitum leves. 20 



Carmen VII. 
AD MUNATIUM PLANCUM 
Laudabunt alii claram Rhodon, aut Mytilenen, 

Aut Epheson, bimarisve Corinthi 
IVTcBnia, vel Baccho Thebas, vel Apolline Delpho? 
Insignes, aut Thessala Tempc. 



8 Q. HORATII FLACCI [ 7, 5l 

Sunt quibus anum opus est intactae Palladis arces 5 

Carmine perpetuo celebrare, 
Indeque decerptam front i prseponere olivani. 

Plurimus, in Junonis konorem, 
Aptum dicit equis Argos, ditesque Mycenas. 

Me neo tam patiens LaeedaBmon, 10 

Nee tam Larissa) percussit campus opima:, 

Quam domus Albuneae rcsonantis, 
Et praeceps Anio, ac Tiburni lucus, et uda 

Mobilibus pomaria rivis. 
Albus ut obscuro detcrget nubila ccdIo 15 

Sacpe Notus, neque parturit imbres 
Perpctuos, sic tu sapiens finire memento 

Tristitiam vitaeque labores 
Molli, Plance, mero, seu tc fulgentia signis 

Castra tenent, seu densa tenebit 20 

Tiburis umbra tui. Teucer Salamina patremque 

Quum fugeret, tamen uda Lyseo 
Tempora populea fertur vinxisse corona, 

Sic tristes aflatus amicos : 
Quo nos cunque feret melior Fortuna parente, 25 

Ibimus, O socii comitesque ! 
Nil desperandum Teucro duce et auspice Teucro , 

Certus enim promisit Apollo, 
Ambiguam tellure nova Salamina futuram. 

O fortes, pejoraque passi GO 

Mecum saepe viri, nunc vino pellite curas ; 

Cras ingens iterabimus aequor. 



Cat^ien VIII. 
AD LYDIAM. 

Lydia die, per omnes 

Te deos oro, Sybarin cur properas ainando 
Perdere ? cur apricum 

Oderit campum, patiens pulvsris atque solis ? 



8.9.] CARMINUM. LICER 1. 9 

Cur neque militaris 6 

Inter aequaies cquitat, Gallica ncc lupatis 
Temperat ora frenis ? 

Cur timet flavum Tiberim tangere ? cur olivuni 
Sanguine viperino 

Cautius vitat, neque jam livida gesUt armis 10 

Brachia, saepe disco, 

Ssepe trans finem jaculo nobilis expedito ? 
Quid latet, ut marina) 

Filium dicunt Thetidis sub lacrimosa Trojae 
Funera, ne virilis 15 

Cultus in caedem et Lycias proriperet catervas ? 



Carmen IX. 

AD THALIARCHUM. 

Vides, ut alta stet nive candidum 
Soracte, nee jam sustineant onus - 
Silvae laborantes, geluque 
Flumina constiterint acuto ? 

Dissolve frigus, ligna super foco 5 

Large reponens ; atque benignius 
Deprome quadrimum Sabina, 
O Thaliarche, merum diota. 

Permitte Divis ca3tera : qui simul 
Stravere ventos aequore fervido 10 

Deprceliantes, nee cupressi 
Nee veteres agitantur orni. 

Quid sit futurum eras, fuge quaerere : et 
Quem Fors dierum cunque dabit, lucro 

Appone : ncc dulces amores 15 

Sperne puer, neque tu choreas, 



10 a. HORATII FLACCI 9, 10- 

Donee virenti canities abest 
Morosa. Nunc et Campus et areae, 
Lenesque sub noctem susurri 

Composita rcpetantur hc-ra : 20 

Nunc et ]atentis proditor intimo 
Gratus puellae risus ab anguio, 
Pignusque dereptum lacertis 
Aut digito male pertinaci. 



Carmen X. 

AD MERCURIUM. 
Mercuri, facunde nepos Atlantis, 
Qui feros cultus hominum recentum 
Voce formasti catus et decorae 
More palaestrae, 

Te canam, magni Jcvis et deorum ft 

Nuntium, curvaeque lyrae parentem ; 
Callidum, quidquid placuit, jocoso 
Condere furto. 

Te, boves olim nisi reddidisses 
Ter dolum amotas, puerum minaci 10 

Voce dum terret, viduus pharetra 
Pwisit Apollo. 

Quin et Atridas, duce te, euperbos 
Ilio dives Priamus relicto 

Thessalosque ignes et iniqua TrojaB 15 

Castra fefellit. 

Tu pias la?tis animas reponis 
Sedibus, virgaque levem coerces 
Aurea turbam, superis deorum 

Gratus et imis. 20 



11,12.] CARMINUM. LIBER I. 11 



Carmen XL. 
AD LEUCONOEN. 

Tu ne quaesicris, scire ncfas, quern mihi, quern tibi 
Finem Di dederint, Leuconoe ; nee Babylonios 
Tentaris numeros. Ut melius, quidquid erit, pati ! 
Seu plures hiemes, seu tribuit Jupiter ultimam, 
Quae nunc oppositis debilitat pumicibus mare 
Tyrrhenum, sapias, vina liques, et spatio brevi 
Sperr: longam reseces. Dum loquimur, fugerit invida 
iEtas. Carpe diem, quam minimum credula postero. 



Carmen XII. 
AD AUGUSTUM. 
Quern virum aut heroa lyra vel acri 
Tibia sumis celebrare, Clio ? 
Quern Deum ? cujus recinet jocosa 
Nomen imago 

Aut in umbrosis Heliconis oris, 6 

Aut super Pindo, gelidove in Haemo. 
Unde vocalem temere insecutae 
Orphea silvae, 

Arte materna rapidos morantem 
Fluminum lapsus celeresque ventos, 10 

Blandum et auritas fidibus canoris 
Ducere quercus. 

Quid prius dicam solitis Parentis 
Laudibus, qui res hominum ac Deorum, 
Qui mare ac terras, variisque mundum 15 

Tern per at horis ? 



12 Q. HORATII FLACCI [12 

Unde nil majus generatur ipso, 

Nee viget quidquam simile aut secundum ; 

Proximos illi tamen occupavit 

Pallas honores. v. I) 

Prceliis audax, neque te silebo, 
Liber, et saevis inimica Virgo 
Belluis : nee te, metuendc certa 
Phoebe sagitta. 

Dicam et Alciden, puerosque Ledae, 25 

Ilunc equis, ilium superare pugnis 
Nobilem : quorum simul alba nautis 
Stella refulsit 

Defluit saxis agitatus humor, 

Concidunt venti, fugiuntque nubes, 30 

Et minax, nam sic voluere, ponto 
Unda recumbit. 

Romulum post hos prius, an quietum 
Pompili regnum memorem, an superbos 
Tarquini fasces, dubito, an Catonis 35 

Nobile letum. 

Rcgulum, et Scauros, animseque magnae 
Prodigum Paullum, superante Poeno, 
Gratus insigni referam Camena, 

Fabriciumque. iO 

Hunc, et incomtis Curium capillis, 
Utilem bello tulit, et Camillum, 
SaBva paupertas et avitus apto 
Cum lare fundus 



12, 13. J C ARM [NUM. LIB Ell I. 13 

Crescit, occulto vclut arbor aevo, 45 

Fama Marcelli : micat inter omiiea 
Julium sidus, vclut inter ignes 
Luna minores. 

Gentis humanie pater atque custo*. 
Orte Satumo, titi cura magni 00 

Caesaris fatis data ; tu secundo 
Cajsoie regnes. 

Ille, seu Parthos Latio imminentes 
Egerit just? domitos triumpho, 

Sive subjectos Orientis orae 55 

Seras et Indos, 

Te minor latum regat aequus orbem ; 
Tu gravi curru quatias Olympum, 
Tu parum castis inimica mittas 

Fulmina lucis. 60 



Carmen XIII. 
AD LYDIAM. 

Quurn tu, Lydia, Telephi 

Cervicem roseam, cerea Telephi 
Laudas brachia, vae, meum 

Fervens difficili bile tumet jecur. 
Tunc nee mens mihi nee color fi 

Certa sede manent ; humor et in genas 
Furtim labitur, arguens 

Quam lentis penitus macerer ignibus. 
Uror, seu tibi candidos 

Turparunt humeros immodicse mero 10 

Rixae, sive puer furens 

Impressit memorem dente labris jcotam. 



14 a. HOR-ATII FLACCI '13, 14 

Non, si me satis audias, 

Spores perpetuum, dulcia barbare 
Laedcntem oscula, quae Venus 1 6 

Quinta parte sui nectaris imbuit. 
Felices ter et amplius, 

Quos irrupta tenet copula, nee malis 
Divulsus querimoniis 

Suprema citius solvet amor die. 



Carmen XIV. 
AD REMPUBLICAM. 
O navis, referunt in mare te novi 
Fluctus ! O quid agis ? fortiter occupa 
Portum. Nonne vides, ut 
Nudum remigio latus, 

Et malus celeri saucius Africo 6 

Antennaeque gemunt, ac sine funibua 
Vix durare carinas 
p ossunt imperiosius 

^Equor ? Non tibi sunt integra lintea, 
Non Di, quos iterum pressa voces malo 10 

Quamvis Pontica pinus, 
Silvan filia nobilis, 

Jactes et genus et nomen inutile, 
Nil pictis timidus navita puppibus 

Fidit. Tu, nisi ventis 15 

Debes ludibrium cave. 

Nuper sollicHum quae mihi taedium, 
Nunc desiderium curaque non levis, 
Interfusa nitentes 

Vites aequora Cycladas. 20 



I5.J CARMINUM. LIBER I. 15 

Carmen XV. 
NEIIE1 V'ATICINIUM DE EXCIDIO TROJiE 

Pastor quum traheret per freta navibus 
Idajis Helenen perfidus hospitam, 
Ingrato ccleres obruit otio 
Ventos, ut caneret fera 

Nercus fata : Mala ducis avi domum, 6 

Quam multo repetet Graecia milite, 
Conjurata tuas rumpcre nuptias 
Et regnum Priami vetus. 

Heu heu ! quantus equis, quantus adest viris 
Sudor ! quanta moves funera Dardansa ' 10 

Genti ! Jam galeam Pallas et a3gida 
Currusque et rabiem parat. 

Nequidquam Veneris prsesidio ferox 
Pectes caesariem, grataque feminis 
Imbelli cithara carmina divides ; 16 

Nequidquam thalamo graves 

Hastas et calami spicula Cnosii 
Vitabis, strepitumque, et celerem sequi 
Ajacem : tamen, heu, serus adulteros 

Crines pulvere collines. 20 

Non Laertiaden, exitium tua3 
Genti, non Pylium Nestora respicis ? 
Urgent impavidi te Salaminius 
Teucer et Sthenelus sciens 

Pugnse, sive opus est imperitare equig, 25 

Non aur:ga piger. Merionen quoque 



IG Q. IJ0RATI1 FLACCI [15,10 

Nosces. Ecce furit te reperire atiox 
Tydides, melior patre ; 

Quern tu, cervus uti vallis in altera 
Visum parte lupum graminis immemor, 30 

Sublimi fugies mollis anhelitu, 
Non hoc pollicitus tuae. 

Iracunda diem proferet Ilio 
Matronisque Thrygum classis Achillei ; 
Tost certas hiemes uret Achaicus 3/5 

Ignis Iliacas domos. 



Carmen XVI. 
PALINODIA. 
O matre pulchra filia pulchrior, 
Quern criminosis cunque voles modum 
Pones iambis, sive flamma 
Sive mari libet Hadriano. 

Non Dindvmene, non adytis quatit £ 

Mentem sacerdotum incola Pythiua > 
Non Liber aequo, non acuta 
Sic geminant Corybantes aira, 

Tristes ut ira), quas neque Noricus 
Deterret ensis, nee mare naufragum, 10 

Nee saevus ignis, nee tremendo 
Jupiter ipse ruens tumultu. 

Fertur Prometheus, addere principi 
Limo coactus particulam undique 

Desectam, et insani leonis 15 

Vim stomach o apposuhse nostro. 



iG, 17. J CARMI NUM.- -LIBER I. 17 

Ira; Thyesten exilio gravi 
Stravcre, ct altis urbibus ultima; 
Steterc causa?, cur perirent 

Fundi tus. imprimeretque muris 20 

Hostile aratrum exercitus insolens. 
Compcsce mentem : me quoque pectoris ► 

Tcntavit in dulci juventa 
Fervor, et in celeres iambos 

Misit furentem : nunc ego mitibus 25 

Mutare quaero tristia, dum mihi 
Fias recantatis arnica 

Opprobriis, animumque reddas. 



Carmen XVII. 

AD TYNDARIDEM 

Velox amcBnum ssepe Lucretilem 
Mutat Lycsco Faunus, et igneam 
Defendit sestatem capellis 

Usque meis pluviosque ventos 

Impune tutum per nemus arbutoe fi 

Quserunt latentes et thyma deviae 
Olentis uxores mariti : 

Nee virides metuunt colubras, 

Nee Martiales Hsediliae lupos ; 

Utcunque dulci, Tyndari, fistula 10 

Valles et Ustica; cubantis 
Levia personuere saxa. 

Di me tuentur, Dis pietas mea 
Et Musa cordi est. Hie tibi copia 
B 2 



10 Q. HORATII FLAOLI (^7,18. 

Manabit ad plenum benigno 15 

Ruris honorum opulenta cornu 

llic in reducta valle Caniculafi 
Vitabis oestus, ct fide Tei'a 
Dices laborantes in uno 

Penelopen vitreamque Circen. 20 

Hie innoccntis pocula Lesbii 
Duces sub umbra ; nee Semelei'us 
Cum Marte confundet Thyoncus 
Prcelia, nee mctues protervum 

Suspecta Cyrum, nc male dispari 25 

Tncontinentes injiciat manus, 
Et scindat haerentcm coronam 
Crinibus, immeritamque vestem. 



Carmen XVIII. 

AD VARUM. 

Nullam, Vare, sacra vite prius severis arborem 

Circa mite solum Tiburis ct mcenia Catili : 

Siccis omnia nam dura deus proposuit, neque 

Mordaces aliter diffugiunt sollicitudines. 

Quis post vina gravem militiam aut pauperiein crepat ? 5 

Quis non te potius, Bacche pater, toque, decens Venus ? 

At ; ne quis modici transsiliat munera Liberi, 

Centaurea monet cum Lapithis rixa super mero 

Debellata ; monet Sithoniis non levis Euius, 

Quum fas a tque nefas exiguo fine libidinum 1 

Discernunt avidi. Non ego te, candidc Bassareu, 

Invitum quatiam ; nee variis obsita frondibus 

Sub divum rapiam Saeva tcne cum Berecyntio 



IS, I!), 20. J CARMINUM. LIBER I. 19 

Covnu tympana, quae subsequitur caucus Amor sui, 

Et tollens vacuum plus nimio Gloria verticom. Ifi 

Arcaniqu* Fides prodiga, perlucidior vitro. 



Carmen XIX. 
DE GLYCERA. 
Mater sa)va Cupidinum, 

Thcbanajquc j ubct me Semeles pilar, 
Et lasciva Licentia, 

Finitis animum rcddere amoribus. 
Urit me Glycerac nitor b 

Splendentis Pario marmorc purius, 
Urit grata protervitas, 

Et vultus nimium lubricus adspici. 
In me tota ruens Venus 

Cyprum deseruit ; nee patitur Scythas, 1 

Et versis animosum equis 

Parthum dicere, nee qua) nihil attinent 
Hie vivum mihi cespitem, hie 

Verbenas, pueri, ponite, thuraque 
Bimi cum patera meri : 1<> 

Mactata veniet lenior hostia. 



Carmen XX. 
AD IVLECENATEM. 

Vile potabis modicis Sabinum 
Cantharis, Grseca quod ego ipse testa 
Conditum levi, datus in theatro 
Quum tibi plausus, 

Care Maecenas eques, ut paterni 
Fluminis ripa3, simul et jocosa 
Redderet laudes tibi Vaticani 
Montis imago 



20 Q. HORATIl FLACCI [20,21,22 

Cagcubam et prelo domitam Caleno 
Tu bibes uvara : mea nee FalernaB 10 

Temperant vites neque Formiani 
Pccula colics. 



Carmen XXI. 
IN DIANAM ET APOLLTNEM. 
Dianam tencrce dicite virgines ; 
Intonsum, pueri, dicite Cynthium : 
Latonamquc supremo 
Dilectam penitus Jovi. 

Vos lcotam fluviis et nemorum coma, 6 

Quoecunque aut gelido prominct Algido, 
Nigris aut Erymanthi 
Silvis, aut viridis Cragi ; 

Vos Tempe totidem tollite laudibus, 
Natalemque, mares, Delon Apollinis, 10 

Insignemque pharetra 

Fraternaque humerum lyra. 

Hie bellum lacrimosum, hie miseram famen 
Pestemque a populo, principe Cu?saie, in 

Persas atque Britannos lo 

Vestra motus aget prece. 



Carmen XXII. 
AD ARISTIUM FUSCUM. 

Integer vitss scelerisque purus 
Non eget Mauris jaculis, neque areu, 
Nee venenatis gravida sagittis, 
Fusee, pharetra ; 



22,23 J C«iKMINUM. LIBER I. 21 

Sivo per Syrtcs iter aestuosas, 5 

Sive facturus per inhospitalem 
Caucasum, vel quae loca fabulosus 
Lambit Hydaspes. 

Namque me silva lupus in Sabina, 
Dum meam canto Lalagen, et ultra JO 

Terminum curia vagor expeditis, 
Fugit inermem : 

Quale portentum nequc militaris 
Daunias latis alit aesculetis, 

Nee Jubae tellus generat, leonum 16 

Arida nutrix. 

Pone me, pigris ubi nulla carapis 
Arbor acstiva rccreatur aura ; 
Quod latus mundi nebulae malusque 

Jupiter urget : 20 

Pone sub curru nimium propinqui 
Bolis, in terra domibus negata : 
Dulce ridentem Lalagen amabo, 
Dulce loquentem. 



Carmen XXIII. 
AD CHLOEN. 
Vitas hinnuleo me similis, Chloc, 
Queerenti pavidam montibus aviis 
Matrem, non sine vano 
Aurai-um et siluoe metu. 

Nam sen mobilibus vepris inhorruit 
Ad ventum fol. ; is, seu virides rubum 



22 U. HORATII FLACC1 I V'3, 'Z I. 

Dimovere lacertac, 

Et corde et genibus tremit. 

Atqui non ego te, tigris ut aspera 
Gaetulusve leo, frangere pcrsequor : 10 

Tandem desine matrem 
Tempestiva sequi viro. 



Carmen XXIV. 
AD VIRGILIUM. 
Quis desiderio sit pudor aut modus 
Tarn cari capitis ? Praecipe lugubres 
Cantus, Melpomene, cui liquidam Pater 
Vocem cum cithara dedit. 

Ergo Quintilium perpetuus sopor & 

Urget ! cui Pudor, et Justitia^ soror, 
Incorrupta Fides, nudaque Veritas 
Quando ullum inveniet parem ? 

Multis ille bonis flebilis occidit , 
Nulli flebilior, quam tibi, Virgili. 10 

Tu frustra pius, heu ! non ita crcditum 
Poscis Quintilium deos. 

Quod si Threicio blandius Orpheo 
Auditam moderere arboribus fidem, 
Non vanse redeat sanguis imagini, 15 

Quam virga semel horrida, 

Non lenis precibus fata recludere, 
Nigro compulerH Mercurius gregi. 
Durum ! Sed levius fit patientia, 

Quidquid corrigere est nefas. 20 



<JG. 27.] CABMINUM. — LIBER I. 23 

Carmen XXVI. 

DE ^ELIO LAMIA. 

Musis amicus, tristitiam ct metus 
Tradam protervis in mare Creticum 
Portare ventis ; quis sub Arcto 
Rex gelidac metuatur ora3. 

Quid Tiridaten terrcat, unice fl 

Securus. O, qua) fontibus integris 
Gaudes, aprieos necte flores, 
Necte meo Lamia) coronam, 

Pimplei' dulcis ; nil sine te mei 
Prosunt honores : hunc fidibus no vis, 10 

Kunc Lesbio sacrarc plectro, 
Teque tuasque decct sororcs. 



Carmen XXVII. 

AD SODALES. 

Nalis in usum lost-ilia) scyphis 
Pugnare Thracum est : tollite barbarum 
Morem, verecundumque Bacchum 
Sanguineis prohibete rixis. 

Vino et lucernis Medus acinaces 5 

Immane quantum discrepat ! impium 
Lenite clamorem, sodales, 
Et cubito remanete presso. 

Vultis severi me quoque sumere 
Partem Falerni ? dicat Opuntiai 10 

Frater Megillse, quo beatus 
Vulncre, qua pereat sagitta. 



24 a. HORATII FLACCI i 27, 28 

Cessat Voluntas ? non alia bibam 
Mercede. Qusb te cunque domat Venus, 

Xon erubescendis adurit .5 

jrnibus, ingenuoque semper 

Amort: peccas. Quidquid habes, age, 
Depone tutis auribus — Ah miser, 
Quanta laborabas Charybdi, 

Digne puer meliore flamma ! 20 

Qua? saga, quis te solvere Thcssalis 
Magus venenis, quis poterit Deus ? 
Vix illigatum te triformi 
Pegasus expedict Chimaera. 



Carmen XXVIII. 
NAUTA ET ARCHYTJE UMBRA 

Nauta. 
Te maris et terrce numeroque carditis arenas 

Mensorem cohibent, Archyta, 
Pulveris exigui prope litus parva Matinum 

Munera ; nee quidquam tibi prodest 
Aerias tentasse domos, animoque rotund um 6 

Percurrisse polum, morituro ! 

Archyt.e umbra. 
Occidit et Pelopis genitor, conviva Deorum, 

Tithonusque remotus in auras, 
Et Jovis arcanis Minos admissus, habentque 

Tartara Panthoi'den, iterum Oreo 10 

Demissum ; quamvis, clypeo Trojan a refixo 

Tempora testatus, nihil ultra 
Nervos atque cutem Marti concesserat atrao ; 

JucLce te ncn sordidus auctor 



$£ # 29.] CARMINUM. LIBER I. 25 

Natural verique. Sed omncs una manet nox, t5 

Et calcanda scmcl via lcti. 
Dant alios Furiffl torvo spcctacula Marti ; 

Exitio est avidum mare nautis ; 
Mixta senum ac juvcnum denscntur funcra ; nullum 

Sajva caput Proserpina fugit. 20 

Me quoque dcvexi rapidus comes Orionis 

Illyricis Notus obruit undis. 
At tu, nauta, vagae ne parce malignus arena; 

Ossibus et capiti inhumato 
Particulam dare : sic, quodcunque minabitur Eurus 2f> 

Flactibus Hesperiis, Venusinae 
Plectantur silvae, te sospite, multaque merces, 

Unde potest, tibi defluat aequo 
Ab Jove, Neptunoque sacri custode Tarenti. 

Negligis immeritis nocituram 30 

Postmodo te natis fraudem committere ? Fors et 

Debita jura vicesque superbae 
Te maneant ipsum : precibus non linquar inultis ; 

Teque piacula nulla resolvent. 
Quamquam festinas, non est mora longa , licebit 35 

Injecto ter pulvere curras. 



Carmen XXIX. 
AD ICCIUM. 
Icci, beatis nunc Arabum invides 
Gazis, et acrem militiam paras 
Non ante devictis Sabseae 
Regibus, horribilique Medo 

Nectis catenas ? Quae tibi virginurn, 
Sponso necato, barbara serviet ? 
Puer quis ex aula capillis 

Ad cyathum statuetur unctis, 
B 



2o a. HORATII FLACCI [29, 30 31 

Doctus sagittas tendere Sericas 
Avcu paterno ? Quis neget arduid 10 

Pronos lelabi posse rivos 

Montibus, et Tiberim rcverti, 

Quum tu ccemtos undique nobiles 
Libros Panaiti, Socraticam et domum, 

Mutare loricis Iberis, 15 

Pollicitus meliora, tendis ? 



Carmen XXX. 
AD VENEREM. 
O Venus, regina Cnidi Papliique, 
Spernc dilcctam Cypron, et vocantis 
Thure te multo Clycerce decoram 
Transfer in axlem. 

Fervidus tecum Puer, et solutia 
jrratiai zonis, properentque Nympha), 
Et parum comis sine te Juvcntas, 
Mercuriusque. 



Carmen XXXI. 
AD APOLLINEM 
Quid dedicatum poscit Apollinem 
Vates ? quid orat, de patera novum 
Fundens liquorem ? Non opimaj 
Sardiniae segetes feiaces ; 

Non sestuosa^ grata Calabriae 
Armenta ; non aurum, aut ebur Indicum 
Non rura, quae Liris quieta 

Mordet aqua, taciturnus annus 



31, 32. j CARMINUM. — LIDER I 27 

Premant Calena falcej quibus dedit 
Fortuna, vitem . dives ct aureis U) 

Mercator exsiccet culullis 
Vina Syra reparata merce ; 

Dis cams ipsis, quippc ter ct quater 
Anno revisens aequor Atlanticum 

Impune. Me pascunt olivae li 

Me cichorea, levesque malvai. 

Frui paratis et valido mihi, 
Latoe, doncs, et, prccor, intcgra 
Cum mente ; nee turpem scnectam 

Degcre, nee cithara carentem. 2C 



Carmen XXXII. 
AD LYFuAM. 
Poscimur. Si quid vacui sub umbra ' 
Lusimus tecum, quod et hunc in annum 
Vivat et plures, age, die Latinum, 
Barbite, carmen, 

Lesbio primum modulate civi ; 5 

Qui, ferox bello, tamen inter arma, 
Sive jactatam religarat udo 
Litore navim, 

Liberum et Musas, Veneremque, et illi 
Semper haerentem Puerum canebat, 10 

Et Lycum, nigris oculis nigroque 
Crine decorum. 

O decus Phcebi, et dapibus supremi 
Grata testudo Jovis, O laborum 
Dulce lenimen, mihi cunque salve 16 

Rite vocanti. 



48 U. IIORATH FIiACCI [34, 35 

Carmen XXXIV. 
AD SE IPSUM. 
Parcus Deorum cultor et infrequens, 
Insanientis dum sapiential 

Consultus erro, nunc rctrorsum 
Vela dare atque itcrare cursus 

Cogor rclictos : namque Diespitcr 6 

Tgni corusco nubila dividens 

Plerumque, per purum tonantes 
Egit equos volueremque currum , 

Quo bruta tellus, et vaga flumina, 
Quo Styx et invisi horrida Tsenari 10 

Sedes, Atlanteusque finis 

Concutitur. Valet ima sumrais 

Mutare, et insignia attenuat Deus, 
Obscura promens. Hinc apicem rapax 

Fortuna cum stridore acuto 14 

Sustulit, hie posuisse gaudet. 



Carmen XXXV. 
AD FGPwTUNAM. 
O Diva, gratum quse regis Antium, 
Praesens vel imo tollere de gradu 
Mortale corpus, vel superbos 
Vertere funeribus triumphos, 

Te pauper ambit sollicita prece, 
Ruris, colonus ; te dominam a3quorig. 
Quicimque Bithyna lacessit 
Carpathium pelagus carina 



5.] CARMINUM. — LIBEB I. 29 

Te Dacus asper, te profugi Scythae, 
Urbesque, gcntcsque, et Latium ferox, 1(3 

Regurnque matrcs barbarorum, et 
Purpurei metuunt tyra^tflj, 

Injurioso ne pede proruas 

Stantern columnam, neu popuWv frcqueiu 

Ad arma cessantes ad arma 1G 

Concitet, impcriumque fran^t. 

Te semper antcit saeva Nccessitaa, 
Clavos trabalcs et cuncos manu 
Gestans aena ; nee severus 

Uncus abest, liquidurnque plir^fv^m 20 

Te Spes, et albo rara Fid*?s colit 
Velata panno, nee comitem abnegat, 
Utcunque mutata potentes 
Veste domos inimica linquis. 

At valgus infidum et meretrix retro £6 

Perjura cedit ; difTugiunt, cadis 
Cum faece siccatis, amici 
Ferre jugum pariter dolosi. 

Serves iturum Caesarem in ultimos 
Orbis Britannos, et juvenum recens 30 

Examen Eois timendum 
Partibus, Oceanoque rubro. 

Eheu ! cicatricum et sceleris pudet 
Fratrumque — Quid nos dura refugimus 

iEtas ? quid intactum nefasti 35 

Liquimus ? unde manum juventvu 



HO a. horatii flacci [35, 36, 37 

Metu Deorura continuit ? quibus 

Pepercit aris ? O utinam nova 

Incude diffingas retusum in 

Massagetas Arabasque ferrum. 40 



Carmen XXXVI. 
AD PLOTIUM NUMIDAM 

Et thure et fidibus juvat 

Placarc et vituli sanguine debito 
Custodcs Numidne Dcos, 

Qui nunc, Hesperia sospes ab ultima, 
Caris multa sodalibus, G 

Nulli plura tamcn dividit oscula, 
Quam dulci Lamia), mcmor 

Acta) non alio rege puertia), 
Mutatreque simul togae. 

Cressa ne careat pulclira dies nota, 10 

Neu promta) modus amphora), 

Neu morem in Salium sit requies pedum, 
Neu multi Damalis meri 

Bassum Threicia vincat amystide, 
Neu desint epulis rosoe, 1/i 

Neu vivax apium, neu breve lilium. 



Carmen XXXVII. 
AD SODALES. 
Nunc est bioendum, nunc pede lihvro 
Pulsanda tellus ; nunc Saliaribus 
Oniare pulvinar deorum 

Tempus erat dapibus, sodales. 

Anteliac nelas depromere Ca;cubum 
Cellis avitis, dum Capitolio 



87.J GARMINUM. — LIBER I. HJ 

Regina dementes ruinas. 
Funus ct imperio parabat 

Contaminato cum grege turpium 
Morbo virorum, quidlibet impoten? 10 

Sperare, fortunaquc dulci 
Ebria. Scd minuit furorem 

Vix una sospes navis ab ignibus ; 
Mentcmquc lymphatam Marcotico 

Redegit in vcros timores 15 

Caisar, ab Italia volantcm 

Remis adurgcns, accipiter vclut 
Mollcs columbas, aut leporem citus 
Venator in campis nivalis 

HaemonisB ; daret ut catenis 20 

Fatale monstrum ; quos generosius 
Pciire quaerens, nee muliebriter 
Expavit ensem, nee latentes 
Classe cita reparavit oras ; 

Ausa et jaccntem visere rcgiam 25 

Vultu serene-, fortis et asperas • 
Traetare serpentes, ut atrum 
Corpore combiberet venenum ; 

Deliberata morte ferocior ; 

gaevis Liburnis scilicet invidens 80 

Privata deduci superbo 

Non humilis rnulier triurapho- 



82 Q. HORATIJ FLACCI CARMINUM. — ^lURU I [3fl 



Carmen XXXVS71. 

AD PUERUM 

Persicos odi, puer, apparatus * 
Displicent ncxse philyra corcnao 
Mitte sectari, rosa quo locorum 
Sera moretur. 

Simplici myrto nihil allabores 
Seclulus euro : ncquc te ministram 
Oedecet myrtus, ncque me sub arct 
Vite bi ben tern. 



Q. H K A T I I F L A C C I 

CAEMINUH 

LIBER SECUNDUS. 






Carmen I. 

AD ASINIUM POLLIONEM. 

Motum ex Metello consule civicum, 
Bellique causas et vitia et modos, 
Ludumque Fortunse, gravesque 
Principum amicitias, et arma 

Noudum expiatis uncta cruoribus 6 

Periculosse plenum opus alesB, 
Tractas, et incedis per ignes 
Suppositos cineri doloso. 

Paulum severse Musa tragoediae 
Desit theatris : mox, ubi publisas 1 

Res ordinaris, grande munus 
Cecropio repetes cothurno, 

Isjjigne mo3Stis prassidium reis 
Et consulenti Pollio curiae ; 

Cui laurus SBternos honores 1 5 

Dalmatico peperit triumpho. 

Jam nunc minaci murmure cornuum 
Perstringis aures, jam litui strepunt ; 
B 2 



34 Q. nORATIl FLACCI [_1,2 

Ja.ri fulgor armorum fugaces 

Turret equos equitumquc vultus 2fl 

Audire magnos jam videor duces 
Non indecoro pulvere sordidos, 
Et cuncta terrarum subacta 

Praeter atroccm animum Catonis. 

June, et deorum quisquis amieior 21 

Afris inulta cesserat impotens 
Tellure, victorum nepotes 
Rettulit inferias Jugurthce. 

Quis non Latino sanguine pinguior 
Campus sepulcris impia proelia 3i 

Testatur, auditumque Medis 
Hesperioe sonitum ruina3 ? 

Qui gurges, aut quae flumina lugubris 
Ignara belli ? quod mare Dauniae 

Non decoloravere coedes ? 35 

Quae caret ora cruore nostro ? 

Sed ne, relictis, Musa procax, jocis, 
Cea3 retractes munera namiae : 
Mecum Dionseo sub antro 

Quaere modos leviore plectro. 40 



Carmen II. 

AD SALLTJSTIUM CRISPUM. 

Nullus argento color est avaris 
Abdito terris, inimice lamnaB 
Crispe Sallusti, nisi temperato 
Splendcat usu. 



2.3.1 CARMINUM. LIBER II d. r ) 

Vivet cxtcnto Proculeius a3vo b 

Notus in fratres animi paterni : 
IlJum aget penna mctuente solvi 
Fama supcrstcs. 

Latius regnes avidum domandc 
Spiritum, quam si Libyam remotis 10 

Gadibus jungas, et utcrque Poenus 
Serviat uni. 

Crcscit indulgens sibi dirus hydrops, 
Nee sitim pellit, nisi causa morbi 
Fugerit venis, et aquosus albo 16 

Corpore languor. 

Redditum Cyri solio Phrahaten 
Dissidens plebi numero beatorum 
Eximit Virtus, populumque falsis 

Dedocet uti 20 

Vocibus ; regnum et diadema tutuni 
Deferens uni propriamque laurum, 
Quisquis ingentes oculo irretorto 
Spectat acervos 



Carmen III. 
AD DELLIUM. 
JEquam memento rebus in arduis 
Servare mentem, non secus in bonis 
Ab insolenti temperatam 
Lsstitia, moriture Delli, 

Seu moestus omni tempore vixeris, 
Seu te in remoto gramine per dies 



3fi U. HOIIATII FLACCI [3, 6 

Festos reclinatum bearis 
Intcriore nota Falerni. 



Qua pinus ingens albaque populus 
Umbram hospitalem consociarc amant 10 

Ramis, et obliquo laborat 

Lympha fugax trepidare rivo : 

Hue yina et ungucnta et iiimium ttrevis 
Flores amoenos ferre jube rosos, 

Dura res et astas et Sororum 15 

Fila trium patiuntur atra. 

Cedes coemtis saltibus, et domo, 
Villaque, flavus quam Tiberis layit 
Cedes ; et exstructis in altum 

Divitiis potietur haeres. 20 

Divesne prisco natus ab Inacho, 
Nil interest, an pauper et infima 
De gente, sub divo moreris, 
Victim a nil miserantis Orci. 

Omnes eodem cogimur : omnium 25 

V r ersatur urna serius ocius 

Sors exitura, et nos in 02ternum 
Exsilium impositura cymba5. 



Caumen VI. 

AD SEPTIMIUM. 

Septimi, Gades aditure mecura et 
Cantabrum indoctum juga ferre nostra, et 
Barbaras Syrtes, ubi Maura semper 
JEstuat unda : 



7.] C4BMINUM. — LIBER II. 37 

Tibur, Argeo positum colono, (S 

Sit mea3 Bedes utinain senecta), 
Sit modus lasso maris et viarum 
Militiaeque. 

Undo si Pares prohibent iniqua?, 
Dulce pellitis ovibus Gatosi 10 

Flumen et regnata petam Laconi 
Rura Phalanto. 

llle terrarum mihi pra>ter omnes 
Angulus ridct, ubi non Hymetto 
Mella deccdunt, viridique certat \6 

Bacca Venafro. 

Ver ubi longum tepidasque praebet 
Jupiter brumas, et amicus Aulon 
Fertili Baccho minimum Falernip. 

Invidet uvis. 20 

llle te mecum locus et beatse 
Postulant arces ; ibi tu calentem 
Debita sparges lacrima favillam 
Vatis amici. 



Carmen VII. 
AD POMPEIUM. 
O saepe mecum tempus in ultimum 
Deducte, Bruto militia3 duce, 
Quis te redonavit Quiritem 
Dis patriis Italoque coelo, 

Pompei, meorum prime sodalium ? 
Cum quo morantem sa3pe diem mero 



#8 a. HORATII FLACCI [7, 9 

Fregi, coronatus nitentes 
Malobathro Syrio capilios. 

Tecum Philippos et celcrem fugam 
Sensi, relicta non bene parmula ; 10 

Quurn fracta Virtus, et minaces 
Turpe solum tetigere mento. 

Sed me per hostes Mercurius celer 
Denso paventem sustulit acre ; 

Te rursus in bellum resorbens 16 

Unda fretis tulit aestuosis. 

Ergo obligatam redde Jovi dapem, 
Longaque fessum militia latus 
Depone sub lauru mea, nee 

Parce cadis tibi destinatis. 20 

Oblivioso levia Massico 
Ciborio cxple, funde capacibus 
TJnguenta de conchis. Quis udo 
Deproperare apio coronas 

Curat ve myrto ? quem Venus arbitrum 25 

Dicet bibendi ? Non ego sanius 
Bacchabor Edonis : reccpto 
Dulce mihi furere est amico. 



Carmen IX. 

AD VALGIUM. 

Non semper imbres nubibus hispidos 
Manant in agros, aut mare Caspium 
Vexant insequales procellsB' 
Usque, nee Armeniis in oris, 



d, 10. J CARMINUM. LIBER II. 39 

Amice Valgi, stat glacics incrs 5 

Menses per omnes ; aut Aquilonibua 
Querceta Gargani lab Grant, 
Et foliis viduanlur orni. 



Tu semper urges flebilibus modis 
Mysten ademtum ; nee tibi Vespero 1 

Surgente decedunt amores, 
Nee rapidum fugientc Solem. 

At non ter bdvo functus amabilem 
Ploravit omnes Antilochum senex 

Annos ; nee impubem parentes 16 

TroVlon, aut Phrygian sorores 

Flevere semper. Desine mollium 
Tandem querelarum ; et potius nova 
Cantemus Augusti tropaea 

Csesaris, et rigidum Niphaten ; ^JO 

Medumque flumen, gentibus additum 
Victis, minores volvere vortices ; 
Intraque pracscriptum Gelonos 
Exiguis equitare campis. 



Carmen X. 

AD LICINIUM. 

Rectius vives, Licini, neque altiim 
Semper urgendo, neque, dum procellas 
Cautus horrcscis, nimium premendo 
Litus iniquurn. 

Auream quisquis mediocritatem 
Diligit, tutus caret obsoleti 



40 Q. IIORATII FLACCI [10, 11, 

Sordibus tecti, caret invidenda 
Sobrius aula. 



Saepius ventis agitatur mgens 
Pinus, et celsse graviore casu 10 

Decidunt turres, feriuntque summos 
Fulgura montes. 

Sperat infestis, metuit secundis 
Alteram sortem bene praeparatum 
Pectus Informes hiemcs rcducit i 

Jupiter, idem 

Summovet. Non, si male nunc, et olfrn 
Sic erit. Quondam cithara tacentem 
Suscitat Musam, neque semper arcum 

Tendit Apollo. f <J0 

P„ebus angustis animosus atque 
Fortis appare : sapienter idem 
Contrahes vento nimium sccundo 
Turgida vela. 



Carmen XL 
AD QUINTIUM. 
Quid bellicosus Cantaber, et Scythes, 
Hirpine Quinti, cogitet, Hadria 
Divisus objecto, remittas 

Quaerere ; nee trepides in usum 

Poscentis aevi pauca Fugit retro 
Levis Juventas, et Djcor, arida 
Pellente lascivos aniores 
Canitie facilemque somnum. 



11,12. CAHM1MJM. — i,ii!i:i! il. H 

Non semper idem floribus est lienor 
Vcrnis ; ncque uno Luna rubens nitet 10 

Vullu : quid attends minorem 
Consiliis animum fatigas ? 

Cur non sub alta vel platano vel hac 
Pinu jacentes sic temere, et rosa 

Canos odorati capillos, 15 

Dum licet, Assyriaque nardo 

Potarnus uncti ? Dissipat Euius 
Curas edaces. Quis puer ocius 
Restinguet ardentis Falerni 
Pocula prsotereunte lympha ? 



Carmen XII. 

AD MiECENATEM. 

Nclis longa ferae bella Numantise, 
Nee dirum Hannibalem, nee Siculum maj'e 
Popno purpureum sanguine, mollibus 
Aptari cithara) modis : 

Nee saevos Lapithas, et nimium mero 5 

Hylaeum ; domitosve Herculea manu 
Telluris juvenes, unde periculum 

Fulgens contremuit domus 

Saturni veteris : tuque pedesiribus 
Dices historiis prcelia Caesaris, 10 

Maecenas, melius, ductaque per vias 
R,egum colla minacium. 

Me dulces dominae Musa Licymniae 
Cantus, me voluit dicere lucidum 



42 Q. HORATII FLACCI |_1^. 13 

Bulgentes oculos, et bene mutuis 15 

Fidum pectus amoribus : 

Quam nee ferre pedem dedecuit choris, 
Nee certare joco, nee dare brachia 
Ludentem nitidis virginibus, sacro 

Diana? Celebris die. 20 

Num tu, qme te'.iuit dives Achamrenes, 
Aut pinguis Phrygian Mygdonias opes, 
Permutp.e velis crine Licymnioe, 

Plenas aut Arabum domos ? 



Carmen XIII. 
In arborem, cujus casu paenc oppressus fue*at 
Ille et nefasto te posuit die, 
Quicunque primum, et sacrilega manu 
Produxit, arbos, in nepotum 

Perniciem, opprobriumque pagi. 

Ilium et parentis crediderim sui 

Fregisse cervicem, et penetralia 
Sparsisse nocturne- cruore 

Hospitis ; ille venena Colcha, 

Et quidquid usquam concipitur nefas 
Tractavit, agro qui statuit meo 10 

Te, triste lignum, te caducum 
In domini caput immerentis. 

Quid quisque vitet, liunquam homini satis 
Cautum est, in horas. Navita Bosporum 

Poenus perhorrescit, neque ultra 5 

f 'aeca timet aliunde fata ; 



13, 14. J CARMINUM. — LIBER II. 43 

Miles sagittas et celerem fugam 
Parthi ; catenas Parthus et Italum 
Robur : seel improvisa leti 

Vis rapuit rapietque gentes. 20 

Quam pame furvai regna Proserpina?, 
Et judicantem vidimus yEacum, 
Sedesquc discretas piorum, et 
iEoliis fidihus qucrentcm 

Sappho puellis dc popularibus, 25 

Et te sonantem plenius aureo, 
Alcace, plectro dura navis, 
Dura fuga) mala, dura belli ! 

Utrumque sacro digna silentio 

Mirantur Umbrae dicere ; sed magis 30 

Pugnas et exactos tyrannos 

Densum humeris bibit aure vulgus. 

Quid mirum ? ubi illis carminibus stupens 
Demittit atras bellua centiceps 

Aures, et intorti capillis 3*5 

Eumenidum recreantur angues ? 

Quin et Prometheus et Pelopis parens 
• Dulci laborum decipitur sono : 

Nee curat Orion leones 

Aut timidos agitare lyncas. 40 



Carmen XIV. 
AD POSTUMUM. 
Eheu ! fugaces, Postume, Postume, 
Labuntur anni ; nee pietas morara 
Rugis et instanti sencctcc 
Afleret, indomitaique morti ■ 



44 Q. HORATII FLACCI [14.15. 

Non, si trecenis, quotquot eunt dies, fi 

Aniice, places illacrimabilem 
Plutona tauris : qui ter amplum 
Geryonen Tityonque tristi 

Compescit unda, scilicet omnibus, 
Quicunque terra) munere vcscimur, 10 

Enaviganda, sive reges 
Sive inopes erimus coloni. 

Frustra crucnio Marie carebimus, 
Fractisque rauci fiuctibus Hadriae ; 

Frustra per auctumnos nocentem 15 

Corporibus metuemus Austrum : 

Visendus ater flumine languido 

Cocytos errans, et Danai genus 

Infame, damnatusque longi 

Sisyphus iEolidcs laboris. 20 

Linquenda tellus, et domus, et placens 
Uxor ; neque harum, quas colis, arborura 
Te, prater invisas cupressos, 

Ulla brevem dominum sequetur. 

Absumet haeres Caecuba dignior 29 

Servata centum clavibus, et mero # 

Tinget pavimentum superbis 
Pontificum potiore ccenis. 



Carmen XV. 
IN SUI S^ECULI LUXUEJAM 
Jam pauca aratro jugera regias 
Moles relinquent : undique latius 
Extenta visentur Lucrino 

Stagna lacu : platanusque Calebs 



15, 10. J CARMINUM. LIBUIt II. 45 

Evincet ulmoB : turn violaria, et § 

Myrtus, et omnis copia narium, 
Spargent olivetis odorem 
Fertilibus domino priori : 

Turn spissa ramis laurea fervidos 
£xcludct ictus. Non ita Romuli 10 

Prscscriptum ct intonsi Catonis 
Auspiciis, vcterumque norma. 

Privatus illis census erat brevis, 
Commune magnum : nulla decernpedis 

Metata privatis opacam 1«J 

Porticus excipiebat Arcton ; 

Nee fortuitum spernere cespitem 
Leges sinebant, oppida publico 
Sumtu jubentes et deorum 

Templa novo decorare saxo. EO 



Carmen XVI. 

AD GROSPHUM. 
Otium divos rogat impotenti 
Pressus iEgaeo, simul atra nubes 
Condidit Lunam, neque certa fulgent 
Sidera nautis : 

Otium bello furiosa Thrace, ^ 

Otium Medi pharetra decori, 
Grosphe, non gemmis neque purpura vs> 
nale neque auro. 

Non enim gazse neque consulaiis 
Summovet lictor miseros tumultus 10 

Mentis, v t curas laqueata circum 
'Fecta volantes 



40 a. HORATU FLACC[ ' lfi 

Vlvitur parvo bene, cui paternum 
Splendet in mensa tenui salinum, 
Nee leves somnos timor aut cupido 1 § 

Sordidus aufert. 

Quid brevi fortes jaculamur aov.i 
Multa ? quid terras alio calentes 
Sole mutamus ? Patriae quis exsul 

Se quoque fugit ? 20 

Scandit oeratas vitiosa naves 
Cura, nee turmas equitum relinquit, 
Ocior cervis, et agente nimbos 
Ocior Euro. 

Laetus in prsesciis animus, quod ultra 3st, 25 

Oderit curare, et amara lento 
Temperet risu. Nihil est ab omui 
Parte beatum. 

Abstulit clarum cita mors Achillem, 
Longa Tithonum minuit senectus ; 30 

Et mihi forsan, tibi quod negarit, 
Porriget hora. 

Te greges centum Siculaeque circum 
Mugiunt vaccee ; tibi tollit hinnitum 
Apta quadrigis equa ; te bis Afro 36 

Murice tinctas 

Vestiunt lanae : mihi parva rura, et 
Spiritum Graiae tenuem Camense 
Parca non mendax dedit, et malign um 

Spernere vulgus. 40 



17.1 CAlJiiNUM. — LCBISR II. 4- 

Carmen XVII. 
AD M^ECENATEM. 
Cur mc querelis cxanimas tuis ? 
Nee Dis amicum est, nee mihi, te pirns 
Obire, Maecenas, mearum 

Grande decus eolumenque rerum. 

Ah ! te meac si partem animae rapit ft 

Maturior vis, quid moror altera, 
Nee carus aeque, nee superstes 
Integer ? Ille dies utramque 

Ducet ruiuam. Non ego perfidum 
Dixi sacramentum : ibimus, ibimus, 

Utcunque praeccdes, supremum 
Carpere iter comites parati. 

Me nee Chimaerse spiritua igneae, 
Nee, si resurgat, ccntimanus Gyas 

Divellet unquam : sic potenti 15 

Justitice placitumque Parcis. 

Seu Libra, seu me Scorpios adspicit 
Formidolosus, pars violentior 
Natalis horae, seu tyr annus 

Hesperiae Capricornus undae, 20 

Utrumque nostrum incredibili modo 
Consentit astrum. Te Jo vis irapio 
Tutela Saturno refulgens 
Eripuit, volucrisque Fati 

Tarda vit alas, quum populus frequens 25 

Laetum theatris ter crepuit sonum : 



48 a. iioratii flacgi [17, 16. 

Me truncus illapsus cerebro 
Sustulerat, nisi Faunus ictum 



Dextra levasset, Mercurialiuru 
Custos virorum. Heddere victimas 30 

^Edemque votivam memento : 
Nos humilem feriemus agnam. 



Carmen XVIII. 
Non ebur neque aureum 

Mea renidet in domo lacunar ; 
Non trabes Hymettiae 

Premunt columnas, ultima recisas 
Africa ; neque Attali o 

Ignotus hscres regiam occupavi ; 
Nee Laconicas mihi 

Trahunt honestsB purpuras clicntae. 
At fides et ingeni 

Benigna vena est ; pauperemque dives 1 

Me petit : nihil supra 

Deos lacesso ; nee potentem amicum 
Largiora flagito, 

Satis beatus unicis Sabinis. 
Truditur dies die, 16 

Novoeque pergunt interire Lunse : 
Tu secanda marmora 

Locas sub ipsum funus ; et, sepulcri 
Immemor, struis domos ; 

Marisque Baiis obstrepentis urges 80 

Summovere litora, 

Parum locuples continente ripa. 
Quid ? quod usque proximos 

Revellis agri terminos, et ultra 
Limites clientium 2q 

Salis avarus ; pellitur paternos 



18, 19. I CARM.INUM. LIHEK II. 49 

In smu fcrcns Dcos 

Et uxor, et vir, sordidosquc natos. 
Nulla certior tamen, 

Rapacis Orci fine destinata 30 

Aula divitem manet 

Herum. Quid ultra tendis ? JE qua tell us 
Pauperi recluditur 

Regumque pueris : nee satelles Orci 
Callidum Promethea 35 

Revexit auro captus. Hie superbum 
Tantalum, atque Tantali 

Genus coercet ; hie levare functum 
Pauperem laborious 

Vocatus atque non moiatus audit. 40 



Carmen XIX. 
IN BACCHUM. 
Bacchum in remotis carmina rupibus 
Vidi docentem (credite posteri !) 
Nymphasque discentes, et aures 
Capripedum Satyrorum acutas. 

Euo3 ! recenti mens trepidat metu, 

Plenoque Bacchi pectore turbidum 
Lestatur ! Euce ! parce, Liber ! 
Parce, gravi metuende thyrso ! 

Fas pervicaces est mihi Thyiadas, 
Vinique fontem, lactis et uberes 10 

Cantare rivos, atque truncis 
Lapsa cavis iterarc mslla- 

Fag et beata3 conjugis additum 
Steilis honorem, tectaque P ntksj 
C 



50 a HORATII FLACCI [19,20 

Disjecta non leni ruina, 13 

ThracJs et exitium Lvcurui. 



Tu rlectis amnes, tu mare barbarum ' 
Tu separatis uvidus in jugis 
Nodo coerces viperino 

Bistonidum sine fraude crincs. 20 

Tu, quum parentis rcgna per arduurn 
Cohors Gigantum scanderet impia. 
Rhoetum retorsisti leonis 

Unguibus horribilique mala : 

Quamquam, choreis aptior et jocis 25 

Ludoque dictus, non sat idoneus 
Pugme ferebaris ; sed idem 
Pacis eras mediusque belli. 

Te vidit insons Cerberus aureo. 
Cornu decorum, leniter atterens 80 

Caudam, et recedentis trilingui 
Ore pedes tetigitque crura. 



Carmen XX. 
AD M^ECENATEM. 

Non usitata, non tenui ferar 
Penna biformis per liquidum asthera 
Vates : neque in terris morabor 
Longius ; invidiaque major 

Urbes relinquam. Non ego pauper um 
Sanguis parentum, non ego, quem vocaa 
Dilecte, Maecenas, obibo, 
Nee Stygia cohibebor imda, 



2*1 | CARMINUM. — LIPF.lt II. 51 

Jam jam residunt cruribus asperaa 
Pellcs ; ct album mutor in alitem 1C 

Supcrna ; nascunturque leves 
Per digitos humerosquc plumao. 

Jam Daxlalco notfor Icaro 
Visam gcmentis litora Bospori, 

Syrtcsque Gaitulas canorus 1 

Ales Hyperboreosque campos. 

Me Colchus, et, qui dissimulat metum 
Marsse cohortis, Dacus, et ultimi 
Noscent Geloni : me peritus 

Discet Iber, Rhodanique potor. Sf"C 

Absirit inani funere naenia?, 
Luctusque turpes et qucrimoniao . 
Compesce clamorem, ac sepulcri 
Mitte eupervacuos honorcs. 



Q. HOBATII 1' LAC CI 

CAEMINUM 

LIBER TERTIUS. 



Carmen I. 

Odi profanum vulgus et arcco : 
Favete lingiiis : carmina non prius 
Audita Musarum sacerdos 
Virginibus puerisque canto. 

Regum tirnendorurn in proprios grcges, I 

Reges in ipsos imperium est Jovis, 
Clari Giganteo triumpho, 
Cuncta supcrcilio moventis. 

Est ut viro vir latius ordinet 

Arbusta sulcis ; hie generosior . 

Descendat in Campum petitor ; 
Moribus hie meliorque fama 

Contendat ; illi turba clientium 
Sit major : aequa lege Necessitas 

Sortitur insignes et imos ; 16 

Omne capax movet urna nomen 

Destrictus ensis cui super impia 
Cervice pendet, non Siculae dapes 
Dulcem elaborabunt saporem, 

Non avium citharsBve cantus 2Q 



• ] Q. BORATII PLACCI OAEMINUM. — LIBER III. 53 

Somnum rcduccnt. Somnus agrestiurn 
Lenis virorum non humilcs domos 
Fastidit, umbrosamve ripam, 
Non Zephyris agitata Tempo. 

Desiderantem quod satis est nequo 25 

Tumultuosum sollicitat mare, 
Nee ssdvus Arcturi cadentis 
Impetus, aut orientis ILedi ; 

Non verberata) grandine vines, 
Fundusve mendax, arbore nunc aqv.aa JJU 

Culpante, nunc torrentia agrcs 
Sidera nunc hiemes iniquas. 

Contracta pisces a?quora sentiunt 
Jactis in altum molibus : hue frequens 

Caementa demittit redemtor 3fl 

Cum famulis, dominusque terraB 

Fastidiosus : sed Timor et Minas 
Scandunt eodem, quo dominus ; neque 
Decedit serata triremi, et 

Post equitem sedet atra Cura. 40 

Quod si dolentem nee Phrygius lapis, 
Nee purpurarum sidere clarior 
Delenit usus, nee Falerna 

Vitis, Achsemeniumve costum ; 

Cur invidendis postibus et novo 45 

Sublime ritu moliar atrium ? 
Cur valle permutem Sabina 
Divitias operosif jes ? 



54 Q. HORATII FLACCI [2, 

Carmen II. 
Angustam amice pauperiem pati 
Robustus acri militia puer 
Condiscat ; et Parthos feroces 
Vexet eques metuendus hasta : 

Vitamque sub divo trepidis agat 5 

In rebus. Ilium et moembus hosticis 
Matrona bellantis tyranni 
Prospicieus et adulta virgo 

Suspiret : Eheu ! ne rudis agrniiium 
Sponsus lacessat regius asperum 10 

Tactu leonem, quern cruenta 
Per medias rapit ira caedes. 

Dulce et decorum est pro patria mon : 
Mors et fugacem persequitur virum, 

Nee parcit imbellis juventa) 1»*» 

Poplitibus timidoque tergc . 

Virtus, repulssB nescia sordidai, 
Intaminatis fulget honoribus : 
Nee sumit aut ponit secures 

Arbitrio popular is aurre. 20 

Virtus, recludens immeritis mon 
Ccelum, negata tentat iter via : 
Coetusque vulgares et udam 
Spernit humum fugiente peuna. 

Est et fideli tuta silentio 2S 

Merces : vetabo, qui Cereris sacrum 
Vulgarit arcanse, sub isdem 

Sit trabibus, fragilemve mecum 



8-j 3.] (,'AKMINUM. — LIBER 111. 55 

Soivat phaselon. Sa^pe Dicspiter 
Neglectus inccsto addidit integrum ; ;0 

Raro antcccdentcm scelostum 
Dcseruit pede Poena claudo. 



Carmen III. 
Justum ac tenacem propositi virum 
Non civium ardor prava jubentiunij 
Non vultus instantis tyraruii 

Mente quatit solida, nequ<3 Auster, 

Dux inquieti turbidus Hadrian, fi 

Nee fulminantis magna manns Jovis : 
Si fractus illabatur orbis, 
Impavidum ferient ruinae. 

Hac arte Pollux et vagus Hercules 
Enisus arces attigit igneas : 10 

Quos inter Augustus recumbens 
Purpureo bibit ore nectar. 

Hac te merentem, Bacche pater, tuaa 
Vexere tigres, indocili jugum 

Collo trahentes ; hac Quirinus 15 

Martis equis Aclieronta fugit, 

Gratum elocuta consiliantibus 
Junone divis : Ilion, Ilion 
Fatalis incestusque judex 

Et mulier peregrina vertit 20 

In puiverem, ex quo destituit deos 
Mercede pacta Laomedon, mihi 
Castaeque damnatum Minervae 
Cum populo et duce fraudulento. 



56 Q. HORATII FLACi^I [3 

Jam nee Lacrense splendet adult eras 26 

Famosus hospes, nee Priami domus 
rerjura pugnaces Achivos 
Hectoreis opibus refringit, 

Nostrisque ductum seditionibus 
Bellum resedit. Protinus et graves 30 

Iras, et invisum nepotem, 
Troi'a quem peperit sacerdos, 

Marti redonabo. Ilium ego lucidas 
Inire sedes, diseere nectaris 

Succos, et adscribi quictis 3t> 

Ordiuibus patiar deorum. 

Dum longus inter saiviat Ilion 
Romamque pontus, qualibet exsulee 
In parte regnauto beati : 

Dum Priami Paridisque busto 40 

lnsultet armentum, et catulos ferae 
Celent inultae, stet Capitolium 
Fulgens, triumphatisque possit 
Roma ferox dare jura Medis. 

Hoirenda late nomen in ultimas 46 

Extendat oras, qua medius liquor 
Secernit Europen ab Afro, 

Qua tumidus rigat arva Nilus ■ 

Aurum irrepertum, et sic melius situm 
Quum terra celat, spernere fortior, 60 

Quam cogere humanos in usus 
Omne sacrum rapiento dextra. 



3 4 J CaRMINUM. LIBER III. 57 

Quicunquc mundo terminus obstitit 
Hunc tangat armis, visere gestiens, 

Qua parte debacchantur ignes, 55 

Qua nebula? pluviique rores. 

Sed bellicosis fata Quiritibus 
Hac lege dico ; ne nimium pii 
Rebusque fidentes avitae 

Tecta velint repararc Trojae. CO 

Troja3 renascens alite lugubri 
Fortuna tristi clade iterabitur, 
Ducente victrices catervas 
Conjuge me Jovis et sorore. 

Ter si resurgat murus aeneus 66 

Auctore Phocbo, ter pereat meis 
Excisus Argivis ; ter uxor 

Capta virum puerosque ploret. 

Non haec jocosa? conveniunt lyra3 : 
Quo Musa tendis ? Desine pervicax 70 

Referre sermones deorum, et 
Magna modis tenuare parvis. 



Carmen IV. 
AD CALLIOPEN. 
Descende cobIo, et die age tibia, 
Regina, longum, Calliope, melos, 
Seu voce nunc mavis acuta, 
Seu fidibus citbaraque Phosbi 

Auditis ? an me ludit amabilis 
Insania ? Audire et videor pios 
C 2 



68 Q. H0RAT1I FLACCI [4 

Errare per lucos, amcense 

Quos et aquae subeunt at aura.-. 

Me iabulosae, Vulture in Apulo 
Altricis extra limen Apuliae, 10 

Ludo fatigatumque somno 

Fronde nova puerum palumbes 

Texere : mirum quod foret omnibus, 
Quicunque celsa3 nidum Acherontiae, 

Saltusque Bantinos, et arvum 16 

Pingue tenent humilis Forenti ; 

Ut tuto ab atris corpore viperis 
Dormirem et ursis ; ut premerer sacra 
Lauroque collataque myrto, 

Non sine Dis animosus infans. 20 

Vester, Camena?, vester in arduos 
Tollor Sabinos ; sou mihi frigidum 
Praeneste, scu Tibur supinum, 
Seu liquidae placuere Baiae. 

Vestris amicum fontibus et choris 25 

Non me Philippis versa acies retro. 
Devota non exstinxit arbor, 
Nee Sicula Palinurus unda. 

Utcunque mecum vos eritis, libens 
Insanientem, navita, Bosporum 30 

Tentabo, et urentes arenas 
Litoris Assyrii viator. 

Visam Britannos hospitibus feros, 

Et lsetum equino sanguine Concanum , 



4. J CARM1NUM. LIBER III 5JJ 

Visam pharetralos Gclonos 35 

Et Scythicum inviolatus amnem. 



Vos Caesarem altum, militia simul 
Fessas cohortes atldidit oppidis, 
Finire qua^rentem labores, 

Picrio recrcatis antro : 40 

Vos lene consilium ct datis, et dato 
Gaudetis almse. Scimus, ut impios 
Titanas immanemque turmam 
Fulmine sustulerit corusco, 

Qui terrain inertem, qui mare temperat 45 

Ventosum ; et umbras rcgnaque tristia, 
Divosque, mortalesque turbas 
Imperio regit unus aequo. 

Magnum ilia terrorem intulerat Jovi 
Fidens, juventus horrida, brachiis, 60 

Fratresque tendentes opaco 
Pelion imposuisse Olympo. 

Sed quid Typhtieus et validus Mimas, 
Aut quid minaci Porphyrion statu, 

Quid Rhcetus, evulsisque truncis 56 

Enceladus jaculator audax, 

Contra sonant em Palladis 93gida 
Possent ruentes ? Hinc avidus stetit 
Vulcanus, hinc matrona Juno, et 

Nunquam humeris positurus arcum, 60 

Qui rore puro Castaliae lavit 
Crines solutos, qui Lyciaa tenet 



60 a. HORATII FLACCI [4., 5. 

Dumeta natalemque silvam, 
Delius et Patareus Apollo. 

Vis consili expers mole ruit sua ; 5JJ 

Vim tcmperatam Di quoque provehunt 
In majus ; idem odere vires 
Omne nefas animo moventes. 

Testis mearum centimanus Gyas 
Sententiarum, notus et Integra 70 

Tentator Orion Dianae 
Virginea domitus sagitta. 

Injecta monstris Terra dolet suis, 
Maeretque partus fulmine luridum 

Missos ad Orcum : nee peredit 76 

Impositam celer ignis JEtnen ; 

Incontinentis ncc Tityi jecur 
Relinquit ales, nequitiae additus 
Custos : amatorem et trecentae 

Pirithoum cohibent catenae. 80 



Carmen V. 

Coelo tonantem credidimus Jovem 
Regnare : prassens divus habebitur 
Augustus, adjectis Britannia 
Imperio gravibusque Persis. 

Milesne Crassi conjuge barbara 
Turpis mantus vixit ? et hostium — ■ 
Proh Curia, inversique mores ! — 
Consenuit socerorum in arvis, 



6.] CAkMINUM. LIBEB Jn . (J, 

Sub rcgc Medo, Marsus et Apulus ! 
Anciliorum et nominis ct toga) 10 

Oblitus tcternacquc Vestae, 

Incolumi Jove et urbc Iloma 'i 

Hoc caverat mens provida Reguli, 
Dissentientis conditionibus 

Foedis, et exemplo trahenti 15 

Perniciem veniens in aevum, 

Si non perirent immiserabilis 
Captiva pubes. " Signa ego Punicia 
Affixa delubris, et arma 

Militibus sine caxle," dixit, 20 

"Derepta vidi : vidi ego civium 
Retorta tergo brachia libero, 
Portasque non clausas, et arva 
Marte coli populata nostro. 

Auro repensus scilicet acrior 26 

Miles redibit ! Flagitio additis 
Damnum. Neque amissos colores 
Lana refert medicata fuco, 

Nee vera virtus, quum semel excidit, 
Curat reponi deterioribus. 30 

Si pugnet extricata densis 
Cerva plagis, erit ille fortis, 

Qui perfidis se credidit hostibus ; 
Et Marte Pcenos proteret altero, 

Qui lora restrictis lacertis 35 

Sensit iners, timuitque rrortem 



t52 U. ilORATH FLACCI [5,6 

Hinc, und s vitam sumeret aptius : 
Pacem et duello miscuit. O pudor ! 
O magna Carthago, probrosis 

Altior Italise minis !" — 4C 

Fertur pudicae conjugis osculum, 
Parvosque natos, ut capitis minor, 
Ab se removisse, et virilem 
Torvus humi posuisse vultum ; 

Donee labantes consilio Patres 46 

Firmaret auctor nunquam alias dato, 
Interque mo3rentes amicos 
Egregius properaret exsul. 

Atqui sciebat, quas sibi barbarus 
Tortor pararet ; non aliter tamen 50 

Dimovit obstantes propinquos, 
Et populum reditus morantem, 

Quam si clientum longa negotia 
2)ijudicata lite relinqueret, 

Tendens Venafranos in agros, 65 

Aut Lacedsemonium Tarentum. 



Carmen VI. 

AD ROMANOS. 

Delicta majorum immeritus lues, 
Romane, donee templa refeceris, 
iEdesque labentes deorum, et 
Feed a nigro simulacra fumo. 

Dis te minorem quod geris, imperas : 
Hinc omne principium, hue refer exitum. 



0.] OAUMINUM. — LIBER III. GJ 

Di multa neglecti declarant 
Hespericc mala luctuosac. 

Jam bis Monoeses et Pacori manus 
Non auspicatos contudit impetus 

Nostros, et adjecisse prsedam 
Torquibus exiguis renidet. 

Psene occupatam scditionibus 
Delevit Urbem Daeus et iEthiops ; 

Hie classe formidatus, ille Ifl 

Missilibus melior sagittis. 

Fecunda culpa) sa)cula nuptias 
Primum inquinavere, et genus, et domos ; 
Hoc fonte derivata clades 

In patriam populumque fluxit. 20 

Non his juventus orta parentibus 
Infecit a3quor sanguine Punico, 
Pyrrhumque et ingentem cecidit 
Antiochum, Hannibalemque dirum ; 

Sed rusticorum mascula militum 25 

Proles, Sabellis docta ligonibus 
Versare glebas, et severss 
Matris ad arbitrium recisos 

Portare fustes, sol ubi montium 
Mutaret umbras, et juga demeret 30 

Bobus fatigatis, amicum 

Tempus agens abeunte curru. 

Damnosa quid non immimjit dies ! 
^Itas parentum, pejor avis, tulit 



64 Q. IIORATll FLACC1 [6,8 

Nos nequiores, mox daturos 35 

Projreniem vitiosiorem. 



Carmen VIII, 
AD MiECENATEM. 

Martiis caelebs quid agam Kalendis, 
Quid vclint flores et acerra thuris 
Plena, miraris, positusque carbo 
Cespite vivo, 

Docte sermones utriusque linguae ? 

Voveram dulccs epulas et album 
Libero caprum, prope funeratus 
Arboris ictu. 

Hie dies anno redcunte festus 
Corticem adstrictum pice demovebil IP 

Amphora) fumum bibere instituta) 
Consule Tulio. 

Sume, Maecenas, cyathos amici 
Sospitis centum, et vigiles lucernas 
Perfer in lucem : procul omnis esto 15 

Clamor et ira. 

Mitte civiles super Urbe curas 
Occidit Daci Cotisonis agmen . 
Medus infestus sibi luctuosis 

Dissidet armis : 20 

Servit Hispanae vetus hostis orae, 
Cantaber, sera domitus catena : 
Jam Scythae laxo meditantur arcu 
Cedere campis. 



8,9.] CARMINUM. — L HER III 65 

Negligcns, ne qua populus laboret 2m 

Parte, privatim nimium cavere, 
Dona praescntis cape la3tus horae, et 
Linque severa. 



Carmen IX. 
CARMEN AMGEBjEUM 

HoRATIUS. 

Donee gratus cram tibi, 

Nee quisquam potior bracbia candidse 
Cervici juvenis dabat, 

rersarum vinui re^e beatior. 



n v 



Lydia. 
Donee non aliam magis 5 

Arsisti, neque erat Lydia post Chloen, 
Multi Lydia nominis 

Romana vigui clarior Ilia. 

HORATIUS. 

Me nunc Thressa Chloe regit, 

Dulces docta modos, et citharae sciens :. 10 

Pro qua non metuam mori, 

Si parcent animse fata superstiti. 

Lydia. 
Me torret face mutua 

Thurini Calais films Ornyti : 
Pro quo bis patiar mori, 16 

Si parcent puero fata superstiti. 

HORATIUS. 

Quid ? si prisca redit Venus, 
Diductosque jugo cogit aeneo ? 



66 a HORATII FLACCI ^9, 1 1 

Si flava excutitur Chloe, 

Rejectoeque patet janua Lydia3 ? 20 

Lydia. 
Quamquam siderc pulchrior 

Ille est, tu levior cortice, et improbo 
Iracundior Hadria ; 

Tecum vivere amcm, tecum obeam libeus 



Carmen XI. 
AD L Y D E N. 

Mercuri, nam te docilis magistro 
Movit Amphion lapides canendo, 
Tuque, testudo, resonare septem 
Callida ncrvis, 

Nee loquax olim neque grata, nunc et 

Divitum mensis et arnica templis, 
Die modos, Lyde quibus obstinatas 
Applicet aures. 

Tu potes tigres comitesque silvas 
Ducere, et rivos celeres morari ; \0 

Cessit immanis tibi blandienti 
Janitor aula?, 

Cerberus, quamvis furiale centum 
Muniant angues caput, aestuetque 
Spiritus toter, saniesque manet 13 

Ore trilingui. 

Qum et Ixion Tityosque vultu 
Risit invito : stetit urna paulum 
Sicca, dum grato Danai puellas 

Carmine mulce?. 20 



11.] CARMINIJM. LIBER III. G7 

Audiat Lytic scclus atque notas 
Virginum poDiias, ct inane lymphae 
Dolium fundo pcrcnnlis imo, 
Seraqne fata, 

Quod inanent culpas eliam sub Oreo 25 

Impiae, nam quid potuere majus ? 
Trnpiae sponsos potuere duro 
Perdere ferro. 

Una de multis, face nuptiali 

Digna, perjurum fuit in parentem 30 

Splendide mendax, et in omne virgo 
Nobilis ajvum ; 

" Surge," quae dixit juveni marito, 
" Surge, ne longus tibi somnus, unde 
Non times, detur : socerum et scelestas 35 

Falle sorores ; 

Qua3, velut nactse vitulos lesenae, 
Singulos, eheu ! lacerant. Ego, illis 
Mollior, nee te feriam, neque intra 

Claustra tenebo. 40 

Me pater saevis oneret catenis, 
Quod viro clemens misero peperci ; 
Me vel extremos Numidarum in agros 
Classe releget. 

I, pedes quo te rapiunt et auras, 45 

Dum favet nox et Venus : I secundo 
Omino ; et nostri memorem sepulcro 
Scalpe querelam." 



t38 a. HORATIl FLACCI [12, 13. 

Carmen XII. 
AD NEOBULEN 
Miserarum est, neque Amori dare ludun , neque dulci 
Mala vino lavere : ant exanimari metuentes 
Patruaa verbera linguae. Tibi qualura Cythereae 
Puer ales, tibi telas, operosaeque Minervae 
Studium aufert, Neobule, Liparei nitor Hebri, 6 

Simul unctos Tiberinis humeros lavit in undis, 
Eques ipso melior Bellerophonte, neque pugno 
Ncque segni pede victus : catus idem per apertum 
Fugientes agitato grege cervos jaculari, et 
Celer alto latitantem fruticeto excipere aprum. 10 



Carmen XIII. 
*£D FONTEM BANDUSIUM. 
O fons Bandusiae, splendidior vitro, 
Dulci digne mero, non sine floribus. 
Cras donaberis haedo, 

Cui frons turgida cornibus 

Primis, et Venerem et prcelia desiinal : A 

Frustra : nam gelidos inficiet tibi 
Rubro sanguine rivos 
Lascivi suboles gregis. 

Te flagrantis atrox hora CaniculaB 
Nescit tangere : tu frigus amabile 

Fessis vomere tauris 10 

Praebes, et pecori vago. 

Fies nobilium tu quoque fontium, 
Me dicente cavis impositam ilicem 

Saxis, unde loquaces 15 

Lymphae desiliunt tuae. 



14.] CARMINUM. LIBER III. 69 

Carmen XIV. 

AD ROMANO S. 

Herculis ritu modo dictus, O Plebs ! 
Mortc venalem petiisse laurum, 
Ca3sar Ilispana rcpetit Penates 
Victor ab ora. 

Unico gaudens mulier marito 5 

Prodeat, justis operata divis ; 
Et soror clari ducis, et decora) 
Supplice vitta 

Virginum matres, juvenumque nuper 
Sospitum. Vos, O pueri, et puellae 10 

Jam virum expertes, male nominatis 
Parcite verbis. 

Hie dies vere mini festus atras 
Eximet curas : ego nee tumultum, 
Nee mori per vim metuam, tenente 15 

Csesare terras. 

I, pete unguentum, puer, et coronas, 
Et cadum Marsi memorem duelli, 
Spartacum si qua potuit vagantem 

Fallere testa. 20 

Die et argutae properet Neaerae 
Myrrheum nodo cohibere crinem : 
Si per in visum mora janitorem 
Fiet, abito. 

Lemt albescens animos capillus 25 

Liu urn et rixa> cupidos proteiva) : 



70 a. HORATII FLACC1 [14,16 

Non ego hoc ferrem, calidus juventa 
Consule Planco. 



Carmen XVI. 
AD INLECENATEM. 
Inclusam Danaeii turris aenea, 
Robustaeque fores, et vigilum caimm 
Tristes excubias munierant satis 
Nocturnis ab adulteris, 

Si non Acrisium, Virginia abditaB 8 

Custodem pavidum, Jupiter et Venus 
Risissent : fore enim tutum iter et patens 
Converso in pretium deo. 

Aurum per medios ire satellites, 
Et perrumpere amat saxa potentius 10 

Tctu fulmineo ! Concidit auguris 
Argivi domus, ob lucrum 

Demersa exitio. DifEdit urbium 
Portas vir Macedo, et subruit semulos 
Reges muneribus ; munera navium 15 

Saevos illaqueant duces. 

Crescentem sequitur cura pecuniam, 
Majorumque fames. Jure perhorrui 
Late conspicuum tollere verticem. 

Maecenas, equitum decus ! 20 

Quanto quisque sibi plura negaverit, 
Ab Dis plura feret. Nil cupientium 
Nudus castra peto, et transfuga divitum 
Partes linquere gestio ; 



lf>, 17. | CARMINL'M. LIBER III. 7] 

Contemtte dominus splenaidior rei, 2D 

Quam si, quidquid arat impiger Apulus, 
Occultare mcis dicerer horrcis, 
Magnas inter opes inops. 

Purse rivus aquae, silvaque jugcrum 
Paucorum, et segetis certa fides meae, 30 

Fulgentem impcrio fertilis Africcc 
Fallit. Sorte beatior, 

Quamquam nee Calabrce mella ferunt apes, 
Nee Lasstrygonia Bacchus in amphora 
Languescit raihi, ncc pinguia Gallicis 36 

Crescunt vellera pascuis, 

Importuna tamen pauperies ahest ; 
Nee, si piura velim, tu dare deneges. 
Contracto melius parva cupidine 

Vectigalia porrigam, 40 

«■ 

Quam si Mygdoniis regnum Alyattei 
Campis continuem. Multa petentibus 
Desunt multa. Bene est, cui Deus obtulit 
Parca, quod satis est, manu. 



Carmen XVII. 
aD ^ELIUM LAMIAM. 
iEli, vetusto nobihs ab Lamo, 
[Quando et priores hinc Lamias ferunt 
Denominatos, et nepotum 

Per memores genus omne fastos 

Auctore ab illo ducit originem,] 5 

Qui Forrniarum moenia dicitur 



72 a. HORATII FLACCI 17.18 

Prin :eps et innantem Maricao 
Litoribus tenuisse Lirim, 

Late tyramius : eras foliis nemut 
Multis et alga litus inutili 10 

Demissa tempestas ab Euro 
Sternet, aquae nisi fallit augur 

Amiosa comix. Dum potis, aridum 
Compone lignum : eras Genium mero 

Curabis et porco bimestri, 15 

Cum famulis operum solutis. 



Carmen XVIII. 

AD FAUNUM. 
Faune, Nympharum fugientum amaior, 
Per meos fines et aprica rura 
Lenis incedas, abeasque parvis 
iEquus alumnis, 

5si tener pleno cadit hsedus anno, !i 

Larga nee desunt Veneris sodali 
Vina craterse, vetus ara multo 
Fumat odore. 

Ludit herboso pecus omne campo, 
Quum tibi Nonas redeunt Decembrcs : ! 

Festus in pratis vacat otioso 
Cum bove pagus : 

Inter audaces lupus errat agnos ; 
Spargit agrestes tibi silva frondes ; 
Gaudet invisam pepulisse fossor Ifi 

Ter pede terram. 



J9. | CAKMINUM. LIBER III Jl] 



Carmen XIX. 
AD TELETIIUM. 

Quantum distct ab Inacho 

Codrus, pro patria non timidus mori ; 
Narras, et genus JEnci, 

Et pugnata sacro bella sub Ilio : 
Quo C hium pretio cadum £ 

Merccmur, quis aquam temperet ignibus 
Quo praebente domum ct quota 

Pelignis carcam frigoribus, taccs. 
Da Luna3 propcre nova?, 

Da Noctis mediae, da, puer, auguris 10 

Murcnac : tribus aut novem 

Miscentor cyathis pocula commodis. 
Qui Musas amat imparcs, 

Ternos ter cyathos attonitus petet 
Vates : tres prohibet supra 15 

Rixarum metuens tangere Gratia, 
Nudis juncta sororibus. 

Insanirc juvat : cur Berecyntiai 
Cessant flamina tibiae ? 

Cur pendet tacita fistula cum lyra ? 20 

Parcentes ego dexteras 

Odi : sparge rosas ; audiat invidus 
Dementem strepitum Lycus 

Et vicina seni non habilis Lyco. 
Spissa te nitidum coma, 25 

Puro te similem, Telepbe, Vespero, 
Tempestiva petit Rhode : 

Me lentus Glycerae torret amor meaj. 



74 a. HORATII FLACCI [21 



Carmen XXI. 
AD AMPHORAM. 
O nata mecum consule Maiilio, 
Seu tu querelas, sive geris jocos, 
Seu rixam et insanos amores, 

Seu facilem pia, Testa, somnum ; 

Quocunque laetum nomine Massicum 6 

Servas, moveri digna bono die, 
Descende, Corvino jubente 
Promere languidiora vina. 

Non ille, quamquam Socraticis madet 
Sermonibus, te negliget horridus : 10 

Narratur et prisci Catonis 
Ssepe mero caluisse virtus. 

Tu lene tormentum ingenio admoves 
Plerumque duro : tu sapientium 

Curas et arcanum jocoso 15 

Consilium retegis Lya:o : 

Tu spem reducis mentibus anxiis 
Viresque : et addis cornua pauperi, 
Post te neque iratos trementi 

Regum apices, neque militum arma 20 

Te Liber, et, si laeta aderit, Venus, 

Segnesque nodum solvere Gratia?, 

Vivasque producent lucemae, 

Dum rediens fugat astra Phoebus. 



23,24] CARMINUM. — LIBER III. 70 



Carmen XXIII. 

AD rillDYLEN. 

Ccelo Bupinas si tulcris manus 
Nasccnte Luna, rustica Phidyle, 
Si tliure placaris ct horna 

Fruge Lares, avidaque porca . 

Nee pestilentern sentiet Africum o 

Fecunda vitis, nee sterilem seges 
Robigincm, aut dulces alumni 
romifero grave tempus ann<? 

Nam, quae nivali pascitur Algido 
Devota quercus inter et iliccs, 10 

Aut crescit Albanis in herbis, 
Victima, pontificum secunm 

Cervice tinget. Te nihil attinet 
Tentare multa caede bidentium 

Parvos coronantem marino 16 

Itoro deos fragilique myrto. 

Immunis aram si tetigit manus, 
Non sumtuosa blandior hostia 
Mollivit aversos Penates 

Farre pio et saliente mica. 20 



Carmen XXIV. 

lataetis opulentior 

Thesauris Arabum et divitis Indus, 
Csementis licet occupes 

Tyrrhenum omne tuis et mare Apulicum s 



7B a. IIORATII FLACCI [24. 

Si figit adamantinos *> 

Summis verticibus dira Neccssitas 
Clavos, non animum metu, 

Non mortis laqueis expedies caput 
Campestres melius Scythae, 

Quorum plaustra vagas rite trahuut domos 10 

Vivunt, et rigidi Getae, 

Immetata quibus jugera liberas 
Fruges et Cererem ferunt, 

Nee cultura placet longior annua ; 
Defunctumque laboribus 15 

iEquali recreat sorte vicarius. 
Illic matre carentibus 

rrivignis mulier temperat innocens : 
Nee dotata regit virum 

Conjux, nee nitido fidit adultero. 20 

Dos est magna parentium 

Virtus, et metuens alterius viri 
Certo foedere castitas, 

Et peccare nefas, aut pretium emori. 
O quis, quis volet impias 25 

Cacdes et rabiem tollere civicam ? 
Si quaeret Pater Urbium 

Subscribi statuis, indomitam audeat 
Kcfrenare licentiam, 

Clarus postgenitis : quatenus, heii nefas ! 30 

Virtutem incolumem odimus, 

Sublatam ex oculis quairimus invidi. 
Quid tristcs querimoniae, 

Si non supplicio culpa reciditur ? 
Quid leges, sine moribus 35 

Vanaa, proficiunt, si neque fervidis 
Pars inclusa caloribus 

Mundi, nee Boreae finitimum latus., 
Durataeque solo nives, 

Mercatorera abisrunt ? horrida callidi 40 



24, 25. j CARMINUM. LIBER 111. 77 

Vincunt acquora navitae ? 

Magnum pauperies opprobrium jubct 
Quidvis ct faccrc ct pati, 

Virtutisque viam deserit arduae ? 
Vel nos in Capitolium, 45 

Quo clamor vocat ct tuxba faventium, 
Vcl nos in marc proximum 

Gcmmas, ct lapidcs, aurum ct inutile, 
Summi matcricm mali, 

Mittamus, scelerum si bene pa3nitet. 50 

Eradenda cupidinis 

Pravi sunt elementa ; et tenerce nimis 
Mentes asperioribus 

Firmandse studiis. Nescit equo rudi* 
Hajrere ingenuus puer, 66 

Venarique timet ; ludere doctior, 
Seu Gracco jubeas trocho, 

Seu malis vetita legibus alea : 
Quum perjura patris fides 

Consortem socium fallat, et hospitern, 60 

Indignoque pecuniam 

Haeredi properet. Scilicet improbae 
Crescunt divitia) : tamen 

Curtae nescio quid semper abest rei. 



Caiimen XXV. 
AD BACCIIUM. 

Quo me, Bacche, rapis tui 

Plenum ? Quae nemora, quos agor in epecus, 
Velox mente nova ? Quibus 

Antris egregii Ca)saris audiar 
^Eternum meditans decus 

Stellis inserere et consilio Jovis ? 



78 Q IJORATII FLACCI [25, 27 

Dicam hibigne, recens, adliuc 

Indictum ore alio. Non secus in jugis 
Exsomnis stupet Euias, 

Hebrum prospiciens, et nive candidam 10 

Thracen, ac pede barbaro 

Lustratam Rhodopen. Ut mihi devio 
Ripas et vacuum nemus 

Mirari libet ! O NaVadum potens 
Baccharumque valentium 1A 

Proceras manibus vertere fraxinos, 
Nil parvum aut humili rnodo, 

Nil mortale loquar. Dulce periculum, 
O Lena3e ! sequi deum 

Cingentem viridi tempora pampino. 20 



Carmen XXVII. 
AD GALATEAM. 

Impios pame recinentis omen 
Ducat, et praognans canis, aut ab acpro 
Rava decurrens lupa Lanuvino, 
Fetaque vulpes : 

Rumpat et serpens iter institutum, 5 

Si per obliquum similis sagittae 
Terniit mannos. — Ego cui timebo, 
Providus auspex, 

Antequam stantes repetat paludes 
Embrium divina avis imminentum, 10 

Oscinem corvum prece suscitabo 
Solis ab ortu. 

Sis licet felix, ubicunque rnavifl. 
Et memor nostri, Galatea, vivas, 



21. \ CARMINUM. — LIBER III. 79 

Teque nee laevus vetct ire picu3, 15 

Nee vaga comix. 

Sed vides, quarito trepidet tumultu 
Pronus Orion. Ego, quid sit ater 
Hadriai, novi, sinus, ct quid albus 

Peccet Iapyx. 20 

Hostium uxoies puerique cameos 
Sentiant motus orientb Austri, et 
j^Equoris nign fromitun:, et trementes 
Verbere rip&s. 

Sic et Europe niveum doicsa 2 

Credidit tauro latus ; at scatentem 
Belluis pontum mediasque iiaudes 
Palluit audax 

Nuper in pratis studiosa fiotum, et 
Debit ae Nymphis opifex coroMe, 30 

Nocte sublustri nihil astra prceter 
Vidit et undas. 

Qua) simul centum tetigit pbientem 
Oppidis Creten, "Pater ! O relictum 
Filise nomen ! pietasque," dixit, 36 

" Victa furore ! 

Unde ? quo veni ? Levik una mors est 
Virginum culpa?. Vigilansne ploro 
Turpe commissum ? an vitio carentem 

Ludit ima<~o 40 

Vana, quam e porta fugiens eburna 
Somnium ducit ? Meliusne fluctus 



SO Q. HORATII FLACCI [27 

Ire per longos fuit, an recentes 
Carpere flores ? 



Si quis infamern mihi nunc juvencum 45 

Dedat iratas, lacerare ferro et 
Frangere enitar modo multum amati 
Cornua monstri ! 

Impudens liqui patrios Penates : 
Impudens Orcum moror. O Deorum 50 

Si quis hasc audis, utinam inter errem 
Nuda leones ! 

Antequam turpis macies decentes 
Occupet malas, teneraeque succus 
Defluat prrcdae, speciosa quaero 56 

Pascere tieres. 



\-' 



Vilis Europe, pater urget absens : 
Quid mori cessas ? Potes hac ab orao 
Pendulum zona bene te secuta 

Laedere collum. 60 

Sive te rupes et acuta leto 
Saxa delectant, age, te procellae 
Crede veloci : nisi herile mavis 
Carpere pensum, 

(Regius sanguis !) dominaeque tradi 6b 

Barbara? pellex." Aderat querent! 
Perfidum ridens Venus, et remisso 
Filius arcu. 

Mox, ubi lusit satis, " Abstineto," 

Dixit, " irarum calidasque rixae, 70 



27, 28, 2 ( J.] CABM1NUM. — LIBER III. bl 

Quum tibi invisus laccranda red dot 
Corrma taurus. 



Uxor invicti Jovis esse nescis : 
Mitte singultus ; bene ferre magnam 
Disee fortunam : tua sectus orbis 76 

Nomina ducet." 



Carmen XXVIII. 
AD LYDEN. 

Festo quid potius die 

Neptuni faciam ? Prome reconditum, 
Lyde strenua, Caecubum, 

Munitaeque adhibe vim sapiential. 
Inclinare meridiem 6 

Sentis ; ac, veluti stet volucris dies, 
Parcis deripere horreo 

Cessantem Bibuli consulis amphoram ? 
Nos cantabimus invicem 

Neptunum, et virides Nereidum comas : 10 

Tu curva recines lyra 

Latonam, et celeris spicula Cynthiae : 
Summo carmine, quae Cnidon 

Fulgentesque tenet Cycladas, et Paphon 
Junctis visit oloribus : : 6 

Dicetur merita Nox quoque naenia. 



Carmen XXIX. 
AD IVLECENATEM. 
Tyrrhena regum progenies, tibi 
Non ante verso lene merum cado, 
Cum flore, Maecenas, rosarum, et 
Pressa tuis balanus capillis 
D 2 



82 a. I10RATXI FLACCI 29 

Jam dudum apud me est. Eripe te morse , 5 
Ut semper-udum Tibur, et iEsulae 
Declive contempleris arvum, et 
Telegoni juga parricidse. 

Fastidiosam desere oopiam, et 
Molem propinquam nubibus arduis ; 10 

Omitte mirari beatfe 

Fumum et ope? strepitumque Roma). 

Plerumque grata? divitibus vices, 
Mundanque parvo sub lare pauperum 

CaonsD, sine aukeis et ostro, 16 

Sollicitam explicucre frontcm. 

Jam clarus occultum Andromeda) pater 
Ostendit ignem : jam Procyon furit, 
Et stella vesani Leonis, 

Sole dies referente siccos : 20 

Jam pastor umbras cum grege languiuo 
Rivumque fessus quajrit, et horridi 
Dumeta Silvani ; caretque 
Ripa vagis taciturna ventis. 

Tu, civitatem quis deceat status, 4b 

Curas, et Urbi sollicitus times, 
Quid Seres et regnata Cyro 

Eactra parent Tanaisque discors. 

Prudens f'uturi temporis exitum 
Caliginosa nocte premit Deus, 30 

Ridetque, si mortalis ultra 

Fas trepidat. Quod adest memento 



29. 1 CARMIMMM. HUER ill. 83 

Componere equuft : cetera (lurnnns 
Ritu ieruntur, nunc medio alvco 

Cum pace delabentis Etruscum 35 

In mare, nunc lapides adcsos, 

Stirpesque raptas, et pecus et domos 
Volventis una, non sine montium 
Clamore vicinaique silvaj, 

Quum fera diluvies quietos 40 

Irritat amnes. Ille potens sui 
LaDtusque deget, cui licet in diem 
Dixisse, " Vixi : eras vel atra 
Nube polum Pater occupato, 

Vel sole puro : non tamen irritum, 45 

Quodcunque retro est, efficiet ; neque 
Diffinget infectumque reddet, 
Quod fugiens semel hora vexit '' 

Fortuna ssevo laeta negotio, et 
Ludum insolentem ludere pertinax, 50 

Transmutat incertos honores, 
Nunc mihi, nunc alii benigna 

Laudo manentem : si celeres quatit 
Pennas, resigno quae dedit, et mea 

Virtute me involvo, probamque 55 

Pauperiem sine dote qusBro. 

Non est meum si mugiat Africis 
Malus procellis, ad miseras preces 
Decurrere ; et votis pacisci, 

Ne Cyprise Tyriaeve merces 60 



84 a. HORATII FLACCI CARMINUM. LIBER III. [29,30 

Addant avaro divitias.mari. 
Turn me, biremis praesidio scaphae 
Tutum, per iEgaeos tumultus 
Aura feret geminusque Pollux. 



Carmen XXX 
Exegi monumentum aere perennius, 
Regal ique situ pyramidum altius ; 
Quod non imber cdax, non Aquilo impotens 
Possit diruere, aut iunumerabilis 
Anuorum series, et fuga temporum. b 

Non omnis moriar ! multaque pars mei 
Vitabit Libitinam. Usque ego postera 
Crescam laude recens, dum Capitolium 
Scandet cum tacita Virgine pontifcx. 
Dicar, qua violens obstrepit Aufidus, 

Et qua pauper aquae Daunus agrestium 
Regnavit populorum, ex humili potens, 
Princeps Solium carmen ad Italos 
Deduxisse modos. Sume superbiam 
QuaBsitam mentis, et mihi Delphica 6 

Lauro cinge volens, Melpomene, coraam. 



Q HO RATI I F LAC CI 

GASHINUM 

LIBER QUART US. 

Carmen II. 
AD IULUM ANTONIUM 
Pindarum quisquis studet a3mular 
Iule, ccratis ope Dacdalea 
Nititur pennis, vitreo daturus 
Nomina ponto. 

Monte decurrens velut amnis, ii*.vraj 5 

Quern super notas aluere ripas, 
Fervet immensusque ruit profuntlo 
Pindarus ore ; 

Laurea donandus Apollinari, 
Seu per audaces nova dithyramtos 

Verba devolvit, numerisque fertur 
Lege solutis : 

Seu Deos, regesve canit, Deorum 
Sanguinem, per quos cecidere justo 
Marte Centauri, cecidet tremendaB 1 5 

Flamma Chimasrae : 

Sive, quos Elea domum reducit 
Palma ccelestes, pugilcmve equiamve 
Dicit, et centum potiore signis 

Munere donat : 20 



SG Q. HORATII FLACCI [2 

Flebili sponsce juvenemve raptum 
Plorat, et vires animumque moresque 
Aurcos educit in astra, nigroque 
Invidet Oreo. 

Multa DircEDum levat aura eyenum, 25 

Tendit, Antoni, quoties in altos 
Nubium tractus : ego, apis Matins 
More modoque, 

Grata carpentis thyma per laborem 
Plurimum, circa nemus uvidique 30 

Tiburis ripas operosa parvus 
Carmina fingo. 

Concines majore poeta plectro 
Caesarem, quandoquc trahet feroces 
Per sacrum clivum, merita decorus 36 

Fronde, Sygambros ; 

Quo nihil majus meliusve terris 

Fata donavere bonique divi, 

Nee dabunt, quamvis redeant in aarum 

Tempora priscum. 40 

Concines lsstosque dies, et Urbis 
Publicum ludum, super impetrato 
Fortis Augusti reditu, forumque 
Litibus orbum. 

Turn mese (si quid loquor audiendum) 45 

Vocis accedet bona pars : et, " O Sol 
Pulcher ! O laudande !" canam, recepto 
Cs&aare felix 



2, $ | CAHMINUM. LIBER IV. HI 

Tuque dura procedis, "Io Triumphe !" 
Non scmel dieemus, "Io Triumphe '" ftC 

Civitas omnia, dabimusque divis 
Thura benignis. 

Te decern tauri totidemque vaccae, 
Me tcrrer solvet vitulus, relicta 
Matre, qui largis juvenescit herbis M 

In mea vota, 

Fronte curvatos imitatus ignes 
Tertium Lunae referentis ortum, 
Qua notam duxit niveus videri, 

Caetera fulvus. 6U 



Carmen III. 
AD MELPOMENEN. 

Quern tu, Melpomene, semel 

Nascentom placido lumine videris, 
Ilium non labor Isthmius 

Clarabit pugilem, non equus impiger 
Curru ducet Achai'co 6" 

Victorem, neque res bcllica Deliis 
Ornatum foliis ducem, 

Quod regum tumidas contuderit minas, 
Ostendet Capitolio : 

Sed qua) Tibur aquae fertile praefluunt 1 

Et spissae nemorum comae, 

Fingent iEolio carmine nobilem. 
Rornae principis urbium 

Dignatur suboles inter amabilcs 
Vatum ponere me cboros ; la 

Et jam iente minus mordeor invulo. 



88 Q. HORATll FLACCI |_3, 4 

O, testudinis aureee 

Dulcem quss strepitum. Pieri, temperas ! 
O, mutis quoque piscibus 

Donatura cycni, si libeat, sonum ! 20 

Toturii muneris hoc tui est, 

Quod monstror digito praitereuntium 
Romanae fidicen lyrae : 

Quod spiro et placeo (si placeo), tuum est. 



Carmen IV. 
DRUSI LAUDES. 
Qualem ministrum fulminis alitem, 
Cui rex Deorum regnum in aves vagas 
Permisit, expertus fidelcm 
Jupiter in Ganymede flavo, 

Olim juventas et patrius vigor a 

Nido laborum propulit inscium : 
Vcrnique, jam nimbis remotis, 
Insolitos docuere nisus 

Venti paventem : mox in ovilia 
Demisit hostem vividus impetus : 10 

Nunc in reluctantes dracones 
Egit amor dapis atque pugnre * 

Qualemve laetis caprea pascuis 
Intenta, fulvse matris ab ubere 

Jam lacte depulsum leonem, 16 

Dente novo peritura, vidit : 

Videre Ra3tis bella sub Alpibus 
Drusum gerentem Vindelici [quibus 
Mos unde deductus per omne 

Tempns Amazonia securi 20 



4. 1 IWUMIN'IM. LIBER IV. 89 

Dextras obarmet, qiuerere distuli : 
Nee scire fas est omnia] : sed diu 
Lateque victrices catervac, 
Consiliis juvenis revicta), 

Sensere, quid mens rite, qu.d indoles, 2b 

Nutrita faustis sub penctralibus, 
Posset, quid Augusti paternus 
In pueros animus Nerones. 

Fortes creantur fortibus : et bonis 
Est in juvencis, est in equis patrum 30 

Virtus : neque imbellem feroces 
Progenerant aquilae columbam. 

Doctrina sed vim prornovet insitam, 
Rectique cultus pectora roborant : 

Utcunque defecere mores, 35 

Indecorant bene nata culpa?. 

Quid debeas, O Roma, Neronibus, 
Testis Metaurum flumen, et Hasdrubai 
Devictus, et pulcher fugatis 

Ille dies Latio tenebris, 40 

Qui primus alma risit adorea, 
Dirus per urbes Afer ut Italas, 
Ceu fiamma per tsedas, vel Eurus 
Per Siculas equitavit undas. 

Post hoc secundis usque laboribus 46 

Romana pubes crevit, et impio 
Vastata Pcenorum tumuitu 
Fana deos habuere rectos : 



UO a. HORATII F^aCCI [4 

}ixitque tandem perfidus Hannibal : 
" Cervi, luporurn prceda rapacium, 50 

Sectamur ultro, quos opimus 

Fallere et eflugere est triumphus. 

Gei.3, quai cremato fortis ab Ilio 
Tactata Tuscis Eequoribus sacra, 

Natosque maturosque patres 53 

Pertulit Ausonias ad urbes, 

Duris ut ilex tonsa bipennibofl 

Nigra feraci frondis in Algido, 
Per damna, per erodes, ab ipso 

Ducit opes animumque ferro. bO 

Non Hydra secto corpore firmior 
Vinci dolentem crevit in Herculern : 
Monstrumve submisere Colchi 
Majus, Ecliioniajve Thebae. 

Merses profundo, pulchrior evenit : 66 

Luctere, mult a pro-met integrum 
Cum laude victorem, geretque 
Proelia conjugibus loquenda. 

Carthagini jam non ego nuntios 
Mittam superbos : occidit, occidit 70 

Spes omnis et for tuna nostri 
Nominis, Hasdrubale interemto 

Nil Claudia3 non perficient manus : 
Quas et benigno numine Jupiter 

Defendit, et curse sagaces 75 

Expediunt per acuta belli." 



5. 1 UAKMINUM, — LIBER f /. 9t 

Carmen V. 
AD AUGUSTUM. 
Divis ortc bonis, optirne Itomukc 
Custos gcntis, abes jam nimium diu : 
Maturum reditura pollicitus Patrum 
Sancto consilio, rcdi. 

Lucem rcddo tua3, dux Lone, patrias : 6 

Instar vcris cnim vultus ubi tuus 
Afliilsit populo, gratior it dies, 

Et soles melius nitent. 

Ut rnatcr juvenem, quern Notus invido 
Flatu Carpathii trans maris sequora 10 

Cunctantem spatio longius annuo 
Dulci distinet a domo, 

Votis ominibusque et precibus vocat, 
Curvo nee faciem litore demovet : 
Sic desideriis icta fidelibus 15 

Qucerit patria Crcsarem. 

t Tutus bos etenim tula pcrambulat ; 
Nutrit rura Ceres, almaque Faustitas ; 
Pacatum volitant per mare navitarc ; 

Culpari mctuit Fides ; 20 

Nullis polluitur casta domus stupris ; 
Mos et lex maculosum edomuit nefas ; 
Laudantur simili prole puerperse ; 

Culpam Poena premit comes. 

Quis Parthum paveat ? quis gelidum Scythen ? 25 
Quis, Germania quos horrida parturit 



02 Q. HORATIl FLACCI [5, ^ 

I^etus, incolumi Cicsare ? quis ferae 
Bellum curet Iberiao ? 



Condit quisle diem collibus in suis, 
Et vitera viduas ducit ad arbores ; 3C 

Hinc ad vina iedit la3tus, et alteris 
Te mensis adhibet Deum : 

Te multa prece, te prosequitur mero 
Defuso pateris : et Laribus tuum 
Miscet numen, uti Grsecia Castoris 35 

Et magni mernor Herculis 

Longas O utinam, dux bone, feriaa 
Praistes Hesperiae ! dicimus integro 
Sicci mane die, dieimus uvidi, 

Quum Sol oceano subest. 40 



Carmen VI. 
AD APOLLINEM. 
Dive, quern proles Niobea magnffi 
Vindicem linguae, Tityosque raptor 
Sensit, et Trojae prope victor altae 
Phthius Achilles, 

Caeteris major, tibi miles impar ; 5 

Filius quamquam Thetidos marinae 
Dardanas turres quateret tremenda 
Cuspide pugnax 

Ille, mordaci velut icta ferro 

Pinus, aut impulsa cupressus Euro, 10 

Procidit late posuitque collum in 
Pulvere Teucro. 



tf "J CAR MI NUM. LIBER IV. 93 

lllc non, iuclusus cquo Minervao 
Sacra mcntito, male fcriatos 

Troas et lactam Priami choreis 16 

Fallcret aulam ; 

Sed palam captis gravis, lieu nefas ! heu ! 
Nescios fari pueros Achivis 
Ureret flammis, ctiam latentcm 

Matris in alvo : 20 

Ni, tuis flexus Venerisque grata) 
Vocibus, Divum pater adnuisset 
Rebus JEncai potiore ductos 
Alite muros. 

Doctor Argiva) fidicen Thalise, 26 

Phoebe, qui Xantho la vis amne crities, 
Dauniae defende decus Camense, 
Levis Agyieu. 

Spiritum Phoebus mihi, Phoebus artem 
Carminis, nomenque dedit poets. 30 

Virginum prima?, puerique claris 
Patribus orti, 

Delise tutela dese, iugaces 
Lyncas et cervos cohibentis arcu, 
Lesbium servate pedem, meique 35 

Pollicis ictum, 

Rite Latonse puerum canentes, 
Rite crescentem face Noctilucam, 
Prosper am frugum, celeremque pronos 

Volvere menses. 4'J 



94 a. HORATIl FLACCI [G 1 

Nupta jam dices : Ego Dis amicum, 
Saeculo festas referente luces, 
Reddidi carmen, docilis modorum 
Vatis Ilorati. 



Carmen VII. 
AD TORQUATUM. 

Diilugere nives ; redeunt jam gramina campis., 

Arboribusque coma? : 
Mutat terra vices ; ct decrescentia ripas 

Flumina pratereunt : 
Gratia cum Nymphis geminisque sororibus audet 5 

Ducere nuda choros. 
Tinmortalia ne spores, monet Annus et almum 

Quae rapit Hora diem. 
Frigora mitcscunt Zephyris : Vcr protcrit iEstas, 

Interitura, simul 10 

Pomifer Auctumnus fruges efmdcrit : et mox 

Bruma rccurrit incrs. 
Damna tamen celeres rcparant ccslestia lunae . 

Nos, ubi decidimus, 
Quo pius iEneas, quo dives Tullus ct Ancus, 15 

Pulvis et umbra sumus. 
Quis scit, an adjiciant hodiernal crastina summae 

Tempora Di superi ? 
Cuncta manus avidas fugient hajredis, amico 

Quad dederis animo. 20 

Quum semel occideris, et de te splendida Minos 

Fecerit arbitria : 
Non, Torquate, genus, non te facundia, non te 

R-estituet pietas. 
Infernis neque enim tenebris Diana pudicum 25 

Liberat Hippolytum ; 
Ncc Lethaea valet Theseus ibrumrere caro 

Vincula Firithoo. 



8, ] CARMINUM. LIBER IV 05 



Carmen VIII. 
AD CENSOBJNUM. 
Donarcm pateras grataque commodus, 
Censorinc, mcis sera sodalibus ; 
Donarcm tripodas, proemia fortium 
Graiorum ; neque tu pessima munerum 
Ferres, divite me scilicet artium, 

Quas aut Parrhasius protulit, aut Scopas, 
Hie saxo, liquidis ille coloribus 
Sollers nunc hominem ponere, nunc Deum, 
SecT non hoec mihi vis : nee tibi talium 
Res est aut animus deliciarum egens. 10 

Gaudes carminibus ; carmina possumus 
Donare, et pretium dicere muneri. 
Non incisa notis marmora publicis, 
Per quae spiritus et vita redit bonis 
Post mortem ducibus ; non celeres fugaB, 1 6 

Rejectaeque retrorsum Hannibalis minse ; 
[Non stipendia Carthaginis impise], 
Ejus, qui domita nomen ab Africa 
Lucratus rediit, clarius indicant 
Laudes, quam Calabrao Pierides : neque, 20 

Si chartae sileant, quod bene feceris, 
Mercedem tuleris. Quid foret Iliae 
Mavortisque puer, si taciturnitas 
Obstaret meritis invida Romuli ? 
Ereptum Stygiis fluctibus ^Eacum 25 

Virtus et favor et lingua potcntium 
Vatum divitibus consecrat insulis. 
Dignum laude virum Musa vetat mori ' 
Ccelo Musa beat. Sic J ovis interest 
Optatis epulis impiger Hercules : 30 

Clarum Tyndaridse sidus al) iniimi5 



&& a. HORATII FLACCI [8, tt 

Quassas eripiunt oequoribus rates : 
Ornatus viridi tempora pampino 
Liber vota bonos ducit ad exitus. 



Carmen IX. 
AD LOLLIUM. 

Ne forte credas interitura, qua>, 
Longe sonantem natus ad Aufidum, 
Non ante vulgatas per artes 
Verba loquor socianda chordis. 

Non, si priores Mosonius tenet 6 

Sedes Homerus, Pindaricce latent, 
Ceseque, et Alcasi minaces, 

Stcsichorique graves Cameiue , 

Nee, si quid olirn lusit Anacreon, 
Delevit a3tas : spirat adhuc amor, 1U 

Vivuntque commissi calores 
iEolise fidibus puellae. 

Non sola comtos arsit adulteri 
Crines, et aurum vestibus illitum 

Mirata, regalesque cultus J ft 

Et comites Helene Lacsena ; 

Primusve Teucer tela Cydonio 
Direxit arcu ; non semel Ilios 
Vexata ; non pugnavit ingens 

Idomeneus Sthenelusve soIub ^0 

Dieenda Musis proelia ; non ferox 
Hector, vel acer Deiphobus graves 
Excepit ictus pro pudicis 

Conjugibus puerisque primus. 



*•.] C/.RMINUM. LIBER IV. 07 

Vixere fortes ante Agamemnona 26 

Multi : sed oranes illacrimabiles 
Urgcntur ignotique longa 

Nocte, carent quia vate sacro. 

Paulum scpulta) distat inertia} 
Celata virtus. Non ego te meis 30 

Chartis inornatum silebo, 
Totve tuos patiar labores 

Impune, Lolli, carpere lividas 
Obliviones. Est animus tibi 

Rerumque prudens, et secundis 35 

Temporibus dubiisque rectus ; 

Vmdex avarse fraudis, et abstinens 
Ducentis ad se cuncta pecuniae : 
Consulque non unius anni, 

Sed quoties bonus atque fidus 40 

Judex honestum praetulit utili, 
Rejecit alto dona nocentium 
Vultu, per obstantes catervas 
Explicuit sua victor arma. 

Non possidentem multa vocaveris 46 

Recte beatum : rectius occupat 
Nomen beati, qui deorum 
Muneribus sapienter uti, 

Duramque callet pauperiem pati, 
Pejusque leto flagitium timet ; 60 

Non ille pro caris amicis 
Aut patria timidus periro. 
K 



98 a. HORAT 'LACC1 [11, 12 

Carmen XL 
AD PHYLLIDEM. 

Est mihi nonum superantis annum 
Plenus Albani caclus ; est in horto, 
Phylli, nectendis apium coronis ; 
Est ederae vis 

Multa, qua crines religata fulges ■ 5 

Ridet argento domus ; ara castis 
Vincta verbenis avet immolato 
Spargicr agno ; 

Cuncta festinat manus, hue et illue 
Cursitant mixtac pueris puellaj ; 10 

Sordidum flammae trepidant rotantes 
Vertice fumum. 

Ut tamen noris, quibus advoceris 
Gaudiis, Idus tibi sunt agenda), 
Q,ui dies mensem Veneris marina 1 , i5 

Findit Aprilcm ; 

Jure solennis mihi, sanctiorque 
Paene natali proprio, quod ex hac 
Luce MsBcenas meus affluentes 

Ordinat annos. 20 



Carmen XII. 
AD VIRGILIUM. 
Jam Veris comites, qua? mare temperant 
Impellunt animas hntea Thraciae : 
Jam nee prata rigent, nee fluvii Btrepunt 
Iliberna nive turgidi. 



12.14.] CAKM1NUM.- — LIBER IV. 99 

Nidum ponit, Ityn flcbiliter gemens, 3 

Infelix avis, ct Cecropiae domus 
^Etcrnum opprobrium, quod male barbaras 
llegum est ulla libidinos. 

Dicunt in tencro gramino pinguium 
Custodes ovium carmina fistula, 10 

Dclectantque Deum, cui pccus et nigri 
Colles Arcadia) placent. 

Adduxere sitim tempora, Virgili : 
Sed prcssum Calibus ducere Liberum 
Si gestis, juvenum nobilium clien.-;, Id 

Nardo viua merebere. 

Nardi parvus onyx eliciet cadum, 
Qui nunc Sulpiciis accubat horreis, 
Spes donare novas largus, amaraquc 

Curarum eluere efflcax. 20 

Ad quae si properas gaudia, cum tua 
Velox merce veni : non ego te meis 
Immuncm mcditor tingcre poculis, 
Plena dives ut in domo. 

Verum pone moras et studium lucri ; 25 

Nigrorumque memor, dum licet, ignium, 
Misce stultitiam consiliis brevem : 
Dulce est desipere in loco. 



Carmen XIV. 
AD AUGUSTUM. 
Quae cura Patrum, quasve Quiritiura, 
Plenis honorum muneribus tuas, 



100 a. UORATiI FLACCl 14. 

Auguste, virtu tes in a3vum 
Per titulos memoresque fastos 

internet ? O, qua sol habitabiles fi 

Illustrat oras, maxime principum ; 
Quern lesfis expertes Latina? 
Vindelici didicere nuper, 

Quid Marte posses ; milite nam tuo 
Drusus Gcnaunos, implacidum genus, 10 

Breunosque veloces, et arces 
Alpibus imposilas tremendis, 

Dejecit acer plus vice simplici. 
Major Neronum mox grave prodium 

Commisit, immanesque Rectos 15 

Auspiciis pepulit secundis : 

Spectandus in certamine Martio, 
Devota morti pectora libera 
Quantis fatigaret minis : 

Indomitas prope qualis undas 20 

Exercet Auster, Pleiadum choro 
Scindente nubes : impiger hostiurn 
Vexare turmas, et frementem 
Mittere equum medios per ignes. 

Sic tauriformis volvitur Aufidus, 25 

Qua regna Dauni prsBfiuit Apuli, 
Quum saevit, horrendamque cultis 
Diluviem meditatur agris : 

Ut barbarorum Claudius agmina 

Ferrata vasto diruit impetu, 90 



,4,15. I CARMINUM. LIBER IV. 101 

Primosque et extremos metendo 
Stravit humum, sine clade victor, 

Te copias, te consilium et tuos 
Praebente Divos. Nam, tibi quo die 

Portus Alexandrea supplex 36 

Et vacuam patefccit aulam. 

Fortuna lustro prospera tertio 
Belli secundos reddidit exitus, 
Laudemque et optatum peractis 

Imperiis decus arrogavit. 4C 

Te Cantaber non ante domabilis, 
Medusque, et Indus, te profugus Scythes 
Miratur, O tutela praesens 
Italia) dominseque Roma) : 

Te, fontium qui celat origines, 4d 

Nilusque, et Ister, te rapidus Tigris, 
Te belluosus qui remotis 

Obstrepit Oceanus Britannis ■ 

Te non paventis funera Galliae 
Durasque tellus audit Iberian : 50 

Te caede gaudentes Sygambri 
Uompositis venerantur armis. 



Carmen XV. 
AUGUSTI LAUDES. 
Phoebus volentem prcelia me loqui 
Victas et urbes, increpuit, lyra : 
Ne parva Tyrrhsnum per aequor 
Vela darem. Tua, Caesar, aotaa 



102 G. 11011 ITH FLACCI CARMINUM. LIBER IV. [15 

Fruges et agris retulit uberes, 5 

Et signa nostro restituit Jovi, 
Derepta Parthorum superbis 
Postibus, et vacuum duellia 

Janum Quirinum clusit, et ordinem 
Rectum evaganti frena Liccntia) 10 

Injccit, emovitque culpas, 
Et veteres rcvocavit artes, 

Per quas Latinum uomcn et Italac 
Crevere vires, iiimaque et imperi 

Porrecta majestas ad ortum 15 

Solis ab llcsperio cubili. 

Custode rcrum Ca)sare, noil furor 
Civilis aut vis exiget otium, 
Ncn ira, quaj procudit enses, 

Et miseras mimicat urbes. 20 

Non, qui profundum Danubium bibunt, 
Edicta rumpent Julia, non Geta3, 
Non Seres, infidive Persae, 

Non Tanain prope flumen orti. 

Nosque, et profestis lucibus et sacris, 25 

Inter jocosi munera Liberi, 

Cum prole matronisque nostris, 
Rite deos prius apprecati, 

Virtute functos, more patrum, duces 
Lydis remixto carmine tibtis, 3U 

Trojamque et Anchisen et alma3 
Progeniem Veneris cnnemus. 



Q. H0BAT11 FLACCI 



E P 1) N 



LIBER. 



Q. II OR AT 1 1 FLACCJ 

E P D N 

LIBER. 



Carmen I. 

AD IVLECENATEM. 

Jbis Liburnis inter alta navium, 

Ainice, propugnacula, 
Paratus omne Caesari periculum 

Subire, Maecenas, tuo ? 
Quid nos, quibus te vita si superstite I 

Jucunda, si contra, gravis ? 
Utrumne jussi persequemur otium, 

Non dulce, ni tecum simul ? 
An hunc laborem mente laturi, decet 

Qua ferre non molles viros ? 10 

Feremus ; et te vel per Alpium juga, 

Inhospitalem et Caucasum, 
Vel occidentis usque ad ultimum sinum 

Forti sequemur pectore. 
Roges, tuum labore quid juvem meo \ft 

Imbellis ac firmus parum ? 
Comes minore sum futurus in metu, 

Qui major absentes habet : 
Ut assidens implumibus pullis avis 

Serpentium allapsus timet 20 

Magis relictis ; non, ut adsit auxili 

Latura plus prajsentibus. 
E 2 



100 a. HORATII FLACC1 [1,2 

Libenter hoc ct orane railitabitur 

Bellum in tuac spem gratia) ; 
Non ut juvencis illigata plunbus 26 

Aratra nitantur mea ; 
Pecusve Calabris ante sidus fervid ura 

Lucana mulct pascuis ; 
Nee ut superni villa candens Tusculi 

Circyoa tangat mumia. 30 

Satis superque me benignitas tua 

Ditavit : haud paravero, 
Quod aut, avarus ut Chremes, terra premain, 

Discinctus aut perdam ut nepos. 



Carmen II. 
kt Beatus ille, qui procul negotiis, 

Ut prisca gens mortalium, 
Patema rura bobus exercet suis. 

Solutus omni fenore. 
Neque excitatur classico miles truci, 6 

Neque horret iratum mare ; 
Forumque vitat et superba civium 

Potcntiorum limina. 
Ergo aut adulta vitium propagine 

Altas maritat populos, 10 

Inutilesque falce ramos amputans 

Feliciores inserit ; 
Aut in reducta valle mugientium 

Prospectat err antes greges ; 
Aut pressa puris meila condit amphoris ; 1 5 

Aut tondet infirmas oves ; 
Vcl, quum decorum mitibus pomis caput 

Auctumnus agris extulit, 
Ut gaudet insitiva decerpens pira, 

Certantcm et uvam purpuras, 20 



3.] EPODON LIBER. * 10"? 

Qua rnuneretur te, Priap3, ct te, pater 

Silvanc, tutor finium. 
Libet jaccre, modo sub autiqua ihce, 

Modo in tenaci gramine. 
Labuntur altis interim ripis aqua3 ; 2«5 

Queruntur in silvis aves ; 
Frondesque lymphis obstrepunt manantibus ; 

Somnos quod invitct leves. 
At quum Tonantis annus hibernus Jovis 

Imbres nivesque comparat, 3C 

Aut trudit acres hinc et hinc multa cane 

Apros in obstantes plagas ; 
Aut amite levi rara tendit retia, 

Turdis edacibus dolos ; 
Pavidumque Jeporem, et advenam laqueo gruem, 3. r > 

Jucunda captat prscmia. 
Quis non malarum, quas amor curas habet, 

Hasc inter obliviscitur ? 
Quod si pudica mulier in partem juvet 

Domum atque dulces liberos, 40 

Sabina qualis, aut perusta solibus 

Pernicis uxor Apuli, 
Sacrum ct vetustis extruat lignis focum, 

Lassi sub adventum viri ; 
Claudensque textis cratibus laetum pecus., 15 

Distenta siccet ubera ; 
Et horna dulci vina promens dolio, 

Dapes inemtas apparet : 
Non me Lucrina juverint conchylia. 

Magisve rhombus, aut scari, 50 

6: quos Eois intonata fluctibus 

Hiems ad hoc vertat mare ; 
Non Afra avis descendat in ventrem raaurn, 

Non attagen Ionicus 
Jucundior, quam lecta de pinguissimis 55 

Oliva ramis arborum, 



1 08 * a. HORATIl FLACCI [2, 3 

Aut herba lapathi prata amantis, et gravi 

Malvae salubres corpori, 
Vel agna festk caesa Terminalibus, 

Vel ha3dus ereptus lupo. 6C 

Has inter epulas, ut juvat pastas oves 

Videre properantes domum ! 
Videre fessos vomerem inversum bovcs 

Collo trahentes languido ! 
Positosque vernas, ditis examen domus, 05 

Circum renidentes Lares !" 
Haec ubi locutus fenerator Alphius, 

Jam jam futurus rusticus, 
Omnem redegit Idibus pecuniam — 

Quaerit Kalendis ponere ! 70 



Carmen III. 
AD IVLECENATEM. 
Parentis olim si quis impia maim 

Senile guttur fregerit 
Edit cicutis allium nocentius. 

O dura messorum ilia ! 
Quid hoc veneni ssevit in praecordiis ? 5 

Num viperinus his cruor 
Incoctus herbis me fefellit ? an maius 

Canidia tractavit dapes ? 
Ut Argonautas piaster omnes candid um 

Medea mirata est ducem, 10 

Ignota tauris illigaturum juga, 

Perunxit hoc Iasonem : 
Hoc delibutis ulta donis pellicem, 

Serpente fugit alite. 
Nee tantus miquam siderum insedit vapor 15 

Siticulosa3 Apulise : 
Nee munus humeris efficacis Herculis 

Inarsit sestuosius. 



•,&.] EPOUON I IHKK 109 



Carmen IV. 

Lupis el agois quanta sortito obtigit. 

Tecum mihi discordia est, 
Ibericis peruste funibus latus, 

Et crura dura compede. 
Licet superbus ambules pecunia, 

Fortuna non mutat genus. 
Videsne, Sacram metiente te viam 

Cum bis trium ulnarum toga, 
Ut ora vertat hue et hue euntium 

Liberrima indignatio ? 

" Sectus flagellis hie Triumviralibus, 

PraBConis ad fastidium, 
Arat Falerni mille fundi jugera 

Et Appiam mannis terit ; 
Sedilibusque magnus in primis eques, 5 

Othone contemto, sedet ! 
Quid attinet tot ora navium gravi 

Kostrata duci pondere 
Contra latrones atque servilem manum, 

Hoc, hoc tribuno militum ?" 20 



Carmen V. 
IN CANIDIAM VENEFICAM. 
1 At, O deorum quicquid in ccelo regit 

Terras et humanum genus ! 
Quid iste fert tumultus ? aut quid omnium 

Vultus in unum me truces ? 
Per liberos te, si vocata partubus 

Lucina veris adfuit, 
Per hoc inane purpuras decus precor, 

Per improbaturum hate Jovem, 



110 a. HORATII FLACC'i [6 

Quid ut noverca rne intueris, aut uti 

Pelita lerro bell u a ? f ' — 10 

Ut hooc tremente questus ere constitit 

lnsignious raptis puer, 
lmpube corpus, quale posset impia 

Mollire Thracum pectora ; 
Canidia brevibus implicata viperis Id 

Crines et incomtum caput, 
Jubet sepulcris capriiicos erutas, 

Jubet cupressus funebres, 
Et uncta turpis ova ranae sanguine, 

Plumamque nocturnae strigis, U0 

Herbasque, quas Iolcos atque Iberia 

Mittit veuenorum ferax, 
Et ossa ab ore rapta jejuna? canis, 

Flammis aduri Colchicis. 
At expedita Sagana, per totam doraurn 25 

Spargens Avernales aquas, 
Horret capillis ut marinus asperis • 

Echinus, aut Laurens aper. 
Abacta nulla Veia conscientia 

Ligonibus duris humum • 3o 

Exhauriebat, ingemens laborious ; 

Quo posset infossus puer 
Longo die bis terque mutatee dapis 

Inemori spectaculo ; 
Quum promineret ore, quantum exstant aqraa S5 

Suspensa mento corpora ; 
Exsucca uti medulla et aridum jecur 

Amoris esset poculum, 
Interminato quum semel fixa? cibo 

Intabuissent pupulae. 40 

Hie irresectum sasva dente lividc 

Canidia rodens pollicem 
Quid dixit ? aut quid tacuit ? "O rebus raeis 

Non inTi deles arbitrro. 



5.] RPODON LfBEP. 11) 

Nox, ct Diana, quae silentium regis, 45 

Arcana quiun Hunt sacra, % 

Nunc nunc adeste, nunc in hostiles domes 

Tram atque nunicn vcrtitc. 
Formidolosac dura latent silvis fene, 

Dulci sopore ianguidae, 5C 

Senem, quod omnes rideant, adulterum 

Latrent Suburana? canes, 
Nardo perunctum, quale non perfectius 

Mea3 laborarint manus. — 
Quid accidit ? cur dira barbarae minus 55 

Venena Medea? valent ? 
Quibus superbam fugit ulta pellicem, 

Magni Creontis filiam, 
Quum palla, tabo munus imbutum, novam 

Incendio nuptam abstulit." 00 

Sub haec puer, jam non, ut ante, mollibus 

Lenire verbis impias ; 
Sed dubius, unde rumperet silentium, 

Misit Thyesteas preces : 
"Venena magica fas nefasque, non valent 65 

Convertere humanam vicem. 
x)iris agam vos : dira detestatio 

Nulla expiatur victim a. 
Quin, ubi perire jussus expiravero, 

Noctumus occurram Furor, 70 

Petamque vultus umbra curvis unguibus, 

Quae vis deorum est Manium, 
Et inquietis assidens prsecordiis 

Pavore somnos auferam. 
Vos turba vicatim hinc et hinc saxis petens 75 

Contundet obscenas anus. 
Post insepulta membra different lupi 

Et Esquilinae alites. 
Neque hoc parenxes, heu mihi supcrstites ! 

Effugerit spectaculum.'' 80 



112 Q. HORATII FLACCI 16,7 

Carmen VI. 
Quid hnmerentes hospites vexas, caiiis, 

Ignavus adversum lupos ? 
Quiii hue inanes, si potes, vertis minas, 

Et me reraorsurum petis ? 
Nam, qualis aut Molossus, aut fulvus Lacon, & 

Arnica vis pastoribus, 
Vgam per altas aure sublata nives, 

Quaecunque prsecedet fera. 
Tu, quum timenda voce complesti nemus, 

Projectum odoraris cibum. 10 

Cave, cave : namque in malos asperrimus 

Parata tollo cornua ; * 
Qualis Lycambae spretus infido gener, 

Aut acer hostis Bupalo. 
An, si quis atro dente me petiverit, 15 

Inultus ut flebo puer ? 



Carmen VII. 
AD POPULUM ROMANUM. 

Quo, quo scelesti ruitis ? aut cur dexteris 

Aptantur enses conditi ? 
Parumne campis atque Neptuno super 

Fusum est Latini sanguinis ? 
Non, ut superbas invidse Carthaginis 

Romanus arces ureret, 
Intactus aut Britannus ut descenderet 

Sacra catenatus via, 
Sed ut, secundum vota Parthorum, sul 

Urbs hsBC periret dextera. 
Neque hie lupis mos, nee fuit leonibus, 

Nunquam, nisi in dispar, feris. 



f, 8 ] RPODORi LIliER. |J3 

Furorne caecus, an rapit vis acrior ? 

An culpa ? responsum date. — 
Tacent ; ct ora pallor albus inficit, 1 5 

Mentesque perculsae stupent. 
Sic est ; acerba fata Romanos agunt, 

Scelusque fraternac necis, 
Ut immerentis flnxit in terram Rerni 

Sacer nepotibus cruor. 20 



Carmen IX. 
AD MiECENATEM. 

Quando repostum Caecubum ad festas dapos, 

Victore laetus Caesare, 
Tecum sub alta, sic Jovi gratum, domo, 

Beate Maecenas, bibam, 
Sonante inixtum tibiis carmen lyra, 5 

Hac Dorium, illis barbarum ? 
Ut nuper, actus quum freto Neptunius 

Dux fugit, ustis navibus, 
Minatus Urbi vincla, quae detraxerat 

Servis amicus perfidis. 10 

Romanus, eheu ! posteri negabitis, 

Emancipatus feminaB, 
Pert vallum et arma miles, ct spadonibus 

Servire rugosis potest ! 
Interque signa turpe militaria 15 

Sol adspicit conopium ! 
Ad hoc frementes verterunt bis mille equos 

Galli, canentes Caesarem ; 
Hostiliumque navium portu latent 

Puppes sinistrorsum citae. 20 

lo Triumphe ! tu moraris aureos 

Currus, et intactas boves ? 



Ill Q. HORATII FLACCI [9,10 

Io Triumphe ! nee Jugurthino parera 

Bello reportasti duceni, 
Neque Africanum, cui super Carthaginew 26 

Virtus sepulcrum eondidit. 
Terra marique victus hostis, Punico 

Lugubre mutavit sagum ; 
Aut ille centum nobilem Cre^am urb.»t>»«» 

Ventis iturus non suis ; 30 

Exercitatas aut petit Syrtcs Noto r 

Aut fertur incerto mari. 
Capaciores after hruc, pucr. s"yphos 

Et Chia vina, aut Lesbia, 
Vel, quod fluentem nauseam coerceat 7 

Metire nobis Caecubum. 
Curam metumque Ciesaris rerum juvat 

Dulci Lyaeo solvere. 



Carmen X. 

IN M^EVIUM POETAM. 

Mala soluta navis exit alite, 

Ferens olentem Maevium. 
Lit horridis utrumque verberes latus. 

Auster, memento fluctibus. 
Niger rudentes Eurus, inverso mari, «* 

Fractosque remos differat ; 
[nsurgat Aquilo, quantus altis montibua 

Frangit trementes ilices ; 
Nee sidus atra nocte amicurn appareat, 

Qua tristis Orion cadit ; 1(1 

Quietiore nee feratur aequore, 

Quam Graia victortun manus, 
Quum Pallas usto vertit iram at* llio 

In impiam Ajacis ratem 



Itf, 13.] epodon i-:beu llfl 

O juantus instat navitis sudor tins, 15 

Tibique pallor luteus, 
Et ilia non virilis ejulatio, 

Proces et aversum ad Jovcm, 
Ionius udo qnum remugiens sinu? 

Nolo carinam ruperit ! 20 

Opima quod si prceda curvo litore 

Porrecta mergos juveris, 
•\ibidinosus immolabitur caper 

Et agna Tcmpestatibus. 



Carmen XIII. 
AD AMICOS. 
Horrida tempestas coelum contraxit, et imbres 

Nivesque deducunt Jovem ; nunc mare, nunc siluaj 
Threi'cio Aquilone sonant. Rapiamus, amici, 

Occasionem de die ; dumque virent genua, 
Et decet, obducta solvatur fronte senectus. 5 

Tu vina Torquato move Consule pressa meo. 
Caetera mitte loqui : Deus ha3C fortassc benigna 

Reducet in sedem vice. Nunc et Achaemenio 
Perfundi nardo juvat, et fide Cyllenea 

Levare dins pectora sollicitudinibus. 10 

Nobilis ut grandi cecinit Centaums alumno : 

Invicte, mortalis dea nate, puer, Thetide, 
Te manet Assaraci tellus, quam frigida parvi 

Findunt Scamandri flumina, lubricus et SimoVe ; 
TJnde tibi reditum curto subtemine Pare® 1 5 

liupere ; nee mater domum ea3rula te revehet. 
Illic omne malu.m vino cantuqie leva to, 

Deformis aegiimonise dulcibu alloqiiis. 



110 Q. HCllATII FLACCl [10, 

Carmen XVI. 
AD POFULUM ROMANUM. - 

Altera jam teritur bellis ciyilibus astas 

Suis et ipsa Roma viribus ruit, 
Quam neque finitimi valuerunt perdere Marsi, 

Minacis aut Etrusca Porsenae manus, 
iEmula nee virtus Capuae, nee Spartacus acer, 5 

Novisque rebus infidelis Allobrox ; 
Nee fera caerulea domuit Germania pube, 

Parentibusque abominatus Hannibal : 
Impia perdemus devoti sanguinis aetas ; 

Ferisque rursus occupabitur solum. 10 

Barbarus, lieu ! cineres insistet victor, et Urbem 

Eques sonante verberabit ungula ; 
Quaeque carent ventis et solibus, ossa Quirini, 

Nefas videre ! dissipabit insolens. 
Forte, quid expediat, communiter, aut m^lior pars \5 

Malis carere quaeritis laboribus. 
Nulla sit hac potior sententia ; Phocacorum 

Velut profugit exsecrata civitas : 
Agros atque Lares patrios, habitandaque fana 

Apris reliquit et rapacibus lupis : VJO 

Ire, pedes quocunque ferent, quocunque per unda» 

Notus vocabit, aut protervus Africus. 
Sic placet ? an melius quis habet suadere ? secunda 

Ratem occupare quid moramur alite ? 
Sed juremus in haec : Simul imis saxa renarint 26 

Vadis levata, ne redire sit nefas ; 
Neu conversa domum pigeat dare lintea, qu.audo 

Padus Matina laverit cacumina ; 
In mare seu celsus procurrerit Apenninus ; 

Novaque monstra junxeiit libidine 30 

IMirus amor, juvet ut tigres subsidere cervis, 

Adulteretur et columba miluo ; 



16. J ei>od6n libek. H»7 

Crodula noc flavos timcant armcnta leones ; 

Ametquc salsa lcvis hircus aequora. 
llaic, et qusc poterunt rcditus abscindere dulces. 35 

Eamus omnis exsccrata civitas, 
Aut pars indocili melior grcge ; mollis et exspes 

Inominata pcrprimat cubilia ! 
Vos, quibus est virtus, muliebrem tollite luctiim, 

Etrusca praetor et volatc litora. 40 

ATos manet Oceanus circumvagus : arva, beata 

Petamus arva, divites et insulas, 
Keddit ubi Cererem tellus inarata quotannis, 

Et imputata floret usque vinea, 
Germinat et nunquam fallentis termes oliva?, 45 

Suamque pulla ficus ornat arborem, 
Mella cava manant ex ilice, montibus altis 

Levis crepante lyjnpha desilit pede. 
lllic injussoe veuiunt ad mulctra capelkc, 

Refertque tenta grex amicus ubera : 50 

Nee vespertinus circumgemit ursus ovile ; 

Nee intumescit alma viperis humus. 
Nulla nocent pecori contagia, nullius astri 

Gregem aistuosa torret impotentia. 
Pluraque felices mirabimur ; ut neque largis 55 

Aquosus Eurus arva radat imbribus, 
Pinguia nee siccis urantur semina glebis ; 

Utrumque rege temperante Ccelitum. 
Non hue Argoo contendit remige piuus, 

Neque impudioa Colchis intulit pedem ; 60 

Non hue Sidonii torserunt cornua nautce, 

Laboriosa nee cohors Ulixei. 
J upiter ilia pise secrevit litora genti, 

Ut inquinavit sere tempus aureum : 
<Erea dehinc ferro duravit ssecula ; quorum 65 

Fi is secunda vate me datur fuga. 



118 Q. IJ OR A Til FLACCI [17 



Carmen XVII. 
IN C A N I D 1 A M 

HORATTJS. 

Jam jam efficaci do manus scientiie 

Supplex, et oro regna per Proserpina), 

Per et Dianaj non movenda numina, 

Per atque libros carminum valentium 

Defixa coclo devocare sidera, 3 

Canidia, parce vocibus tandem sacris, 

Citumque retro solve, solve turbinem. 

Movit nepotem Telephus Nereium, 

In quern superbus ordinarat agmina 

Mysorum, et in quem tela acuta torsciat. 10 

Unxere matres IlicD addictum feris 

Alitibus atque canibus homicidam Hectorein, 

Postquam relictis moDiiibus rex procidit 

Heu ! pervicacis ad pedes Achillei'. 

Setosa duris exuere pellibus \5 

Laboriosi remiges Ulixei", 

Volente Circa, membra ; tunc mens et sonui 

Relapsus, atque notus in vultus honor. 

Dedi satis superque poenarum tibi. 

Fugit juventas, et verecundus color 20 

Reliquit ossa pelle amicta lurida ; 

Tuis capillus albus est odoribus, 

Nullum a labcre me reclinat otium. 

Urget diem nox et dies noctern, neque est 

Levare tenta spiritu prsecordia. 2ii 

Ergo negatum vincor ut credam miser, 

Sabella pectus increpare carmina, 

Caputque Marsa dissilire nsnia. 

Quid amplius vis ? O mare ' O terra ! ardeo 

Quantum neque atro delibutus Hercules ofl 



17.] BPoDON LIBER 119 

Ncssi cruore, ncc Sicana fervitla 

Furens in ./Etna flamma. Tu, dencc ciui« 

injunosis aridus ventis ferar, 

Cales vencnis oflioina Colchicis. 

Qua) finis ? aut quod me manet stipeiidiiuu '. 33 

Eflarc : jussas cum fide paenas luam, 

Paratus, expiare seu poposccris 

Centum juvencis, sive mendaci lyra 

Voles sonare Tu pudica, tu proba ; 

Perambulabis astra sidus aureum. 40 

Infamis Helena) Castor ofTensus vicem, 

Fraterque magni Castoris, victi prece. 

Ademta vati rcddidere lumina. 

Et tu, potcs nam, solve me dementia, 

O nee patcrnis obsoleta sordibus, Ifi 

Nee in sepulcris paupcrum prudens anus 

Novendiales dissipare pulveres. 

Canidia. 
Quid obseratis auribus fundis preces ? 
Non saxa nudis surdiora navitis 
Neptunus alto tundit hibernus salo. 50 

Quid proderat ditasse Pelignas anus 
Velociusve miscuisse toxicum ? 
Sed tardiora fata te votis manent : 
Ingrata misero vita ducenda est, in hoc, 
Novis ut usque suppetas laboribus. 56 

Optat quietem Pelopis modi pater, 
Egens benignse Tantalus semper dapis ; 
Optat Prometheus obligatus aliti ; 
Optat supremo collocarc Sisyphus 
In monte saxum ; sed vetant leges Jovis 60 

Voles modo altis desilire turribus, 
Modo ense pectus Norico recludere ; 
Frustraque vincla gutturi nectes tuo, 



120 U. HORATU FLACCI EPODON LIBFR. ' [^ 

Fajrtidiosa tristis aegrimonia. 

Vectabor hunieris tunc ego inimicis equos, §1 

Mea3que terra cedet insolentia3. 

Av, qua3 movere cereas imagines, 

Ut ipse nosti curiosus, et polo 

Deripcre Lunam vocibus possim meis, 

Possim crematos excitare rnortuos, 70 

Plorem artis, in te nil anentis, exitum ? 



Q. HO RATH FLAG CI 

CARMEN SjECULARE 

PRO INCOLUMITATE IMPERII. 



Phcebe, silvarumque potens Diana, 
Luciclum cceli lecus, O colendi 
Semper et culti, date, quae precamur 
Tempore sacro ; 

Quo Sibyllini monuere versus 6 

Virgines lectas puerosque castos 
Dis, quibus septem placuere colles, 
Dicere cannon. 

Alme Sol, curru nitido diem qui 
Promis et ceias, aliusque et idem 10 

Nasceris, possis nihil urbe Roma 
Visere majus. 

Rite maturos aperire partus 
Lenis, Ilithyia, tuere matres ; 

Sive tu Lucina probas vocari, 16 

Seu Genitalis. 

Diva, pioducas subolem, Patrumquo 
Prosperes decreta super jugandis 
Feminis, prolisque nova? feraei 

Lege marita : l* 



122 a. HORATII FLACCI 

Certus undenos decies per annos 
Orbis ut cantus referatque ludos, 
Ter die claro, totiesque grata 
Nocte frequentes 

Vosque veraces cecinisse, Parcse, 25 

Quod semel dictum est, stabilisque rcrum 
Terminus servat, bona jam peractis 
Jungite fata. 

Fertilis frugum pecorisque Tellus 
Spicea donet Cererem corona ; 3( 

Nut riant fetus et aquas, salubres 
Et Jovis auras. 

Condito mitis placid usque telo 
Supplices audi pueros, Apollo ; 

Siderum regina bicornis, audi, 35 

Luna, puellas : 

Korna si vestrum est opus, Iliasque 
Litus Etruscum tenuere turmae, 
Jussa pars mutare Lares et urbem 

Sospite cursu, 40 

Cui per ardentem sine fraude Trojam 
Castus iEneas patriae superstes 
Liberum munivit iter, daturus 
Plura relictis ' 

Di, probos mores docili juventse, 15 

Di, senectuti placidae quietem, 
Rorrmlse genti date remque prolero uie 
Et deeus orane. 



CAKMEN S.S5CULARE. 123 

Quiquc vos bobus voneratur albis, 
Olarus AnchisoB Vcncrisquc sanguis, <50 

Imperet, bcllantc prior, jacentem 
Lcnis in hostem. 

Jam mari terraque manus potentes 
Modus Albanasquo timot secures ; 
Jam Scythae rosponsa petunt, superbi 55 

Nupcr, ct Indi. 

lam Fides, et Pax, et Honor,. Pudorque 
Priscus, et ncglecta rcdire Virtus 
Audet ; apparetque bcata plono 

Copia cornu. 60 

Augur, et fulgente decorus arcu 
Phoebus, acccptusque novcm Camenis, 
Qui salutari levat arte fessos 
Corporis artns : 

Si Palatinas videt scquus arces, B5 

Remque Romanam Latiumque, felix, 
Alterum in lustrum, meliusque semper 
Proroget asvum. 

Quseque Aventinum tenet Algidumque, 
Quindecim Diana preces virorum 70 

Curet, et votis puerorum arnicas 
Applicet aures 

Hsec Jovem sentire, deosque cunctos, 
Spem bonam certamque domum reporto, 
Doctus et Phrebi chorus et Diana; 75 

Dicere laudes. 



Q. IIORATII FLACC1 



SERMONES, 



Q. H R A T I 1 HACCI 

SERMONUM 

LIBER PRIMUS. 

Satira I. 

IN AVAROS. 

Qlti fit, Maecenas, ut nemo, quam sibi sortcm 
!§eu ratio dederit, seu fors objecerit, ilia 
Contentus vivat, laudet diversa sequentes ? 
O fortunati merca tores ! gravis annis 

Miles ait, multo jam fractus membra labore. $ 

Contra mercator, navim jactantibus austris, 
Militia est 'potior ! Quid enim ? concurritur : horse 
Momento aut cita mors venit aut victoria laeta. 
Agricolam laudat juris legumque peritus, 
Sub galli cantum consultor ubi ostia pulsat. IC 

Tile, datis vadibus qui rure extractus in urbem est, 
Solos felices viventes clam at in urbe. 
Cetera de genere hoc, adeo sunt multa, loquacem 
Deiassare valent Fabium. Ne te morer, audi 
Quo rem deducam. Si quis Dcus, En ego, dicat, 1$ 

Jam faciam quod vultis : eris tu, qui modo miles, 
Mercator : tu . consultus modo, rusticus : hinc vos, 
Vos hinc mutatis discedite partibus. Eia ! 
Quid statis ? — nolint. Atqui licet esse beatis. 
Quid causae e^t, merito quin illis Jupiter ambas 20 

Iratus buccar inflet, neque se fore posthac 
T: j £icH lj licat, votis ut praebeat aurem ? 



128 Q. HO T lATII FLACCI [1 

Praeterea, nu sic, ut qui jocularia, ridens 
Percurram : quamquam ridentem dicere verum 
Quid vetat ? ut pueris olim dant crust ula bland*. 25 

Doctores, elementa velint ut discere prima : 
Sed tamen amoto quoeramus seria ludo. 
Ille gravem duro terrara qui vertit aratro, 
Perfidus hie cantor, miles, nautaeque, por omnc 
Audaces marc qui currunt, hac mente laborcm 3C 

Sese ferre, senes ut in otia tuta recedant, 
Aiunt, quum sibi sint congest a cibaria ; sicut 
Parvula (nam exemplo est) magni formica labons 
Ore trahit quodcunque potest, atque addit acervo, 
Quern struit, haud ignara ac non incauta futurj 36 

Quee, simul inversum contristat Aquarius annum, 
Non usquam prorepit, et illis utitur ante 
Qusesitis sapiens : quum te neque fervidus icstus 
Demoveat lucro, neque hiems, ignis, mare, ferrum ; 
Nil obstet tibi, dum ne sit te ditior alter. 40 

Quid juvat immensum te argenti pondus et auri 
Furtim defossa timidum deponere terra ? — 
Quod, si comminuas, vilem rcdigatur ad assem. — 
At, ni id fit, quid habet pulchri constructus acervus ? 
Millia frumenti tua triverit area centum ; 45 

Non tuus hoc capiet venter plus ac meus : ut, si 
Reticulum panis venales inter onusto 
Forte vehas humero, nihilo plus accipias, quam 
Qui nil portarit. Vel die, quid referat intra 
Naturae fines viventi, jugera centum an 50 

Mille aret ? — At suave est ex magno tollere acervo — 
Dum ex parvo nobis tantundem haurire reiinquas, 
Cur tua plus laudes cumeris granaria nostris ? 
Ut tibi si sit opus liquidi non amplius urna 
Vel cyatho, et dicas : Magno de flumine mahm, 55 

Quam ex Iwc fonticulo tantundem sumere. Eo fit 
Plenior ut si quos delectet copia justo, 



I.J SERMONUM. LIBEK . 129 

Cum ripa siinui avulsos forat Aufidus accr : 

At qui tantuli eget, quanto est opus, is neque limo 

Turbatam haurit aquam, neque vitam amittit in uudis 00 

At bona pars hominum, deccpta cupidine falso, 
Nil satis est, inquit ; quia tanti, quantum habeas, sis. 
Quid facias illi ? Jubeas miserum esse, libenter 
Quatenus id facit. Ut quidam memoratur Athenis 
Sordidus ac dives populi contemnere voces 65 

Sic solif us : Populus me sibilat, at mihi plaudo 
Ipse domi, simul ac nummos contemplor in area. — 
Tantalus a labris sitiens fugientia captat 
Flumina : Quid rides ? mutato nomine de te 
Fabula narratur : congestis undique saccis 70 

Indormis inhians, et tanquam parcere sacris 
Cogeris, aut pictis tanquam gaudere tabellis. 
Nescis quo valeat nummus ? quern prsebeat usum ? 
Panis ematur, olus, vini sextarius : adde, 
Queis humana sibi doleat natura negatis. 75 

An vigilare metu exanimem, noctesque diesque 
Formidare malos fures, incendia, servos, 
Ne te compilent fugientes, hoc juvat ? Horum 
Semper ego optarim pauperrimus esse bonorum.-- 

At si condoluit tentatum frigore corpus, 80 

Aut alius casus lecto te affixit, habes qui 
Assideat, f omenta paret, medicum roget, ut te 
Suscitet, ac natis reddat carisque propinquis. — 
Non uxor salvum te vult, non fllius : omnes 
Vicini oderunt, noti, pueri atque puellae. 65 

Miraris, quum tu argento post omnia ponas, 
Si nemo prsestet, quern non merearis, amorem ? 
An sic cognatos, nullo natura labore 
Quos tibi dat, retinere velis, servareque amicos ? 
Infelix operam perdas, ut si quis asellum 90 

In campo doceat parentem currere frenis ! 

Denique sit finis quserendi ; quoqae habeas plus, 

F 2 



1 30 a. HOEATII FLACCI T l, 2 

Pauperiem metuas minus, et finire laborem 

Incipias, parto quod avebas. Ne facias, quod 

Ummidius, qui, tarn (non longa est fabula) dives, 95 

Ut metiretur nummos ; ita sordidus, ut se 

Non unquam servo melius vestiret ; ad usque 

Supremum tempus, ne se penuria victus 

Opprimeret, metuebat. At hunc liberta securi 

I^visit medium, fortissima Tyndaridarum. 100 

Quid mi igitur suades ? tit vivam Mcenius aui sic 
Ut Nommtanus ? Pergis pugnantia secum 
Frontibus adversis componere ? Non ego, avarum 
Quum veto te fieri, vappam jubeo ac nebulonem. 
Est inter Tanain quiddam socerumque Viselli : 105 

Est modus in rebus, sunt certi denique fines, 
Quos ultra citraque nequit consistere rectum. 

Tlluc, unde abii, redeo. Nemon ut avarus 
Se probet, ac potius laudet diversa sequentes ; 
Quodquc aliena capella gerat distentius uber, 110 

Tabescat ? neque se majori pauperiorum 
Turbae comparet ? hunc atque hunc superare labor et ? 
Sic festinanti semper locupletior obstat : 
Ut, quum carceribus missos rapit ungula currus, 
[nstat equis auriga suos vincentibus, ilium 115 

Pra3teritum temnens extremos inter euntem. 
Inde fit, ut raro, qui se vixisse beatum 
Dicat, et exacto contentus tempore, vita 
Cedat, uti conviva satur, reperire queamus. 

Jam satis est. Ne me Crispini scrinia lippi 3 20 

CompiJasse putes, verbum non amplius addam. 



Satera II. 

IN MCECHOS. 

Ambubaiarum collegia, pharmacopolse, 
Mendici, mimae, balatrones, hoc genus ornne 
Mcestum ac aollicitum est cantoris morte Tigelli : 



2,3.] SERMONUM.— LIBER 1. 13] 

Quippe benignus erat. Contra hie, ne prodigua esse 

Dieatur metuens, inopi dare nolit amico, 5 

Frigus quo duramque famem propellere possit. 

Ilunc si perconteris, avi cur atque parentis 

Prceclaram ingrata stringat malus ingluvie rem. 

Omnia conductis coemens opsonia nummis : 

Sordidus atque animi parvi quod nolit haberi, 10 

Respondet. Laudatur ab his, culpatur ab illis. 

Fufidius vappsc famam timet ac nebulonis, 

Dives agris, dives positis in fenore nummis : 

Quinas hie capiti mercedes exsecat, atque 

Quanto perditior quisque est, tanto acrius urget ; lfi 

Nomina sectatur, modo sumta veste virili, 

Sub patribus duris, tironum. Maxime, quis non, 

Jupiter, exclamat, simul atque audivit ? — Ac in se 

Pro qacestu sumtum facit hie. — Vix credere possis, 

Quam sibi non sit amicus : ita ut pater ille, Terenti 20 

Fabula quern miserum nato vixisse fugato 

Tnducit, non se pejus cruciaverit atque hie. 

• Si quis nunc quadrat, Quo res haec pertinet ? Illuc : 
Dum vitant stulti vitia, in contraria currunt. 



Satira III. 

IN OBTRECTATORES ET SUPERCILIUM 
STOICUM. 

Omnibus hoc vitium est cantoribus, inter amicos 
Jt nunquam inducant animum cantare rogati, 
injussi nunquam desistant. Sardus habebat 
Ille Tigellius hoc. Caesar, qui cogere posset, 
Si peteret per amicitiam patris atque suam, non 
Quidquam proficeret ; si collibuisset, ab ovo 
Usque ad mala citaret Io Bacche ! modo suraraa 
Voce, modo hac, resonat quae chordis quatuor ima. 



132 Q. HORATII FLACCI [&. 

Nil ajquale homini fuit illi. Saepe velut qui 

Currebat fugiens hostem, persaepe velut qui 10 

Junonis sacra ferret : habebat saepe ducentos, 

Saepe decern servos : modo reges atque tetrarchas, 

Omnia magna, loquens : modo, Sit mihi ?ncnsa trii $ el 

Concha sails pur i et toga, (jure defendere frigus, 

Quamvls crassa, qucat. Decies centena dedisse? 16 

Huic parco, paucis contcnlo, quinque diebu? 

Nil erat in loculis. Noctes vigilabat ad ipsurr 

Mane ; diem totum stertcbat. Nil fuit unquam 

Sic impar sibi. 

Nunc aliquis dicat mihi: Qui<> tu? 
Niillane habes vitia ? Imo alia, et fortasse minora. 2C 
Mseniua abscntem Novium quum carpenv, Ileus tu, 
Quidam ait, ignoras te? an ut ignotwn. dare nobis 
\'> rba putas ? Egojnct ml ignosco, IVlamius inquit 
Stultus et improbus hie amor est digr.usque notari. 
Quum tua pervideas oculis male lippus inunctis, 25 

Cur in amicorum vitiis tain cernis scutum, 
Quam aut aquila aut serpens Epiuaurius ? At tibi contra 
Bvenit, inquirant vitia ut tua rursus et illi. 
Iracundior est paulo ; minus aptus acutis 
Naribus horum hominurn ; rideri possit, eo quod 30 

Rusticius tonso toga defluit, et male laxus 
In pede calceus haeret : at est bonus, ut melior vir 
Non alius quisquam ; at tibi amicus ; at ingenium ingens 
[nculto latet hoc sub corpore : denique te ipsum 
Concute, num qua tibi vitiorum inseverit olim 35 

Natura aut etiam consuetudo mala : namque 
\eglectis urenda filix innascitur agris. 

] lluc pra?vertamur : amatorem quod amicae 
Turpia decipiunt caecum vitia, aut etiam ipsa hoac 
Pelectant, veluti Balbinum polypus Hagnre 40 

Vellem in amicitia sic erraremus, et isti 
Errori nomen virtus posuisset honestura. 



3.] SERMONUM. — LIBRA 1. 13S 

At pater ut guati, <>c nos debemus amici, 

Si quod sit vitium, non fastidire : strahonem 

Appeliat PsBtum pater ; et Pullum, male paivus 40 

Si cui filius est. ut abortivus fuit olim 

Sisyphus : hunc Varum, distortis cruribus ; ilium 

Balbutit Scaurum, pravis fultum male talis. 

Parcius h*c vivit ? frugi dicatur. Iueptus 

Et jactantior hie paulo est ? concinnus amicis 50 

Postuiat ut videatur. At est truculentior atque 

Plus coquo liber ? simplex fortisque habeatur. 

Caldior est ? acres inter numeretur. Opiuor, 

Hsec res et jungit, junctos et servat amicos. 

At nos virtutes ipsas invertimus atque 6* 

Sincerum cupimus vas incrustare. Probus quis 
Nobiscum vivit ? multum est demissus homo ? llli 
Tardo cognomen pingui et damus. Hie fugit omnes 
Insidias, nullique malo latus obdit apertum ? 
(Quum genus hoc inter vitae versemur, ubi acris 60 

Tnvidia atque vigent ubi crimina :) pro bene sano 
Ac non incauto fictum astutumque vocamus. 
Simplicior quis, et est, qualem me ssepe libenter 
Obtulerim tibi, Majcenas, ut forte legentem 
Aut taciturn impellat quovis sermone molestus ? 6ft 

Communi sensu plane caret, inquimus. Eheu, 
Quam temere in nosmet legem sancimus iniquam ! 
Nam vitiis nemo sine nascitur : optimus ille est, 
Qui minimis urgetur. Amicus dulcis, ut SGquum est, 
Quum mea compenset vitiis bona, pluribus hisce, 70 

Si modo plura mihi bona sunt, inclinet. Amari 
Si volet hac lege, in trutina ponetur eadem. 
Qui, ne tuberibus propriis ofFendat amicum, 
Tostulat, ignoscet verrucis illius ; ssquum est, 
Peccatis veniam poscentem reddere rursus. 75 

Denique, quatenus excidi penitus vitium irae, 
Vetera item nequeunt stultis hserentia ; cur non 



1*J4 a. HORATII FLACCI ^3, 

Ponderibus .nodulisque suis ratio utitur ? ac res 

Ut quasque est, ita suppliciis delicta coercet ? 

Si quis eura servum, patinam qui tollere jussus 80 

Semesos pisces tepidumque ligurierit jus, 

In cruce sufngat, Labeone insanior inter 

Sanos dicatur. Quanto hoc furiosius atque 

Majus peccatum est ? Paulum deliquit amicus ; 

Quod nisi concedas, habeare insuavis ; acerbus 86 

Odisti, et fugis, ut Rusonem debitor aeris, 

Qui nisi, quum tristes raisero venero Kalends, 

Mercedem aut numrnos unde unde extricat, amaras 

Porrecto jugulo historias, captivus ut, audit. 

Comminxit lectum potus, mensave catillum 90 

Euandri manibus tritum dejecit : ob hanc rem, 

Aut positum ante mea quia pullum in parte catini 

Sustulit esuriens, minus hoc jucundus amicus 

Sit mihi ? Quid faciam, si furtum fecerit ? aut si 

Prodiderit commissa fide ? sponsumve negarit ? 95 

Queis" paria esse fere placuit peccata, laborant, 
Quum ventum ad verum est ; sensus moresque repugnant, 
Atque ipsa utilitas, justi prope mater et aequi. 
Quum prorepserunt primis animalia terris, 
Mutum et turpe pecus, glandem atque cubilia propter 100 
Unguibus et pugnis, dein fustibus, atque ita porro 
Pugnabant armis, quae post fabricaverat usus ; 
Donee verba, quibus voces sensusque notarent, 
Nominaque invenere : dehinc absistere bello 
Oppida coeperunt munire, et ponere leges, 105 

Ne quis fur esset, neu latro, ne quis adulter. 
Nam fuit ante Helenam mulier teterrima belli 
Causa : sed ignotis perierunt mortibus illi, 
Quos, Venerem incertam rapientes, more ferarum, 
Viribus editior ceedebat, ut in grege taurus. 110 

Jura inventa metu injusti fateare necesse est, 
Tempera si fastosque velis evolvere mundi. 



8, 4 | SERMONUM. LIBER I, 135 

Neo nalura pa test justo secernere iniquum, 

Dividit ut bou.i diversis, fugienda pctendis : 

Nee vincet ratio hoe, tantundem ut peccct idemque, 115 

Qui tencros caules alieni fregerit horti, 

Et qui nocturnus sacra Divum legerit. Adsit 

Regula, peccatis qua) pamas irroget squat, 

Nee scutica dignum horribili sectere flagello. 

Ne ferula ccedas meritum majora subire 120 

Verbera, lion vereor, quum dicas esse pares res 

Furta latrociniis, et raagnis parva mineris 

Falce recisurum simili te, si tibi regnum 

Permittant homines. Si dives, qui sapiens est, 

Et sutor bonus, et solus formosus, et est rex ; 1 25 

Cur optas quod habes ? — Non nosti, quid pater, inquit, 

Chrysippus dicat : Sapiens crepidas sibi nunquam 

Nee soleas fecit ; sutor tamen est sapiens. — Qui?— 

Ut, quamvis tacet Ilermogenes, cantor tamen atque 

Optimus est modulator ; ut Alfenius vafer, omni Jifl 

Abjecto instrumento artis clausaque tabcnui^ 

Tonsor erat : sapiens operis sic optimus omnis 

Est opifex solus, sic rex. — Vellunt tibi barbam 

Lascivi pueri ; quos tu nisi fuste coerces, 

Urgeris turba circum te stante, miserque 1 35 

Rumperis, et latras, magnorum maxime regum. 

Ne longum faciam, dum tu quadrante lavatum 

Rex ibis, neque te quisquam stipator, ineptum 

Praeter Crispinum, sectabitur, et mihi dulces 

Tgnoscent, si quid peccaro stultus, amici ; f 40 

Inque vicem illorum patiar delicta libenter, 

Privatusque magis vivam te rege beatus. 



Satira IV. 
IN OBTRECTATORES SUOS. 

Eupolis atque Cratinus Aristophanesque poetae, 
Atque alii, quorum Comoedia prisca virorum est, 



l36 a. liORATII FLACCi 1 4 

Si quis erat dignus describi, quod malus, aut Cur, 

Quod mcBchus foret, aut sicarius, aut alioqui 

Famosus, multa cum libertate notabant. 5 

Hinc omnis pendet Lucilius, hosce secutus, 

Mutatis tantum pedibus numerisq le ; facctus, 

Emuncta? naris, durus componcre versus. 

Nam fuit hoc vitiosus, in hora saepe ducentos, 

Ut magnum, versus dictabat stans pede in uno. 10 

Quum flueret lutulentus, erat quod tollere velles : 

Garrulus, atque piger scribendi ferre laborem, 

Scribendi recte : nam ut multum, nil moror. Ecce f 

Crispinus minimo me provocat : — Accipe, si vib, 

Accipiam tabulas ; dctur nobis locus, hora, 1 b 

Custodcs ; videamus, uter plus scribere j)ossit. — 

Di bene fecerunt, inopis me quodque pusilli 

Finxerunt animi, raro et perpauca loquentis. 

At tu conclusas hircinis follibus auras, 

Usque laborantes, dum ferrum emolliat ignis, 20 

Ut mavis, imitare. 

Beatus Famous, ultro 
Delatis capsis et imagine ! quum mea nemo 
Scripta legat, vulgo recitare timentis, ob hanc rem, 
^uod sunt quos genus hoc minime juvat, utpote plures 
Culpari dignos. Quemvis media elige turba ; f ii 

Aut ab avaritia aut misera ambitione laborat. 
Hunc capit argenti splendor ; stupet Albius sere ; 
Hie mutat merces surgente a sole ad eum, quo 
Vespertina tepet regio ; quin per mala praeceps 
Fertur, uti pulvis collectus turbine, ne quid 3Q 

Summa deperdat metuens, aut ampliet ut rem. 
Omnes hi metuunt versus, odere poetas. — 
Fenum liabet in cornu; Ic-ngefuge: dummodo risum 
Excutiat sibi, non hie cuiquam parcet amico : 
JEt, quodcunque semel chartis illeverit, omnes 35 

Gestiet a furno redeu?itcs scire lc:cuque 



4.\ SERMONUM.--LIBER I. 137 

Et pueros ct aims. — Agedum, pauca accipe contra, 

Primum ego nic illorum, dederim quibus esse poetis, 

Excerpam numcro : neque enirn coccludere versum 

Dixeris esse satis ; neque, si qui seribat, uti nos, 40 

Sermoni propiora, putes hunc esse poetam. 

Ingenium cui sit, cui mens divinior, atque os 

Magna sonaturum, des nominis hujus honorem 

Idcirco quidam, Comoedia necne poerna 

Esset, qucesivere ; quod acer spiritus ac vis 45 

Nee verbis nee rebus inest, nisi quod pede certo 

DifFert sermoni, sermo merus. — At pater ardens 

Scevit, quod mcrctricc nepos insanus arnica 

Filius uxorcm grandi cum dote rccuset, 

Ebrius et, magnum quod dedecus, ambulct ante 60 

Noctcm cumfacibus. — Numquid Pomponius istis 

Audiret leviora, pater si viveret ? Ergo 

Non satis est puris versum perscribere verbis, 

Quern si dissolvas, quivis stomaehetur eodem 

Quo personatus pacto pater. His, ego quae nunc. 55 

Olim qua? scripsit Lucilius, eripias si 

Tempora certa modosque, et, quod prius ordine verbum est, 

Posterius facias, praeponens ultima primis, 

Non, ut si solvas "Postquam discordia tetra 

Belli ferratos postcs jiortasque ref regit" 60 

Invenias etiam disjecti membra poetee. 

Hactenus hasc : alias, justum sit necne poema ; 
Nunc illud tantum quaeram, meritone tibi sit 
Suspectum genus hoc scribendi. Sulcius acer 
Ambulat et Caprius, rauci male cumque libellis, 65 

Magnus uterque timor latronibus ; at bene si quis 
Et vivat puris manibus, contemnat utrumque 
Ut sis tu similis Ceeli Birrique latronum, 
Non ego sum Capri neque Sulci : cur metuas me ? 
Nulla taberna meos habeat neque pila libellos, 70 

Queis manus insudet vulgi Hermogenisque Tigelli ; 



138 a. HORATII FLACC1 [4* 

Nee recito cuiquim, nisi amicis, idque coactus, 

Non ubivis, coram ve quibuslibet. — In medio qui 

Scoipta foro rccitent, sunt multi, quique lavantcs 

Suave locus voci rcsonat conclusus. — Inanes 75 

Hoc juvat, baud illud quserentes, num sine sensu, 

Tempore num faciant alieno. — Lccdere gaudes, 

Enquit, et hoc studio jwavus fads. — Unde petitum 

Hoc in me jacis ? est auctor quis denique eorum, 

Vixi cum quibus ? Absentem qui rodit amicum, 80 

Qui non defendit alio culpanle, solutos 

Qui captat risus hominum famamque dicacis, 

Fingcre qui non visa potest, commissa tacere 

Qui nequit ; hie niger est, hunc tu, Romane, caveto 

SaBpe tribus lectis videas coenare quaternos, 85 

E quibus imus amet quavis adspergere cunctos, 

Praster eum, qui prsebet aquam : post, hunc quoque potin, 

Condita quum verax aperit praccordia Liber. 

Hie tibi comis et urbanus liberque videtur 

Infesto nigris : ego, si risi, quod ineptus 90 

Pastillos Pvufillus olet, Gargonius hircum, 

Lividus et mordax videor tibi ? Mentio si qua 

De Capitolini furtis injecta Petilli 

Te coram fuerit, defendas, ut tuus est mos : — 

Me Capitolinus convictore usus amicoque 95 

A puero est, causaque mea permulta rogatus 

Fecit, et incolumis lector quod vivit in urbe ; 

Sed tamen admiror, quo pacto judicium illud 

Fugerit. — Hie nigrse succus loliginis, heBc est 

iErugo mera ; quod vitium procul afore chartis, 100 

Atque animo prius, ut si quid promittere de me 

Possum aliud vere, promitto. Liberius si 

Dixero quid, si forte jocosius, hoc mihi juris 

Cum Tenia dabis : insuevit pater optimus hoc me 

Ut fugerem, exemplis vitiorum quoeque notando. 10c 

Quum me hortar^tur, parce, frugaliter, atque 



4. : SE11MONUM. IJfiER I. 139 

Vivereni uti contcntu? eo, quod mi ipse parasset ' 

Non?ie tides, Albi ut male vivat fdius ? utque 

B cirrus inojis? magnum documentum, nepatriam 7 em 

Pcrdere quis velit. A turpi mcrctricis amore 1 10 

Quum detcrreret : Scctani dissimilis sis, 

Aiebat. Sapiens, vitatu quidque petitu 

Sit melius, causas reddet tibi ; mi satis est, si 

Traditum ab antiquis marcm servare, tuamque, 

Dum custodis cges, vitam famamque tueri 116 

Incohomem possum ; simid ac duraverit cetas 

Membra animumque tuum, nobis sine cortiee. Sic mo 

Formabat puerum dictis, et sive jubebat 

Ut facerem quid, Habes auctorem, quo faeias Jwc ; 

Unum ex judicibus selectis objiciebat : 120 

Sive vetabat, An hoc irdionestum et inutile factum 

Necnc sit, addubites, Jlagret rumor e malo quum 

Hie atque ille ? Avidos vicirmm funus ut segros 

Exanimat, mortisque metu sibi parcere cogit ; 

•Sic teneros animos aliena opprobria saype 126 

Absterrent vitiis. Ex hoc ego sanus ab illis, 

Perniciem qusecunque ferunt, mediocribus, et queis 

Tgnoscas, vitiis teneor. Fortassis et istinc 

Largiter abstulerit longa setas, liber amicus, 129 

Consilium proprium ; neque enim, quum lectulus aut me 

Porticus excepit, desum mihi. Rcctius hoc est ; 

Hoc faciens vivam melius ; sic dulcis amicis 

Occurram ; hoc quidam non belle ; numquid ego illi 

Imprudens olim faciam simile ? Haec ego mecum 

Compressis agito labris ; ubi quid datur oti, 136 

[lludo chartis. Hoc est mediocribus illis 

Ex vitiis unum, cui si concedere nolis, 

Multa poetarum veniet manus, auxilio quae 

Sit mihi ; nam multo plures sumus, ac veluti te 

Judasi cogemus in hanc concedere turbam. £40 



140 Q. IIORATII FLACCI [$ 

Carmen V. 
ITER BRUNDISTNUM. 

Egressum magna me excepit Aricia Roma 

Hospitio modico ; rhetor comes Hehodorus, 

Graecorum longe doctissimus. Inde Forum Appi 

Diflertum nautis, cauponibus atque malignis. 

Hoc iter ignavi divisimus, altius ac nos 3 

Fraecinctis unurn : minus est gravis Appia tardis. 

Hie ego propter aquam, quod erat detcrrima, ventri 

Indico bellum, ccenantcs haud animo aequo 

Exspectans comites. Jam nox inducere terris 

Umbras et coelo diffundere signa parabat : 10 

Turn pueri nautis, pueris convicia nautae 

Ingerere. — Hue appelle. Trccentos inserts ; olie 

Jam satis est! — Dum aes exigitur, dum mula ligatur, 

Tota abit hora. Mali culices ranseque palustres 

Avertunt somnos. Absentem ut cantat amicam 15 

Multa prolutus vappa nauta atque viator 

Certatim, tandem fessus dormire viator 

Incipit, ac missae pastum retinacula mula) 

Nauta piger saxo religat, stertitque supinus. 

Jamque dies aderat, nil quum procedere lintrem 20 

Sentimus ; donee cercbrosus prosilit unus, 

Ac mulse nautaeque caput lurnbosque sa?igno 

Fuste dolat. Quarta vix demum exponimur hora, 

Ora manusque tua lavimur, Feroma, lympha. 

Millia turn pransi tria repimus, atque subimus 25 

Impositum saxis late candenlibus Anxur. 
Hue venturus erat Maecenas optimus, atque 
Cocceius, missi magnis de rebus uterque 
Legati, aversos soliti componere amicos. 
Hie oculis ego nigra meis collyria lippus d0 

Illinere. Interea Maecenas advenit atque* 



5.1 SERMONUM. LIBER I. [41 

Cocceius Capi toque simul Fonteius, a,d unguem 

Factus homo, Aritoni, non ut magis alter, amicus 

Fundos Aufidio Lusco praetore libenter 

Linquimus, insani ridentes pra3mia scribae, 35 

Praetextam et latum clavum primaeque batillum. 

In Mamurrarum lassi deinde urbe raanemus, 

Murena praebente domum, Capitone culinam. 

Postera lux oritur multo gratissima, namque 
Plotius et Varius Sinuessae Virgiliusque 40 

Occurrunt, animal, quales neque candidiores 
Terra tulit, neque queis me sit devinctior alter. 
O qui complexus et gaudia quanta fuerunt ! 
Nil ego contulerim jucundo sanus amico. 

Proxima Campano ponti quae villula tectum 45 

Tra^buit, et parochi, qua? debent, ligna salemque. 
Hinc muli Capuse clitellas tempore ponunt. 
Lusum it Maecenas, dormitum ego Virgiliusque : 
Namque pila lippis inimicum et ludere crudis. 

Hinc nos Cocceii recipit plenissima villa, 50 

Q iac super est Caudi cauponas. Nunc mihi paucis 
Sarmenti scurrae pugnam Messique Cicirri, 
Musa, velim memores, et quo patre natus uterque 
Contulerit lites. Messi clarum genus Osci ; 
Sarmenti domina exstat : ab his majoribus orti 55 

Ad pugnam venere. Prior Sarmentus : Equi te 
Esse feri similem dico. Ridemus ; et ipse 
Messius : Accipio ; caput et movet O. tua cornu 
Ni foret exsecto frons, inquit, quid faceres, quum 
Sic mutilus minitaris ? At illi foeda cicatrix GO 

Setosam laevi frontem turpaverat oris. 
Campanum in morbum, in faciem permulta jocatus, 
Pastorem saltaret uti Cyclopa rogabat ; 
Nil illi larva aut tragicis opus esse cothurnis. 
Multa Cicirrus ad haec : Donasset jamne catenam ofl 

fix voto Laribus, quserebat ; scriba quod esset, 






142 Q. IIORATII FLACCf [5 

Nihilo deterius dominae jus esse. Rogabat 

Denique, cur unquam fugisset, cai satis una 

Farris libra foret, gracili sic tamque pusillo ? 

Prorsus jucunde coenam produximus illam. 70 

Tendimus hinc recta Beneventum, ubi sedulus h:»spos 
Paene macros arsit dum turdos versat in igni ; 
Nam vaga per veterem dilapso flamma culinam 
Vulcano summum properabat iambere tectum. 
Convivas avidos coenam servosque timentcs 75 

Turn rapere, atque omnes restinguere velle videres. 

Incipit ex illo incntes Apulia notos 
Ostentare mihi, quos torret Atabulus, et quos 
Nunquam erepsemus, nisi nos vicina Trivici 
Villa recepisset, lacrimoso non sine fumo, 60 

Udos cum foliis ramos ureute camino. 

Quatuor hinc rapimur viginti et millia rliedis, 
Mansuri oppidulo, quod versu dicere non est, 
Signis perfacile est : venit vilissima rerum 
Hie aqua ; sed panis longe pulcherrimus, ultra 85 

Callidus ut soleat humeris portaro viator ; 
Nam Canusi lapidosus, aqua? non ditior urna 
Qui locus a fortl Diomede est conditus olim. 
Flentibus lnc Varius discedit maestus amicis. 

Inde Rubos fessi pervenimus, utpote longum 90 

Carpentes iter et factum corruptius ifnbri. 
Postera tempestas melior, via pejor ad usque 
Bari mcenia piscosi. Dehinc Gnatia lymphis 
Tratis exstructa dedit risusque jocosque, 
Dum flamma sine thura liquescere limine sacro 95 

Persuadere cupit. Credat Judaeus Apella, 
Non ego ; namque deos didici securum agere sevum, 
Nee, si quid miri faciat natura, deos id 
Tristes ex alto cccli demittere tecto. 
Brundisium longse finis chartaeque via?que. 100 






0."] SEItMONUM. LIBER I. 1-43 



Satira VI. 

IN DERISOHES NATALIUM SUOLIUM. 
Non, quia, Maecenas, Lydorum quidquid Etrusoos 
Incoluit fines, nemo generosior est te, 
Nee, quod avus tibi maternus fuit atque paternus, 
Olim qui magnis legionibus imperitarunt, 
tit plerique solent, naso suspendis adunco 5 

Ignotos, ut me libertine- patre natum. 
Quum referre negas, quali sit quisque parento 
Natus, dum ingenuus : persuades hoc tibi vere, 
Ante potestatem Tulli atque ignobile rcgnum 
Multos sa^pe viros nullis majoribus ortos 10 

Et vixisse probos, amplis et honoribus auctos . 
Contra Lsevinum, Valeri genus, unde Superbus 
Tarquinius regno pulsus fugit, unius assis 
Non unquam pretio pluris licuisse, notante 
Judice, quo nosti, populo, qui stultus honores 15 

Saipe dat indignis, et famae servit ineptus, 
Qui stupet in titulis et imaginibus. Quid oportet 
Vos facere, a vulgo longe longeque remotos ? 

Namque esto, populus Lsevino mallet honorem 
Quam Decio mandare novo, censorque moveret 20 

Appius, ingenuo si non essem patre natus ; 
Vel merito, quoniam in propria non pelle quicssem. 
Sed fulgente trahit constrictos Gloria curru 
Non minus ignotos generosis. Quo tibi, Tilli, 
Sumere depositum clavum, flerique tribuno ? 25 

Invidia accrevit, privato qua3 minor esset. 
Nam ut quisque insanus nigris medium impediit crus 
Pellibus, et latum demisit pectore clavum, 
Audit continuo : Quis homo hie est ? quo patre natus 'f 
Ut si qui -jegrotet, quo morbo Barrus haberi 30 

til cupiat formoBus, eat quacunquc, pucllis 



Ii4 a. HORATII FLACCI [G. 

Enjiciat curam quaerendi singula, quali 

Sit facie, sura, quali pede, deute. capillo : 

Sic qui promittit, cives, Urbem sibi curse, 

Imperium fore, et Italiam, et delubra deorum ; 35 

Quo patre sit natus, nurn ignota matre inhonestus, 

Omnes rnortales curare et quaerere cogit. — 

Tune Sijri, Damce, ant Dionysi Jilius, audes 

Dcjicere e saxo cives, aut tradere Cadmo ? — 

At Novius collcga g radii, post me sedet uno ; 40 

Namque est Me, pater quod crat mens. — Hoc tibi Paullus 

Et Messala videris ? At hie, si plostra ducenta 

Concurrantque foro tria funera, magna sonabit 

Cornua quod vincatque tubas : saltern tenet Iwc nos. — 

Nunc ad me redeo, libcrtino patre najum, 45 

Quern rodunt omnes libertino patre natum ; 
Nunc, quia sum tibi, Maecenas, convictor ; at olim 
Quod mihi pareret legio Romana tribune 
Dissimile hoc illi est, quia non, ut forsit honorem 
Jure mihi invideat quivis, ita te quoque amicum, 50 

Praesertim cautum dignos assumere, prava 
Ambitione procul. Felicem dicere non hoc 
Me possim, casu quod te sortitus amicum ; 
Nulla etenim mihi te fors obtulit : optimus olim 
Virgilius, post hunc Varius, dixere quid essem. 55 

Ut veni coram, singultim pauca locutus, 
Infans namque pudor prohibebat plura profari, 
Non ego me claro natum patre, non ego circum 
Me Satureiano vectari rura caballo, 

Sed, quod eram, narro. Respondes, ut tuus est mos, 60 
Pauca : abeo ; et revocas nono post mense, jubesque 
Esse in amicorum numero. Magnum hoc ego duco 
Quod placui tibi, qui turpi secernis honestum, 
Ncn patre pra3claro, sed vita et pectore puro. 
Atqui si vitiis mediocribus ac mea paucis 6d 

Mendosa est natura, alioqui recta, velut si 



. | SERMONUM. LIBER I. 146 

4 

Egregio inspersos reprendas corpore iicdvos, 
Si ncque avaritiam ncque sordes ant mala lustra 
Objiciet verc quisquam mihi ; purus ct insons, 
Ut me collaudem, si ct vivo carus amicis ; 70 

Causa fuit pater his, qui macro pauper agello 
Noluit in Flavi ludum me mittere, magni * 

Quo pueri magnis e centurionibus orti, 
Laevo suspensi loculos tabulamque laccrto, 
Ibant octonis referentes Idibus cora ; 75 

Sed puerum est ausus Romam portare, docendum 
Artes, quas doceat quivis eques atque senator 
Semet prognatos. Vestem servosque sequentes, 
In magno ut populo, si qui vidisset, avita 
Ex re praberi sumtus mihi crederet illos 80 

Ipse mihi custos incorruptissimus omnes 
Circum doctores aderat. Quid multa ? pudicum, 
Qui primus virtutis honos, servavit ab omni 
Non solum facto, veram opprobrio quoque turpi : 
Nee timuit, sibi ne vitio quis verteret olim, 85 

Si praeco parvas, aut, ut fuit ipse, coactor 
Mercedes sequerer ; neque ego essem questus. Ad hoc nuno 
Laus illi debetur et a me gratia major. 
Nil me posniteat sanum patris hujus ; eoque 
Non, ut magna dolo factum negat esse suo pars, 90 

Quod non mgenuos habeat clarosque parentes, 
Sic me defendam. Longc mea discrepat istis 
Et vox et ratio : nam si natura juberet 
A certis annis aevum remeare peractum, 
Atque alios legere ad fastum quoscunque parentes, 95 

Optaret sibi quisque : meis contentus honestos 
Fascibus et seilis nollem mihi sumere, demens 
Judicio vulgi, sanus fortasse tuo, quod 
Nollem onus haud unquam solitus portare molestum 
Nam mihi continuo major quaarenda foret res, 100 

Ate " " salutandi plures : ducendus et unus 

G 



146 Q. HORATII FLACCI [6, 7. 

Et comes alter, uti ne solus rusve peregreve 

Exirem ; plures calones atque caballi 

Pascendi : ducenda petorrita. Nunc mihi curto 

Ire licet mulo vel, si libet, usque Tarentum, 1 01 

Mantica cui lumbos onere ulceret atque eques armcs 

Objiciet nemo sordes mihi, quas tibi, Tilli, 

Quum Tiburte via prsetorem quinque sequuntur 

Te pueri, lasanum portantes cenophorumque. 

Hoc ego commodius quam tu, prseclare senator, 11C 

Multis atque alils vivo. Quacunque libido est, 

Incedo solus ; percontor, quanti olus ac far ; 

Fallacem circum vespertinumque pererro 

Saepe forum ; adsisto divinis ; kide domum me 

Ad porri et ciceris refero laganique catinum. 11 

CcBna minis tratur pueris tribus, et lapis albus 

Pocula cum cyatho duo sustinet ; adstat echinus 

Vilis, cum patera guttus, Campana supellex. 

Deinde eo dormitum, non sollicitus, mihi quod eras 

Surgendum sit mane, obeundus Marsya, qui se 120 

Vultum ferrc negat Noviorum posse minoris. 

Ad quartam jaceo ; post hanc vagor ; aut ego, lee to 

Aut scripto, quod me taciturn juvet, ungor olivo, 

Non quo fraudatis immundus Natta lucernis. • 

Ast ubi me fessum sol acrior ire lavatum 12? 

Admonuit, fugio campum lusumque trigonem. 

Pransus non avide, quantum interpellet inani 

Ventre diem durare, domesticus otior. Haec est 

Vita solutorum misera ambitione gravique. 

His me consolor victurum suavius, ac si 1 30 

Quaestor avus, pater atque meus, patruusque fuisset. 



Satira VII. 

IN MALKDICOS ET INHUMANOS. 

Proscripti Regis Rupili pus atque venenum 
Hybrida quo pacto sit Persius ultus, opinor 



7.J SERMONUM. LIBER I. 147 

Omnibus et lippis notum et tonsoribus esse 

Persius hie permagna negotia dives habebat 

Clazomenis, etiam lites cum Rcge molestas ; 5 

Durus homo, atque odio qui posset vincere Regem, 

Confidens, tumidusque, adeo sermonis amari, 

Sisennas, Barros ut equis praecurreret albis. 

Ad Regem redeo. Postquam nihil inter utrumque 

Convenit (hoc etenim sunt omnes jure molesti, 10 

Quo fortes, quibus adversum bellum incidit : inter 

Hectora Priamiden, animosum atque inter Achillem 

Ira fuit capitalis, ut ultima divideret mors, 

Non aliam ob causam nisi quod virtus in utroque 

Summa fuit ; duo si discordia vexet inertes, 15 

Aut si disparibus bellum incidat, ut Diomedi 

Cum Lycio Glauco, discedat pigrior, ultro 

Muneribus missis) : Bruto prsetore tenente 

Ditem Asiam, Rupili et Persi par pugnat, uti non 

Compositum melius cum Bitho Bacchxiis. In jus 20 

Acres procurrunt, magnum spectaculum uterque. 

Persius exponit causam ; ridetur ab omni 

Conventu : laudat Brutum laudatque cohortem ; 

Solem Asise Brutum appellat, stellasque salubres 

Appellat comites, excepto Rege ; canem ilium, 25 

Invisum agricolis sidus, venisse : ruebat, 

Flumen ut hibernum, fertur quo rara securis. 

Turn Prsenestinus salso multoque fluenti 

Expressa arbusto regerit convicia, durus 

Vmdemiator et invictus, cui ssepe viator 30 

Cessisset, magna compellans voce cucullum. 

At Grsccus, postquam est Italo perfusus aceto, 

Persius exclamat : Per magnos, Brute, Deos te 

Oro, qui reges consuesti toller e ; car non 34 

Hunc Regem jugulas? operum hoc, mihi crede, titorum ist, 



148 a. IIORATII FLACCI 1 8 



Satira VIII. 

IN SUPERSTITIOSOS ET VENEFICAS. 
Olim truncus eram ficulnus, inutile lignum, 
Quum faber, incertus scamnum foceretne Priapum, 
Maluit esse Deum. Deus inde ego, furum aviumque 
Maxima formido : nam fures dextra coercet. 
Ast importunas volucres in vertice arundo 5 

Terret fixa, vetatque novis considere in hortis. 
Hue prius angustis ejecta cadavera cellis 
Conservus vili portanda locabat in area. 
Hoc miserae plebi stabat commune sepulcrum, 
Pantolabo scurrae Nomentanoque nepoti. 1 

Mille pedes in fronte, trecentos cippus in agrum 
Hie dabat ; heredes monumentum ne sequeretur. 
Nunc licet Esquiliis habitare salubribus, atque 
Aggere in aprico spatiari, qua modo tristes 
Albis informem spectabant ossibus agrum, 15 

Quum mihi non tantum furesque feraeque, suetae 
Hunc vexare locum, curse sunt atque labori, 
Quantum carminibus quae versant atque venenis 
Humanos animos. Has nullo perdere possum 
Nee prohibere modo, simul ac vaga Luna decorum 20 

Protulit os, quin ossa legant herbasque nccentea 
Vidi egomet nigra succinct am vadere palla 
Canidiam, pedibus nudis, passoque capillo, 
Cum Sagana majore ululantern. Pallor utrasque 
Fecerat horrendas adspectu. Scalpere terram 25 

Unguibus, et pullam divellere mordicus agnam 
Coeperunt ; cruor in fossam confusus, ut inde 
Manes elicerent, animas responsa daturas. 
Lanea et effigies erat, altera cerea ; major 
Lanea, quae pamis compesceret inferiorem. 30 

Cerea suppliciter stabat, servilibus ut quae 



8, 9. J SERMONUM. LI HER I. I4\i 

Jam peritura modis. Hecaton vocat altera, socvam 

Altera Tisiplionen : serpentcs atque vidcres 

Infernas errare canes, lunamque rubentem, 

Ne foret his testis, post magna latere scpulcfa. 35 

Singula quid memorem ? quo pacto altcrna loquentes 

Umbras cum Sagana resonarent triste et acutum ? 

Utque lupi barbam varia) cum dente colubrse 

Abdiderint furtim terris, et imagine cerea 

Largior arserit ignis, et ut non testis inultus 40 

Horruerim voces Furiarum et facta duarum ? — 



Satira IX. 

IN IMPUDENTES ET INEPTOS PARASITAS- 

TROS. 

lbam forte Via Sacra, sicut meus est mos, 

Nescio quid meditans nugarum, totus in illis : 

Accurrit quidam notus mihi nomine tantum, 

Arreptaque manu, Quid agis, dulcissime rerum ? 

Suaviter, ut nunc est, inquam, et cupio omnia qua vis, /i 

Quum assectaretur, Num quid vis ? occupo : at ille, 

Noris nos, inquit ; docti sumus. Hie ego, Pluris 

Hoc, inquam, mihi eris. Misere discedere qurcrens, 

Ire modo ocius, interdum consistere, in aurem 

Dicere nescio quid puero ; quum sudor ad imos 10 

Manaret talos. O te, Bolane, cerebri 

Felicem ! aiebam tacitus ; quum quidlibet ille 

Garriret, vicos, urbem laudaret. Ut illi 

Nil respondebam, Misere cupis, inquit, abtre, 

Jamdudum video, sed nil agis, usque tencbo, 15 

Persequar. liinc quo nunc iter est tibi ? — Nil opus est te 

Circumagi ; quendam volo viserc non tibi notum ; 

Trans Tiberim longe cubat is, prope Ccesaris hortos. — 

Nil habeo quod agam, et non sum piger ; usque sequar te.— 

Demitto auriculas ut iniquai mentis asellus, 20 



150 a. HORATII FLACCI [9. 

Quum gravius dorso subiit onus. Incipit ille : 

Si bens me novi, non Viscum pluris amicum, 

Non Varium fades ; nam quis me scribere plures 

Aut citius possit versus ? quis membra movere 

Mollius ? invideat quod et Hermogenes, ego canto. 25 

Enterpellandi locus hie erat. — Est tibi mater ? 

Cognati, quels te salvo est opus ? — Haud mihi quhquam; 

Omnes composui. — Felices ! Nunc ego resto ; 

Co?ifice, namque instat fatum mihi triste, Sabella 

Quod puero cecinit mota divina anus urna : 30 

" Hunc ncque dira vencv/i nee iwsticus auferet ensis, 

Nee laterum dolor, aut tussis, nee tarda podagra; 

Garrulus hunc quando consumet cunque ; loquaces, 

Si sajnat, vitet, simul at que adoleverit atas" 

Ventum erat adVestse, quarta jam parte diei 36 

Praeterita, et casu tunc respondere vadato 
Debebat ; quod ni fecisset, perdere litem. 
Si me a?nas, inquit, paulum hie ades. — Inteream, si 
Aut valeo stare, aut novi civilia jura ; 
Et propero quo scis. — Dubius sum quid faciam, inquit ; 40 
Tene relinquam an rem. — Me, sodes. — Non faciam, ille, 
Et prsecedere coepit. Ego, ut contendere durum est 
Cum victore, sequor. — Mczcenas quomodo tecum ? 
Hie repetit. — Paucorum hominum et mentis bene sance ; 
Nemo dexterius for tuna est usus. Haberes 45 

Mag?ium adjutorem, posset qui f err e secundas, 
Hunc Iwminem velles si tradere ; dispeream, ni 
Summcsses omnes. — Non isto vivitur illic, 
Quo tu rere, modo ; domus hac nee purior ulla est, 
Nee magis his aliena malis ; nil ?ni officit inquam, 50 
Ditior hie aut est quia doctior ; est locus uni- 
Cuique suus. — Magnum narras, vix credibile. — Atqxd 
Sic habct. — Accendis, quare cupiam magis Mi 
Vroximus esse. — Velis tantummodo ; qua, tua virtus, 
Expugnabis ; et est qui vinci possit, eoque 55 



9, 10.] 



ftERMONUM. — LIBER 1. 



15S 



Difficiles aditus primos habet. — Haud mihi deero ; 

Muneribus servos corrumpam ; non, hodie si 

Exclusus fuero, desistam ; tempora quceram, 

Occurram in triviis, dediccam. Nil sine magna 

Vita labore dedit mortalibus. — Haec dum agit, ecce, 00 

Fuscus Aristius occurrit, mihi carus et ilium 

Qui pulchre nosset. Consistimus. Unde venis ? et, 

Quo tendis ? rogat et respondet. Vellere coepi, 

Et prensare manu lentissima brachia, nutans, 

Distorquens oculos, ut me eriperet. Male salsus 6 A 

Ridens dissimulare. Meum jecur urere bilis. 

Certe nescio quid secreto velle loqui te 

Aiebas mccum. — Memini bene, sed meliore 

Tempore dicam ; hodie tricesima sabbata ; virt tu 

Curtis Judceis oppedere ? — Nulla mihi, inquam, 70 

Relligio est. — At mi ; sum paulo infirmior, unus 

Multorum ; ignosces, alias loquar. — Hunccine solem 

Tarn nigrum surrexe mihi ! Fugit improbus ac me 

6ub cultro linquit. Casu venit obvius illi 

A.dversarius, et, Quo tu turpissime ? magna 75 

Inclamat voce, et, Licet antestari ? Ego vero 

Appono auriculam. Rapit in jus. Clamor utrinque, 

Undique concursus. Sic me servavit Apollo. 



Satira X. 
IN INEPTOS LUCILII FAUTORES 

Lucili, quam sis mendosus, teste Catone, 
Defensor e tuo, pervincam, qui malefactos 
Emendare parat versus. Hoc lenius ille, 
Est quo vir melior, longe subtilior illo, 
Qui multum pucr et loris et funibus udis 
Exhortatns, ut esset opem qui f err e poetis 



152 a. HORATII I^ACC'l 1 10 

Antiquis posset contra fastidia nostra, 
Grammaticorum equiUim doctissimus. Ut rcdtam illuc: 
Nempe incomposito dixi pede currere versus 
Lucili. Quis tarn Lucili fautor inepte est, 10 

Ut nou hoc fateatur ? At idem, quod sale multo 
Urbem defricuit, charta laudatur eadem. 
Nee tamen hoc tribuens dederim quoque cetera ; nam sic 
Et Laberi mimos ut pulchra poemata mircr. 
Ergo non satis est risu diducere rictum Id 

Auditoris : et est quaedam tamen hie quoque virtus : 
Est brevitate opus, ut currat sententia, neu se 
Tmpediat verbis lassas onerantibus aures : 
Et sermone opus est modo tristi, saepe jocoso, 
Defendente vicem modo rlietoris atque poetae, 20 

Interdum urbani, parcentis viribus, atque 
Extenuantis eas consulto. Bidiculum acri 
Fortius et melius magnas plerumque secat res. 
Illi, scripta quibus Comcedia prisca viris est, 
Hoc stabant, hoc sunt imitandi ; quos neque pulchei 25 
Hermogenes unquam legit, neque simius iste, 
Nil prater Calvum et doctus cantare Catullum. — 
At magnum fecit, quod verbis Grccca Latinis 
Miscuit. — O seri studiorum ! quine putetis 
Difficile et mirum, Rhodio quod Pitholeonti £0 

Contigit ? — At serino lingua concinnus utraque 
Suavior, ut Chio nota si commixta Falerni est. 
Quum versus facias, te ipsum percontor, an et quum 
Dura tibi peragenda rei sit causa Petilli, 
Scilicet oblitus patriaeque patrisque, Latine 35 

Quum Pedius causas exsudet Publicola, atque 
Corvinus, patriis intermiscere petita 
Verba foris malis, Canusini more bilinguis ? 
Atqui ego quum Graecos facerem, natus mare citra, 
Versiculos, vetuit tali me voce Quirinus, 40 

Post mediam noctem visus, quum somnia vera : 



IO.J SERMONUM. LIBER I. 153 

hi silvam '/ion lig?ia feras insanius, ac d 
Maguas Gr cecum m mails Implore catenas. 
Turgidus Alpinus jugulat dum Memnona, dumque 
Defiiigit Hheni luteum caput, hcec ego ludo, 45 

Quae neque in aide sonent certantia judice Tarpa, 
Nee redeant iterum atquc iterum spectanda theatris. 

Arguta meretrice potes, Davoque Chremeta 
Eludente senem, comis garrire libellos, 

Unus vivorum, Fundani : Pollio regum 60 

Facta canit pede ter percusso : forte epos acer, 
Ut nemo, Varius ducit : molle atque facetum 
Virgilio annuerunt gaudentes rure Camenae. 
Hoc erat, experto frustra Varrone Atacino 
Atque quibusdam aliis, melius quod scribere possem, 5b 
Inventore minor ; neque ego illi detrahere ausim 
Haerentem capiti cum multa laude coronam. 
At dixi fluere hunc lutulentum, saepe ferentem 
Plura quidem tollenda relinquendis. Age, quaeso, 
Tu nihil in magno doctus reprendis Homero ? 60 

Nil comis tragici mutat Lucilius Atti ? 
Non ridet versus Enni gravitate minores, 
Quum de se loquitur, non ut majore reprensis ? 
Quid vetat et nosmet Lucili scripta legentes 
Quaerere, num illius, num rerum dura negarit 65 

Versiculos natura magis factos et euntes 
Mollius r ac si quis, pedibus quid claudere senis, 
Hoc tantum contentus, amet scripsisse ducentos 
Ante cibum versus, totidem coenatus ; Etrusci 
Quale fuit Cassi rapido ferventius amni 70 

Ingenium, capsis quern fama est esse librisque 
Ambustum propriis. Fuerit Lucilius, inquam, 
Comis et urbanus ; fuerit limatior idem, 
Quam rudis et Grsecis intacti carminis auctor, 
Quamque poetarum seniorum turba ; sed ille, 7* 

Si foret hoc nostrum fato dilatus in amim, 

G 2 



154 Q. HORATII FLACCI SERMONUM.- -LIBER I. [10 

Detereret sibi multa, recideret omne, quod ultra 
Perfectum traheretur, et in versu faciendo 
Saepe caput scaberet, vivos et roderet ungues. 

Ssepe stilum vertas, iterum quae digna legi sint, 80 

Scripturus ; neque, te ut miretur turba, labores, 
Contentus paucis lectoribus. An tua demens 
Vilibus in ludis dictari carmina malis ? 
Non ego ; nam satis est equitem mihi plaudere, ut audax, 
Contemtis aliis, explosa Arbuscula dixit. 8£ 

Men moveat cimex Pantilius ? aut cruciet, quod 
Vellicet absentem Demetrius ? aut quod ineptus 
Fannius Hermogenis laedat conviva Tigelli ? 
Plotius et Varius, Maecenas Virgiliusque, 
Valgius, et probet haec Octavius optimus, atque i/0 

Fuscus, et haec utinam Viscorum laudet uterque ! 
Ambitione relegata, te dicere possum, 
Pollio, te, Messala, tuo cum fratre, simulquo 
Voa, Bibule et Servi ; simul his te, candide Furni, 
Compluresque alios, doctos ego quos et amicos 90 

Prudens praetereo ; quibus haec, sunt qualiacunque 
Arridere velim ; doliturus, si placeant spe 
Deterius nostra. Demetri, teque, Tigelli, 
Discipularum inter jubeo plorare cathedras. 
I, puer, atque meo citus haec subscribe libello 100 



Q. H0RATI1 FIACCI 
SERMONUM 

LIBER SECUNDUS. 



Satira I. 

IN QUENDAM, QUI ACTIONEM DE FAMOSIS 
LIBELLIS HORATIO INTENTABAT. 

HORATIUS. 

Sunt quibus in Satira videor nimis acer, et ultra 
Legem tendere opus ; sine nervis altera, quidquid 
Composui, pars esse putat, similesque meorum 
JVLille die versus deduci posse. Trebati, 
Quid faciam, prescribe. 

Trebatius. 
Quiescas. 

Horatius. 

Ne faciam, inquis, 5 

Trebatius. 



Ommno versus ? 



Aio. 



Horatius 

Peream male, bi non 
Optimum erat ; verum nequeo dormire. 



156 Q. HORATII FLACCI [! 

Trebatius. 

Ter uncti 
Transnanto Tiberim, somno quibus est opus alto, 
Irriguumque mero sub noctem corpus habento. 
Aut si tantus amor scribendi te rapit aude 10 

Ca^saris invicti res dicere, multa laborum 
PraBmia laturus. 

Horatius. 
Cupidum, pater optime, vires 
Deficiunt ; neque enim quivis horrentia pilis 
Agmina, nee fracta pereuntes cuspide Gallos, 
Aut labentis equo describat vulnera Parthi. 15 

Trebatius. 
Attamen et justum poteras et scribere fortcm, 
Scipiadam ut sapiens Lucilius. 

Horatius. 

Haud mihi deero, 
Quum res ipsa feret. Nisi dextro tempore Flacci 
Verba per attentam non ibunt Caesaris aurem ; 
Cm male si palpere, recalcitret undique tutus. 20 

Trebatius. 
Quanto rectius hoc, quam tristi laedere versu 
Pantolabum scurram Nomentanumque nepotem ! 
Quum sibi quisque timet, quamquam est intactus, et odit 

Horatius. 
Quid faciam ? Saltat Milonius, ut semel icto 
Accessit fervor capiti numerusque lucernis. &> 

Castor gaudet equis ; ovo prognatus eodem 
Pugnis ; quot capitum vivunt, totidem studiorum 
Millia : me pedibus delectat claudere verba, 
Lucili ritu, nostrum melioris utroque. 



S.J SERMONUM. LIBER II. 157 

llle velut fidis arcana sodalibus olim 30 

Credebat libris ; neque, si male cesscrat, unquain 

Dccurrens alio, neque, si bene : quo fit, ut omnis 

Votiva pateat veluti descripta tabella 

Vita senis. Sequor hunc, Lucanus an Apulus anceps . 

Nam Venusinus arat finem sub utrumque colonus, 35 

Missus ad hoc, pulsis, vetus est ut fama, Sabellis, 

Quo nc per vacuum Romano iniurreret hostis, 

Sive quod Apula gens, seu quod Lucania bellum 

Incuteret violenta. Sed hie stilus haud petet ultro 

Quemquam animantem ; et me veluti custodiet ensis 4U 

Vagina tectus, quern cur destringere coner, 

Tutus ab infestis latronibus ? O pater et rex 

Jupiter, ut pereat positum robigine telum, 

Nee quisquam noceat cupido mihi pacis ! at ille, 

Qui me commdrit (melius non tangere, clamo), 45 

Flebit, et insignis tota cantabitur urbe. 

Cervius iratus leges minitatur et urnam : 

Canidia Albuti, quibus est inimica, venenum ; 

Grande malum Turius, si quid se judice certes. 

Ut, quo quisque valet, suspectos terreat, utque 50 

Imperet hoc natura potens, sic collige mecum : 

Dente lupus, cornu taurus, petit ; unde, nisi intus 

Monstratum ? Scaevse vivacem crede nepoti 

Matrem : nil faciet sceleris pia dextera (mirum, 

Ut neque calce lupus quemquam, neque dente petit bos) ; 55 

Sed mala toilet anum vitiato melle cicuta. 

Ne longum faciam, seu me tranquilla senectus 

Exspectat, seu mors atris circumvolat alis, 

Dives, inops, R-omae, seu, fors ita jusserit, exsul, 

Quisquis erit vitas, scribam, color. 

TllEBATa T S. 

O puer, '.:t sis hii 

Vitahs, metuo, et majorum ne quis amicus 
Frigore te feriat. 



158 a. HORATII FLACCI \1. 

HORATIUS. 

Quid ? quum est Lucilius ausus 
Primus ill huns ©peris componere carmina morem, 
Detrahere et pellem, nitidus qua quisque per ora 
Cederet, introrsum turpis ; num Lselius, aut qui 65 

Duxit ab oppressa meritum Carthagine nomen, 
Ingenio ofiensi ? aut laeso doluere Metello, 
Famosisque Lupo cooperto versibus ? Atqui 
Primores populi arripuit, populumque tributim ; 
Scilicet uni aequus virtuti atque ejus amicis. 70 

Quin ubi se a vulgo et scena in secreta remorant 
Virtus Scipiadae et mitis sapientia Laeli, 
Nugari cum illo et discincti ludere, donee 
Decoqueretur olus, soliti. Quidquid sum ego, quamvis 
Infra Lucili censum ingeniumque, tamen me 75 

Cum magnis vixisse invita fatebitur usque 
Invidia, et fragili quasrens iliidere dentem 
OfFendet solido ; nisi quid tu, docte Trebati, 
Dissentis. 

Trebatius. 
Equidem niliil hinc diflindere possum ; 
Bed tamen ut monitus caveas, ne forte negoti SO 

Incutiat tibi quid sanctarum inscitia legum : 
Si mala condiderit in quern quis carmina, jus est 
Judiciumque. 

HORATIUS. 

Esto, si quis mala ; sed bona si quifi 
Judice condiderit laudatus Caesare ? si quis 
Opprobriis dignum laceraverit, integer ipse ? 8fi 

Trebattus. 
Solventur risu tabulae, tu missus abibig. 



2.1 BERMONUM. LIBER II 159 

Satira II. 

in vitje \;rban^e luxuriam et ineptias 

QuaB virtus, et quanta, boni, sit vivere parvo 

(Nee meus hie sermo est, sed quern pra3cepit Ofellus 

Rusticus, abnormis sapiens, crassaque Minerva), 

Discite, non inter lances mensasque nitentes, 

Quum stupet insanis acies fulgoribus, et quum 5 

Acclinis falsis animus meliora recusat ; 

Verum hie impransi mecum disquirite.: — Cur hoc? 

Dicam, si potero. Male verum examinat omnis 

Corruptus judex 

Leporem sectatus, equove 
Lassus ab indomito, vel, si Romana fatigat 10 

Militia assuetum grsecari, seu pila velox, 
Molliter austerum studio fallente laborem, 
Seu te discus agit, pete cedentem aera disco : 
Quum labor extuderit fastidia, siccus, inanis, 
Sperne cibum vilem ; nisi Hymettia mella Falerno 16 

Ne biberis diluta. Foris est promus, et atrum 
Defendens pisces hiemat mare ; cum sale panis 
Latrantem stomachum bene leniet. Unde putas, aut 
Qui partum ? Non in caro nidore voluptas 
Summa, sed in te ipso est. Tu pulmentaria quaBre 20 

Sudando : pinguem vitiis albumque neque ostrea 
Nee scarus aut poterit peregrina juvaro lagois. 
Vix tamen eripiam, posito pavone, velis quin 
Hoc potius, quam gallina, tergere palatum, 
Corruptus vanis rerum, quia veneat auro 25 

Rara avis, et picta pandat spectacula cauda ; 
Tanquam ad rem attineat quidquam. Num vescoris ista, 
Quam laudas, pluma ? cocto num adest honor idem ? 
Carne tamen quamvis distat nihil, hac magis illam 
Imparibus formis deceptum te petere ! Esto : 30 

Unde datum sent is, lupus hie Tiberinus an alto 



160 a. IJ.JRATII FLACCi [2 

Captus hiet, pontesne inter jactatus an amnis 

Ostia sub Tusci ? laud as insane triiibrem 

Mullum, in singula quern minuas pulmenta nocesse est. 

Ducit te species, video : quo pertinet ergo 35 

Proceros odisse lupos ? quia scilicet illis 

Majorem natura modum dedit, his breve pondus. 

Jejunus raro stomachus vulgaria temnit. 

Porrectum magno magnum spectare catino 

Vellem, ait Harpyiis gula digna rapacibus : at vos, 40 

Prsesentes Austri, coquite horum opsonia. Quamquarr; 

Putet aper rhombusque recens, mala copia quando 

iEgrum sollicitat stomachum, quum rapula plenus 

Atque acidas mavult inulas. Necdum cmnis abacta 

Pauperies epulis regum : nam vilibus ovis 45 

Nigrisque est oleis hodie locus Ilaud ita pridem 

Galloni praeconis erat acipensere mensa 

Infamis. Quid ? turn rhombos minus sequora alebant ? 

Tutus erat rhombus, tutoque ciconia nido, 

Donee vos auctor docuit praetorius. Ergo 50 

Si quis nunc mergos suaves edixerit assos, 

Parebit pravi docilis Romana juventus. 

Sordidus a tenui victu distabit, Ofello 
Judice ; nam frustra vitium vitaveris illud, 
Si te alio pravum detorseris. Avidienus, 56 

Cui Canis ex vero ductum cognomen adhasret, 
Quinquennes oleas est et silvestria corna, 
Ac nisi mutatum parcit defundere vinum, et 
Cujus odorem olei nequeas perferre (Hcebit 
[lie repotia, natales, aliosve dierum 60 

i^estos albatus celebret), cornu ipse bilibri 
: 3aulibus instillat, veteris non parcus aoeti. 

Quali igitur victu sapiens utetur ? et horum 
LJtrum imitabitur ? Hac urget lupus, hac canis, aiunt 
Mundus erit, qui non ofiendat sordidus, atque 65 

In neutuini partem cultus miser. Hie neque servis, 



2.J SERMONUM. LIBER 11. 161 

Albuti sen is excmplo, dum munia didit, 
Sa3vus erit ; nee sic ut simplex Naovius unctam 
Convivis praebebit aquam ; vitium hoc quoque magnum. 

• Accipe nunc, victus tenuis qua) quantaque secum 70 

Aflerat. Inprimis valcas bene : nam variae res 
Ut noceant homini, credas, memor illius escae, 
Qua) simplex olim tibi sederit : at simul assis 
Miscueris elixa, simul conchy lia turdis, 

Dulcia se in bilem vertent, stomachoque tumultum 76 

Lenta feret pituita. Vides, ut pallidus omnis 
Coena desurgat dubia ? Quin corpus onustum 
Hesternis vitiis animum quoque praegravat una, 
Atque affigit humo divina) particulam aurae. 
Alter, ubi dicto citius curata sopori 80 

Membra dedit, vegetus praescripta ad munia surgit 
Hie tamen ad melius poterit transcurrere quondam, 
Sive diem festum rediens advexerit annus, 
Sou recreare volet tenuatum corpus ; ubique 
Accedent anni, tractari mollius astas 85 

Tmbecilla volet. Tibi quidnam accedet ad istam, 
Quam puer et validus praesumis, mollitiem, seu 
Dura valetudo incident seu tarda senectus ? 

Rancidum aprum antiqui laudabant, non quia nasus 
I His nullus erat, sed, credo, hac mente, quod hospes 90 

Tardius adveniens vitiatum commodius, quam 
Integrum edax dominus consumeret. Hos utinam inter 
Heroas natum tellus me prima tulisset ! 

Das aliquid famae, qua) carmine gratior aurem 
Occupat humanam ? grandes rhombi patinaeque 95 

Grande ferunt una cum damno dedecus : adde 
Iratum patruum, vicinos, te tibi iniquum, 
Et frustra mortis cupidum, quum deerit egenti 
As, laquei pretium. Jure, inquit, Trausiiis. istis 
Jurgatur verbis ; ego vectigalia magna 100 

Divitiasque habeo tribm amplas regibus. Ergo, 



162 a. HOQATII FLACCi [2 

Quod supciat, non est melius quo insumere possis ? 

Cur (get hidignus quisquam, te divite ? quare 

Templa ruunt antiqua Deum ? cur, improbe, carae 

N>; aliquid patriae tanto emetiris acervo * 105 

TiTm nimirum tibi recte semper erunt res ! 

O magnus posthac inimicis risus ! Uterne 

Ad casus dubios fidet sibi certius ? hie, qui 

Pluribus assuerit mentem corpusque superbum, 

An qui, contentus parvo metuensque futuri, 110 

In pace, ut sapiens, aptarit idonea bello ? 

Quo magis his credas, puer hunc ego parvus Ofellum 
Integris opibus novi non latius usum, 
Quam nunc accisis. Videas metato in agello 
Cum pecore et gnatis fortem mercede colonum, 115 

Non ego, riarrantem, temere edi luce profesta 
Quidquam prceter olusfumosce cum pede peince. 
Ac mihi seu longum post tempus venerat Jwspes, 
Sive operum vacuo gratus conviva per imbrem 
Vicinus, bene erat, non piscibus urbc petitis, 120 

Sed pullo atque Jicedo : turn pensilis uva secundas 
Et ?iuz ornabat mensas cum duplice jicu. 
Post hoc ludus erat, culpa potare magistra : 
Ac venerata Ceres, ita culmo surgeret alto, 
Explicuit vino contracta seria frontis. 125 

Sceviat atque novos moveat fortuna tumultus ; 
Quantum hinc imminuet ? quanto aut ego parcius, aut vo$ y 
O pueri, nituistis, ut hue novus incola venit ? 
Nam propria telluris herum natura neque ilium, 
Nee me, nee quemquam statuit : nos expidit ille ; 130 

Ilium aut nequities aut vafri inscitia juris, 
Postremum expellet certe vivacior Jieres. 
Nunc ager Umbreni sub nomine, nuper Ofelli 
Dictus, erit nulli proprius, sed cedit in usum 
Nu?ic mihi, nunc alii. Quocirca vivitefoi'es, 13$ 

Fortiaque adversis opponite pectora rebiib. 



3.] SERMONUM LIBER II. 168 



Satira JTI. 

OMNES INSAN1RE, ETIAM IPSOS STOICOS, 
DUM HOC DOCENT. 

Damasippus. 
Sic raro scribis, ut toto non quatcr anno 
Membranam poscas, scriptorum quaeque retexcns, 
Iratus tibi, quod vini somnique benignus 
Nil dignum sermone canas. Quid fiet ? Ab ipsis 
Saturnalibus hue fugisti. Sobrius ergo 5 

Die aliquid dignum promissis : incipe. Nil est. 
Culpantur frustra calami, immeritusque laborat 
Iratis natus paries Dis atque poetis. 
Atqui vultus erat multa et praeclara minantis, 
Si vacuum tepido cepisset villula tecto. 10 

Quorsum pertinuit stipare Platona Menandro, 
Eupolin, Archilochum, comites educere tantos ? 
Invidiam placare paras, virtute relicta ? 
Contemnere, miser. Vitanda est improba Siren 
Desidia ; aut quidquid vita meliore parasti, 1 5 

Ponendum aequo animo. 

HORATIUS. 

Di te, Damasippe, Deaeque 
V"erum ob consilium donent tonsore. Sed unde 
Tarn bene me nosti ? 

Damasippus. 

Postquam omnis res mea Janum 
Ad medium fracta est, aliena negotia euro, 
Excussus propriis. Olim nam quasrere amabam, 20 

Quo vafer ille pedes lavisset Sisyphus aere, 
Quid sculptum infabre, quid fusum durius esset : 
Callidus huic signo ponebam millia centum : 



164 a. HORATII FLACCI [3 

Hortos egregiasque doraos mercarier unus 

Cum lucro noram ; unde frequentia Mercurialo 25 

Imposucre mihi cognomen compita. 

PIoratius. 

Novi, 
Et miror morbi purgatum te illius. 

Damasippus. 

Atqui 
Emovit vetercm mire novus, ut solet, in cor 
Trajecto lateris miseri capitisve dolore, 
Ut lethargicus hie, quum fit pugil, et medicum urget 10 

Horatius. 
Dum ne quid simile huic, esto ut libet. 

DAMASIPrUS. 

O bone, ne te 
Frustrere ; insanis et tu stultique prope omnes, 
Si quid Stertinius veri crepat ; unde ego mira 
Descripsi docilis praecepta haec, tempore quo me 
Solatus jussit sapientem pascere barbam, 35 

Atque a Fabricio non tristem ponte reverti. 
Nam male re gesta quum vellem mittere operto 
Me capite in flumen, dexter stetit, et, Cave faxis 
Te quidquam indignum : pudor, inquit, te malus angit, 
Insanos qui inter vereare insanus haberi. 40 

Primum nam inquiram, quid sit furere : hoc si erit in te 
Solo, nil verbi, pereas quin fortiter, addam. 
Quern mala stultitia, et quemcunque inscitia veri 
Caecum agit, insanum Chrysippi porticus et grex 
Autumat. Hsec populos, haec magnos formula regas, 45 
Excepto sapiente, tenet. Nunc accipe, quare 
Desipiant omnes seque ac tu, qui tibi nomen 



3.] SERMONUM. LIBER II. 16' 

Insano posuere. Velut silvis, ubi passim 

Palantea error certo de tramite pellit, 

Tile sinislrorsum, hie dextrorsum abit ; unus utrisque 50 

Error, sed uariis illudit partibus ; hoc te 

Credo modo insanum ; nihilo ut sapientior ille, 

Qui te deridet, caudam trahat. Est genus unum 

Stultitia? nihilum metuenda timentis, ut ignes, 

Ut rupes, fluviosque in campo obstare queratur : 56 

Alterum et huic varum et nihilo sapientius, ignes 

Per medios fluviosque ruentis ; clamet arnica 

Mater, honesta soror cum cognatis, pater, uxor : 

Hie fossa est ingens, hie rupes maxima, servaf 

Non magis audierit, quam Fuiius ebrius olim, 60 

Quum Ilionam edormit, Catienis mille ducentis, 

Mater, te appello, clamantibus. Huic ego vnlgus 

Errori similem cunctum insanire docebo. 

Insanit veteres status^ Damasippus emendo : 

Integer est mentis Damasippi creditor ? esto. 65 

Accipe quod nunquam reddas mihi, si tibi dicam, 

Tune insanus eris, si acceperis ? an magis excors, 

Rejecta praeda, quam prsesens Mercurius fert ? 

Scribe decern a Nerio ; non est satis : adde Cicutae 

Nodosi tabulas centum ; mille adde catenas : 70 

EfFugiet tamen haec sceleratus vincula Proteus. 

Quum rapies in jus malis ridentem alienis, 

Fiet aper, modo avis, modo saxum, et, quum volet, arbcr 

Si male rem gerere insani, contra bene sani est, 

Putidius multo cerebrum est, mihi crede, Perilli, 75 

Dictantis, quod tu nunquam rescribere possis. 

Audire atque togam jubeo componere, quisquis 
Ambitione mala aut argenti pallet amore ; 
Quisquis luxuria tristique superstitione 
Aut alio mentis morbo calet ; hue propius me, 80 

Dum doceo insaniie omnes, vos ordine adite. 

Danda est ellebori multo pars maxima avaris : 






166 a. HORATII FLACCI [3. 

Nescio an Anticyram ratio illis destinet onmem. 

Heredes Staberi summam incidere sepulcro : 

Ni sic fecissent, gladiatorum dare centum 8* 

Damnati populo paria, atque epulum arbitrio Ajri, 

Frumenti quantum metit Africa. Sive ego prave, 

Sen rcctc hoc volui, ne sis iiatruus mihi. Credo 

Hoc Staberi prudentem animum vidisse. Quid ergo 

Sensit, quum summam patrimoni insculpere saxo 9C 

Heredes voluit ? Quoad vixit, credidit ingens 

Pauperiem vitium, et cavit nihil acrius ; ut, si 

Forte minus locuples uno quadrante perisset, 

Ipse videretur sibi nequior. Omnis enim res, 

Virtus, fama, decus, divina humanaque pulchris 9." 

Divitiis parent ; quas qui construxerit, ille 

Clarus erit, fortis, Justus. Sapiensne ? Etiam, et rex, 

Et quidquid volet. Hoc, veluti virtute paratum, 

Speravit magnae laudi fore. Quid simile isti 

Grsccus Aristippus ? qui servos projicere aurum 100 

In media jussit Libya, quia tardius irent 

Propter onus segnes. Uter est insanior horum ? 

Nil agit excmplum, litem quod lite resolvit. 

Si quis emat citharas, emtas comportet in unum. 
Nee studio citharae nee Musae deditus ulli ; 105 

Si scalpra et formas non sutor ; nautica vela 
Aversus mercaturis ; delirus et amens 
Undique dicatur merito. Qui discrepat istis, 
Qui nummos aurumque recondit, nescius uti 
Compositis, metuensque velut corttingere sacrum? 110 

Si quis ad ingentem frumenti semper acervum 
Porrectus vigilet cum lougo fuste, neque illinc 
Audeat esuriens dominus contiugere granum, 
Ac potius foliis parous vescatur amaris ; 
Si positis intus Chii veterisque Falerni 115 

Mille cadis, nihil est, tercentum millibus, acre 
Potet acetum ; age, si et stramentis incubet, unde- 



8.J SERMONUM. LIBER It. iGT 

Octoginta annos natus, cui stragula vestis. 
Blattarum ac tinearum epulae, putrescat IB area : 
Nimirum insanus paucis vidcatur, eo quod 120 

Maxima pars hominum morbo jactatur eodem. 

Filius aut etiam haec libertus ut ebibat heres, 
Dis inimice senex, custodis ? ne tibi desit ? 
Quantulum enim summoe curtabit quisque dierum, 
Ungere si caules oleo meliore, caputque 126 

Coepcris impexa foedum porrigine ? Quare, 
Si quidvis satis est, perjuras, surripis, aufers 
Undique ? tun sanus ? Populum si csedere saxis 
Incipias, servosve tuo quos sere pararis, 
Insanum te omnes pueri clamentque puellae : 130 

Quum laqueo uxorem interimis, matremque veneno, 
Incolumi capite es ? Quid enim ? Neque tu hoc facis Argis, 
Nee ferro, ut demens genitricem occidit Orestes. 
An tu reris eum occisa insanisse parente, 
Ac non ante malis dementem actum Furiis, quam 135 

In matris jugulo ferrum tepefecit acutum ? 
Quin, ex quo habitus male tutse mentis Orestes, 
Nil sane fecit, quod tu reprendere possis : 
Non Pyladen ferro violare aususve sororem est 
Electram ; tantum maledicit utrique, vocando 140 

Hanc Furiam, hunc aliud, jussit quod splendida bilis. 

Pauper Opimius argenti positi intus et auri, 
Qui Veientanum festis potare diebus 
Campana solitus trulla, vappamque profestis, 
Quondam lethargo grandi est oppressus, ut heres 145 

Jam circum loculos et claves lsetus ovansque 
Curreret. Hunc medicus multum celer atque fidelis 
Excitat hoc pacto : mensam poni jubet, atque 
Effundi saccos nummorum, accedere plures 
Ad numerandum : hominem sic erigit ; addit et illud : 1 50 
Ni tua custodis, avidus jam hsec auferet heres. 
Men vivo ? — Ut vivas igitur, vigila : hoc age : Quid vis 9 — 



168 U. HORATIl FLACC1 [3. 

Deficient inopem venae te, ni cibus atque 

tngenua accedit stomacko fultura raenti. 

Tu cessas ? agedum, sume hoc ptisanarium oryza^. 155 

Quanti emtce ? — Parvo. — Quanti ergo ? — Octussibus.— 

Ehcu ! 
Quid refert, morbo, anfurtis pereamque rapinis ? 
Quisnam igitur sanus ? — Qui non stultus. — Quid ava- 

rus ? — 
Stultus et insanus. — Quid ? si quis non sit avarus, 
Continuo sanus ? — Minime. — Cur, Stoice ? — Dicara. 1 60 
Non est cardiacus, Craterum dixisse putato, 
Hie aeger : recte est igitur surgetque ? Negabit, 
Quod latus aut renes morbo tentantur acuto. 
Non est perjurus neque sordidus ; immolet sequis 
Hie porcum Laribus : verum ambitiosus et audax ; 165 

Naviget Anticyram. Quid enim diflert, barathrone 
Dones quidquid habes, an nunquam utare paratis ? 
Servius Oppidius Canusi duo proedia, dives 
Antiquo censu, gnatis divisse duobus 

Fertur, et haec moriens pueris dixisse vocatis 170 

Ad lectum : Postquajn te tatos, Aide, nucesquc 
Ferre sinu laxo, donare et ludere vidi, 
Te, Tiberi, numerare, cavis abscondere tristem ; 
Extimui, ne vos ageret vesania discors, 
Tu Nomentanum, tu ne sequerere Cicutam. 175 

Quare per Dlvos oratus uterque Penates, 
Tu cave ne minuas, tu, ne majus facias id, 
Quod satis esse putat pater, et natura coercet. 
Prceterea ne vos titillet gloria, jure- 

Jurando obstringam ambo : uter JEdilis fueritve 180 

Vestrum Praitor, is intestabilis et sacer esto. 
In cicere atque f aba bo?ui tu perdasque lupinis, 
Latus ut in circo spatiere, et aeneus ut stes, 
Nudus agris, nuctus nummis, insane, paternis ? 
Scilicet ut plausus, quosfert Agrippa, feras tu, 185 

Astute ingenuum vulpes imitata leoneni? 



',].] SERMONCJM. LIBER II. 109 

Ne quis hu masse velit Ajacem, Atrida, vetas cm ?-- 
Rex sum. — Nil ultra quacro plebeius. — Et cequam 
Rem imperito; at, si cui vidcor non Justus, inulto 
Dlccre, quod sentit, pcrmitto. — Maxime regum, 190 

Di tibi dent capta classem deducere Troja. 
Ergo consulere et mox respondere licebit ? — 
Console. — Cur Ajax, heros ab Achille secundus, 
Putcscit, toties servatis clarus Achivis ? 
Gaudeat ut populus Priami Priamusque inhurnato, 195 

Per quern tot juvenes patrio carucre sepulcro ? — 
Mitle ovium insanus morti dedit, inclytum TJlixen 
Et Menelaum una mecum se occidere damans. — 
Tu quum pro vitula statuis dulcem Aulide natam 
Ante aras, spargisque mola caput, improbe, salsa, 200 

Rectum animi scrvas ? Quorsum ? Insanus quid cnim 

Ajax 
Fecit, quum stravit ferro pecus ? Abstinuit vim 
Uxorc et gnato : mala multa precatus Atridis, 
Non ille aut Teucrum aut ipsum violavit Ulixen.— 
Verum ego, ut hcerentcs adverso litore naves 20l) 

Eriperem, prudens placavi sanguine Divos. — 
Nempe tuo, furiose. — Mco, sed non furiosus. — 
Qui species alias veris scelerisque tumultu 
Permixtas capiet, commotus habebitur ; atque 
Stultitiane erret, nihilum distabit, an ira. 210 

Ajax quum immeritos occidit, desipit, agnos ; 
Quum prudens scelus ob titulos admittis inanes, 
Stas animo ? et purum est vitio tibi, quum tumidum est, cor ? 
Si quis lectica nitidam gestare amet agnam, 
Huic vestem, ut gnatce paret ancillas, paret aurum, 215 
Rufam aut Pusillam appellet, fortique marito 
Destinet uxorem : interdicto huic omne adimat jus 
Praetor, et ad sanos abeat tutela propinquos. 
Quid ? si quis gnatam pro muta devovet agna, 
fnteger eat animi ? Ne dixeris Ergo ibi parva 220 

H 



170 a. KGRATII FLACvI 3 

Stultitia, hie summa est insania : qui sceleratus, 
Et fariosus erit ; quern cepit vitrea fama, 
Hunc circumtonuit gaudens Bellona cruentis. 

Nunc age, luxuriam et Nomentanum arripe mecum. 
Vincet enim stultos ratio insanire nepotes. 225 

Hie simul accepit patrimoni mille talenta, 
Edicit, piscator uti, pomarius, auceps, 
Unguentarius ac Tusci turba impia vici, 
Cum scurris fartor, cum Velabro omne macellum 
Mane domum veniant. Quid turn ? Venere frequentes. 230 
Verba facit leno : Quidquid ??iihi, quidqaid et horum 
Cuique domi est, id crede ticum et vcl nunc pete, vel eras. 
Accipe, quid contra juvenis respondent aequus : 
In nive Lucana dor mis ocrcatus, ut aprum 
Camcm ego ; tu pisccs hibcrno ex ccquorc vettis ; 23f> 

Scgnis ego, indignus qui tantum possidcam : aufcr : 
Swme tibi decics : tibi tantundem ; tibi triplex. 

Filius iEsopi detractam ex aure Metellae, 
Scilicet ut decies solidum obsorberet, aceto 
Diluit insignem baccam ; qui sanior, ac si 240 

Illud idem in rapidum flumen jaceretve cloacam ? 
Quinti progenies Arri, par nobile fratrum, 
Ncquitia et nugis, pravorum et amore gemellum. 
Luscinias soliti impenso prandere coemtas. 
Quorsum abeant ? Sani ut creta, an carbone notandi ? 24*5 

^Edificare casas, plostello adjungere mures, 
Ludere par impar, equitare in arundine longa, 
Si quern delectet barbatum, amentia verset. 
Si puerilius his ratio esse evincet amare, 
Nee quidquam diiFerre, utrumne in pulvere, trimus 250 

Quale prius, ludas opus, an meretricis amore 
Sollicitus plores : qusero, faciasne quod olim 
Mutatus Polemon ? ponas insignia morbi, 
Fasciolas, cubital, focalia, potus ut ille 
Dicitur ex collo furtim carpsisse coronas. 266 



3.J SERMON UM, — LIBER II. 171 

Postvjuam est impransi correptus voce magistri ? 

Porrigis irato puero quum poma, recusat : 

Sumc, Catclle : negat ; si non des, optat. Araator 

Exclusus qui distat, agit ubi sccum, eat, an non, 

Quo rediturus erat non arcessitus, et haeret 2f (/ 

[nvisis foribus ? Ne nunc, quum, me vocat ultro, 

Acccdam ? an potius meditcr finire dolor es ? 

Exclusit, revocat : rcdeam ? Non, si obsccret. Eece 

Servus, non paullo sapientior : O here, quce res 

Nee modum liabct ncque consilium, ratione modoque 2G5 

Tractari non vult. In amore hcec sunt mala ; helium* 

Pax rursum. Hcec si quis tempestatis prove ritu 

Mobilia, et cccca fluitantia sorte, labor et 

Reddere certa sibi, nihilo plus explicet, ac si 

Tnsanire paret certa ratione modoque 270 

Quid ? quum Picenis excerpens semina pomis 

Gaudes, si camaram percusti forte, penes te es '.' 

Quid ? quum balba feris annoso verba palato, 

iEdiiicante casas qui sanior ? Adde cruorcm 

Stultitiae, atque ignem gladio scrutare modo, inquam. 27ft 

Hellade percussa, Marius quum praecipitat se, 

Cerritus fuit ? an commotse crimine mentis 

Absolves hominem, et sceleris damnabis eundem, 

Ex more imponens eognata vocabula rebus ? 

Libertinus erat, qui circum compita siccus 280 

Lautis mane senex manibus currebat, et, Unum 
(Quid tarn magnum? addens), unum me surpite morti, 
Dis etenim facile est, orabat ; sanus utrisque 
Auribus atque oculis ; mentem, nisi litigiosus, 
Exciperet dominus, quum venderet. Hoc quoque valgus 28fi 
Chrysippus ponit fecunda in gente Meneni. 
Jupiter, ingentes qui das adimisque dolores, 
Mater ait pueri menses jam quinque cubantis, 
Frigida si puerum quartana reliquerit, illo 
Mane die, quo tit iwlicis jejunia, nudus 29C 



172 a. HGRATII FLACCI . [3 

In Tiber i stahit Casus medic us ve levarit 
<Egrum ex praecipiti, mater delira necabit . 
In gelida fixum ripa, febrimque reducet. 
Quone malo mentem concussa ? timore Deorum. 

Hacc mihi Stertinius, sapientum octavus, amico 29a 

Arma dedit, posthac ne compellarer inultus. 
Dixerit msanum qui me, totidem audiet, atque 
Respicere ignoto discet pendentia tergo. 

IIoratius. 
JStoice, post damnum sic vendas omnia pluris : 
Qua me stultitia, quoniam non est genus unum, 300 

Insanire putas ? ego nam videor mihi sanus. 

Damasippus. 

Quid? caput abscissum manibus quum portat Agaue 
Onati infelicis, sibi turn furiosa videtur ? 

IIoratius. 
Stultum me fateor, liceat concedere veris, 
Atque etiam insanum : tantum hoc edissere, quo me 305 
i^grotare putes animi vitio ? 

Damasippus. 

Accipe : primum 
jEdiiicas, hoc est, longos imitaris, ab imo 
Ad sumraum totus moduli bipedalis ; et idem 
Corpore majorem rides Turbonis in armis 
Spiritum et incessum : qui ridiculus minus illo ? 310 

An quodcunque facit Maecenas, te quoque verum est, 
Tantum dissimilem et tanto certare minorem ? 
Absentis ranae pullis vituh pede pressis, 
Unus ubi efFugit, matri denarrat, ut ingens 
Bellua cognatos eHserit. Ilia rogare, 31e1 

Quantane ? num tantum, sufflans se, magna fuis3et?-~ 






H, 4.J SERMONUM. LIBER II. l7S 

Major dimidio. — Num tanto ? — Quum mag is atque 

Se magis inflaret ; Noil, si te ruperis, intuit, 

Par eris. Hacc a te non multum abludit imago. 

Adde poemata nunc, hoc est, oleum adde camino ; 320 

Quce si quis sanus fecit, sanus facis et tu. 

Non dico horrcndam rabiem. 

Horatius. 

Jam desine. 

DAMASirPUS. 

Cultum 
Majorcm censu. 

Horatrjs. 

Teneas, Damasippe, tui3 te. 
.") major tandem parcas, insane, minori. 32S 



SA7IRA IV. 

LEVES CAT1LLONES EPICURES SECTjE 
DEPwIDET. 

Horatius. 
Unde et quo Catius ? 

Catius. 
Non est mihi tempus aventi 
Ponere signa novis prasceptis, qualia vincant 
Pythagoran Anytique reum doctumque Platona. 

Horatius. 
Peccatum fateor, quum te sic tempore laevo 
Interpellarim : sed des veniam bonus, oro. 
Quod si interciderit tibi nunc aliquid, repetes mox, 
.Sive est natural hoc, sive artis, mirus utroque. 



174 q. horatii flacc1 4. 

Catius. 
Quiii id erat curse, quo pacto cuncta tenerem, 
Utpote res tenues, tenui sermone peractas. 

Horatius. 
Edc hominis nomen ; sirnul et, Romanus an hospes, 10 

Catius. 
Ipsa memor prsecepta canam, celabitur auctor. 

Longa quibus facies ovis erit, ilia memento 
Ut succi melioris et ut magisalmarotundis 
Ponere ; namque marem cohibent callosa vitellum 

Caule suburbano, qui siccis crevit in agris, 15 

Dulcior ; irriguo nihil est elutius horto. 

Si vespertinus subito te oppresserit hospes, 
Ne gallina malum responset dura palato, 
Doctus eris vivam musto mersare Falerno ; 
Hoc teneram faciet. 

Pratensibus optima fungig' 20 

Natura est ; aliis male creditur 

I lie salubres 
./Estates peraget, qui nigris prandia moris 
Finiet, ante gravem quae legerit arbore solem. 

Auiidius forti miscebat mella Falerno, 
Mendose, quoniam vacuis committere venis 25 

Nil nisi lene decet ; leni praecordia mulso 
Proluflris melius. 

Si dura morabitur alvus, 
Mitulus et viles pellent obstantia conchae, 
Et lapathi brevis herba, sed albo non sine Coo 

Lubrica nascentes implent conchylia lunae ; 30 

Sed non omne mare est generosae fertile tests. 
Murice Baiano melior Lucrina peloris ; 
Ostrea Circeiis, Miseno oriuntur echini ; 
Pectinibus patulis jactat se molle Tarentum 



4. I SERMON UM. — LIBEH II 175 

Ncc sibi caenarum qui vis temero arrogct artem, 35 

Non prius exacta tenui ratione saporum. 
Nee satis est cara pisces avorrere mensa, 
Ignarum quibus est jus aptius, et quibus assia 
Languidus in cubitum jam se conviva reponet. 

Umber et iligna nutritus glande rotundas AQ 

Curvet aper lances carnem vitantis inertem ; 
Nam Laurens malus est, ulvis et arundine pinguis. 
Vinea summittit capreas non semper edules. 
Fecundce leporis sapiens sectabitur armos. 

Fiscibus atque avibus qua) natura et fbret a)tas, 45 

Ante meum nulli patuit quaesita palatum. 

Sunt quorum ingenium nova tantum crustula promit. 
Nequaquam satis in re una consumere curam ; 
Ut si quis solum hoc, mala ne sint vina, laboret, 
Quali perfundat pisces securus olivo. 50 

Massica si coelo suppones vina sereno, 
Nocturna, si quid crassi est, tenuabitur aura, 
Et decedet odor nervis inimicus ; at ilia 
Integrum perdunt lino vitiata saporem. 
Surrentina vafer qui miscet fsece Falerna , 56 

Vina, columbino limum bene colligit ovo, 
Quatenus ima petit volvens aliena vitellus. 

Tostis marcentem squillis recreabis et Afra 
Potorem cochlea ; nam lactuca innatat acri 
Post vinum stomacho ; perna magis ac magis hillis 60 

Flagitat immorsus refici : quin omnia malit, 
Qusecunque immundis fervent allata popinis. 

Est opera) pretium duplicis pernoscere juris 
Naturam. Simplex e dulci constat olivo, 
Quod pingui miscere mero muriaque decebit 6fc 

Non alia quam qua Byzantia putuit orca. 
Hoc ubi confusum sectis inferbuit herbis, 
Corycioque croco sparsum stetit, insuper addes 
Pressa Venafrana) quod bacca remisit olivsc. 






176 U. HORATIl FLAUOI [4 8 

Picemis oedunt pomis Tiburtia succo ; 70 

Nam facie praestant. Venucula convenit oiiis, 
Rectius Albanam fumo duraveris uvam. 
Hanc ego cum malis, ego fsecem primus et allec, 
Primus et invenior piper album, cum sale uigro 
Incretum, puris circumposuisse catillis. 73 

Immane est vitium dare millia terna macello, 
Augustoque vagos pisces urgere catino. 

Magna movet stomaclio fastidia, seu puer imctis 
Tractavit calicem manibus, dum furta ligurit, 
Sive gravis veteri craters limns adhsesit. 80 

Vilibus in scopis, in mappis, in scobe, quantus 
Consistit sumtus ? neglectis, flagitium ingens. 
Ten lapides varios lutulenta radere palma, 
Et Tyrias dare circum illota toralia vestes, 
Oblltum, quanto curam sumtumque minorem 85 

Haec habeant, tanto reprendi justius illis, 
Qua3 nisi divitibus nequeant contingere mensis ? 

Horatius. 
Docte Cati, per amicitiam divosque rogatus, 
Ducere me auditum, perges quocunque, memento. 
Nam quamvis memori referas mibi pectore cuncta, 90 

Non tamen interpres tantundem juveris. Adde 
Vultum habitumque hominis ; quern tu vidisse beitus 
Non magni pendis, quia contigit ; at mifai cura 
Non mediocris inest, fontes ut adire remotos, 
Atque haurire queam vitae prascepta beatae. 95 



Satira V. 

IN CAPTATORES ET HEREDIPETAS 

Ulysses. 
Hoc quoque, Tiresia, praster narrata petenti 
P^esponde, quibus amissas reparare queam res 
Artibus atque modis Quid rides ? 



6. J SERMONUM. LIBER II. 1 71 

TlRESlAS. 

Jamne doloso 
Non satis est Ithacam revehi, patriosque penates 
Adspicerc ? 

Ulysses. 
O nulli quidquam mentite, vides ut 
Nudus inopsquo domum redeam, te vatc, neque illic 
Aut apothcca procis intacta est, aut pecus. Atqui 
Et genus et virtus, nisi cum re, vilior alga est. 

Tiresias. 
Quanao pauperiem, missis ambagibus, horres, 
Accipe . qua ratione queas ditescere. Turdus ] U 

Sive aliud privum dabitur tibi, devolet illuc, 
Res ubi magna nitet, domino sene ; dulcia poma, 
Et quoscunque fcret cultus tibi fundus honores. 
Ante Larem gustet venerabilior Lare dives ; 
Qui quamvis perjurus erit, sine gente, cruentus 15 

Sanguine fraterno, fugitivus ; ne tamen illi 
Tu comes exterior, si postulet, ire recuses. 

Ulysses. 
Utne tegam spurco Dama3 latus ? haud ita Trojae 
Me gessi, certans semper melioribus. 

Tiresias 

Ergo 
Pauper eris. 

Ulysses. 
Fortem hoc animum tolerare jubebo : 2( 
Et quondam majora tuli. Tu protinus, unde 
Divitias serisque ruam, dic v augur, acervos. 

112 



178 Q. HORATII FLACCI [5 

TlRESIAS. 

Dixi equidem et dico. Captes astutus ubique 

Testamenta senum, neu, si vafer unus et alter 

Insidiatorem praeroso fugerit hamo, 2% 

Aut spem deponas, aut artem illusus omittas. 

Magna minoire foro si res certabitur olim, 

V T ivet uter locuples sine gnatis, improbus, ultro 

Qui meliorem audax vocet in jus, illius esto 

Defensor : fama civem causaque priorem 30 

Sperne, domi si gnatus erit fecundave conjux. 

Quinte, puta, aut Publi (gaudent pramomine molies 

Auricula?) tlbi me virtus tua fecit amicum ; 

Jus anceps novi, caasas defender e possum ; 

Eripiet quivis ocidos citius mihi, quam te 35 

Contemtum cassa mice pauper et : hcec mea cura est, 

Ne quid tu pcrdas, neu sisjocus. Ire domum atque 

Pelliculam curare jube : fi cognitor ipse. 

Persta atque obdura, seu rubra Canicula findet 

Infantes statuas, seu pingui tentus omaso -10 

Furius hibernas cana nive conspuet Alpes. 

JVon?ie vides, aliquis cubito stantem prope tautens 

Inquiet, ut patiens, ut amicis aptus, ut acer ? 

Plures annabunt thunni, et cetaria crescent. 

Si cui prreterea validus male films in re 45 

Preeclara sublatus aletur ; ne manifestum 

Ccelibis obsequium nudet te, leniter in spem 

Arrepe officiosus, ut et scribare secundus 

Heres, et, si quis casus puerum egerit Oreo, 

[n vacuum venias : perraro ha3c alea fallit. 50 

Qui testamentum tradet tibi cunque legendum, 

Abnuere et tabulas a te removere memento, 

Sic tamen ut limis rapias, quid prima secundc 

Cera velit versu ; solus multisne coheres, 

Veloci percurrs oculo. Plerumque recoctus 5i/ 



5.J SEKMONUM. LIBER 11. 179 

Scriba ex Quinqueviro corvum deludet hiantem, 
Captatorque dabit risus Nasica Corano 

Ulysses. 
Num furis ? an prudens ludis me, obscura canendo ? 

Tireslas. 
O Laertiade, quidquid dieam, aut erit aut non : 
Divinare etenim magnus mihi donat Apollo. 60 

Ulysses. 
Quid tamen ista velit sibi fabula, si licet, ede. 

TlRESIAS. 

Tempore quo juvenis Par this horrendus, ab alto 

Demissum genus JEnea, tellure marique 

Magnus erit, forti nubet procera Corano 

Filia Nasicae, metuentis reddere soldum. 66 

Turn gener hoc faciet ; tabulas socero dabit atque 

Qt legat orabit. Multum Nasica negatas 

A.ccipiet tandem, et tacitus leget, invenietque 

Nil sibi legatum propter plorare suisque. 

Illud ad haec jubeo ; mulier si forte dolosa 70 

Libertusve senem delirum temperet, illis 

Accedas socius ; laudes, lauderis ut absens. 

Me sene, quod dicam, factum est. Anus improba Thebis 

Ex testamento sic est elata : cadaver 

Unctum oleo largo nudis humeris tulit heres : Id 

Scilicet elabi si posset mortua : credo, 

Quod nimium institerat viventi. Cautus adito, 

Neu desis oper» neve immoderatus abundes. 

Difficilem et morosum offendes garrulus : ultro 

Non etiam sileas. Davus sis comicus ; atque 80 

Stes capite obstipo, multum similis metuenti 

Obsequio grassare : mone, si inorebuit aura, 



180 Q. HORATII FLACCI j_5, 6 

Cautus uti velet carura caput : extrahe turba 

Oppositis humeris : aurem substringe loquaci. 

rmportunus amat laudari ? donee, Ohe jam ! 85 

Ad caelum manibus sublatis dixerit, urge, ct 

Crescentem tumidis infla sermonibus utrera. 

Quum te servitio longo curaque levarit, 

Et certum vigilans, Quartet esto partis TJlizes, 

Audieris, heres : Ergo nunc Dama sodalis 90 

Nusquam est? uncle mihi tam fortem tamque fdelem ? 

Sparge subinde, et, si paulum potes illacrimare. Est 

Gaudia prodentem vultum celare. Sepulcrum 

Permissum arbitrio sine sordibus exstrue : funus 

Egregie factum laudet vicinia. Si quis 95 

Forte coheredum senior male tussiet, huic tu 

Die, ex parte tua, seu fundi. si ve domus sit 

Emtor, gaudentem nummo te addicere. Sed mo 

^mperiosa trahit Proserpina : vive valeque. 



Satira VI. 

HORATII VOTUM. 

Hoc erat in votis : modus agri non ita magnus, 

Hortus ubi, et tecto vicinus jugis aquae fons, 

Et paulum silvae super his foret. Auctius atque 

Di melius fecere : bene est : nil amplius oro, 

Maia nate, nisi ut propria haec mihi munera faxis. 5 

Si neque majorem feci ratione mala rem, 

Nee sum facturus vitio culpave minorem ; 

Si veneror stultus nihil horum, O si angulusille 

Prozimus accedat, qui nunc denormat agellum r 

O s,i urnam argenti fors quce mihi monstret, ut illi, 10 

TJiesaur? invento qui mercenarius agrum 

Ilium ipsum mercatus aravit, dives amico 

Hercule ! Si, quod adest, gratum juvat, hac prece te oro. 



ti.] * SERMONUM. LIBER II. 181 

7'ingue pecus domino facias et cetera praeter 

Tngenium ; utque soles, custos mihi maximus adsis. Itf 

Ergo ubi me in montes et in arcem ex Urbe removi 
(Quid prius illustrem Satiris Musaque pedestri ?), 
Nee mala me ambitio perdit, nee plumbeus Auster, 
Auctumnusque gravis, Libitinae quaestus acerboe 

Matutine pater, seu Jane libentius audis, 20 

Unde homines opcrum primos vitaeque laborcs 
Instituunt (sic Dis placitum), tu carminis esto 
Principium. Rornae sponsorem me rapis. — Eia, 
Ne prior officio quisquam respondeat, urge ! 
Sive Aquilo radit terras, seu bruma nivalem ^.0 

Interiore diem gyro trahit, ire necesse est. — 
Postmodo, quod mi obsit, clare certumque locuto, 
Luctandum in turba et facienda injuria tardis. — 
Quid tibi vis, insane ? et quam rem agis improbus ? nrget 
Tratis precibus ; tu pndses omne quod obstat, 30 

Ad Mcecenatcm memori si mente recurras. — 
Hoc juvat et melli est ; non mentiar. At simul atras 
Ventum est Esquilias, aliena negotia centum 
Per caput et circa saliunt latus. Ante secundam 
Roscius orabat sibi adesses ad Puteal eras. 35 

De re communi scribae magna atque nova te 
Orabant hodie meminisses, Quinte, reverti. 
Imprimat his, cura, Maecenas signa tabellis. 
Dixeris, Experiar : Si vis, potes, addit et instat. 
Septimus octavo propior jam fugerit annus, 40 

Ex quo Maecenas me coapit habere suorum 
Tn numero ; dumtaxat ad hoc, quern tollere rheda 
Vellet iter faciens, et cui cor.credere nugas 
Hoc genus : Hora quota est ? Threx est Galiina Syro par ? 
Matutina parum cautos jam frigora mordent : 45 

Et quae rimosa bene deponuntur in aure. 
Per totum hoc tempus subjectior in diem et horam 
Invidi© noster. Ludos spectaverit una. 



182 a. HORATll FLACCI [ft 

Luserit in campo *. Fortunes filius ! omiies. 

Frigidus a liostris manat per compita rumor : 50 

Quicunque obvius est, me consulit : O bone, nam te 

Scire, Deos quonhm propius contingis, oportet, 

Num quid de Dacis audisti ? — Nil equidem. — Ut tu 

Semper eris derisor ! — At omnes Di exagitent me, 

Si quidquam. — Quid ? militibus promissa Triquetra 55 

Praedia Caesar, an est Itala tellure daturus ? 

Jurantem me scire nihil mirantur ut unum 

Scilicet egregii mortalem altique silenti. 

Perditur haec inter misero lux, non sine votis 

O rus, quando ego te adspiciam ? quandoque licebit, 60 

Nunc veterum libris, nunc somno et inertibus horis 

Ducere sollicitae jucunda oblivia vitae ? 

O quando faba Pythagorae cognata, simulque 

Uncta satis pingui ponentur oluscula lardo ? 

O noctes coenaeque Deum ! quibus ipse meique 06 

Ante larem proprium vescor, vernasque procacea 

Pasco libatis dapibus. Prout cuique libido est, 

Siccat inaequales calices conviva solutus 

Legibus insanis, seu quis capit acria fortis 

Pocula, seu modicis uvescit laetius. Ergo 70 

Sermo oritur, non de villis domibusve alienis, 

Nee, male necne Lepos saltet ; sed, quod magis ad nos 

Pertinet et nescire malum est, agitamus : utrumne 

Divitiis homines, an sint virtute beati : 

Quidve ad amicitias, usus rectumne, trahat nos : 75 

Et quae sit natura boni summumque quid ejus. 

Cervius haec inter vicinus garrit amies 

Ex re fabellas. Si quis nam laudat Arelli 

Sollicitas ignarus opes, sic incipit : Olim 

Rusticus urbanum murem mus paupere fertur 80 

Accepisse cavo, veterem vetus hospes amicum ; 

Asper et attentus quaes'tis, ut tamen arctum 

Solveret hospitiis animum. Quid multa ? neque ille 



6.] SERMONUM. LIBER 11. 183 

Sepositi ciccris nee longae invidit avenoe ; 

Aridum st ore ferens acinum semesaque lardi 85 

Frusta dedit, cupiens varia fastidia cocna 

Vincere tangentis male singula dente superbo ; 

Quum pater ipse domus, palea porrectus in horna, 

Esset ador loliumque, dapis meliora relinquens. 

Tandem urbanus ad hunc : Quid to juvat, inquit, amiet, 90 

Praorupti nemoris patientem vivere dorso ? 

Vis tu homines urbemque feris prseponere silvis ? 

Carpc viam, mihi crede, comes ; terrestria quando 

Mortales animas vivunt sortita, neque ulla est 

Aut magno aut parvo leti fuga : quo, bone, circa, 9d 

Dum licet, in rebus jucundis vive beatus ; 

Vive memor, quam sis aevi brevis. Hsec ubi dicta 

Agrestem pepulere, domo levis exsilit ; inde 

Ambo propositum peragunt iter, urbis aventes 

Moenia nocturni subrepere. Jamque tenebat 100 

Nox medium coeli spatium, quum ponit uterque 

In locuplete domo vestigia, rubro ubi cocco 

Tincta super lectos canderet vestis eburnos, 

Multaque de magna superessent fercula coena, ( 

Qusb procul exstructis inerant hesterna canistris. 105 

Ergo ubi purpurea porrectum in veste locavit 

Agrestem, veluti succinctus cursitat hospes, 

Continuatque dapes ; nee non verniliter ipsis 

Fungitur ofriciis, praelibans omne quod afFert. 

Tile Cubans gaudet mutata sorte, bonisque 110 

Rebus agit lastum convivam, quum subito ingets 

Valvarum strepitus lectis excussit utrumque. 

Currere per totum pavidi conclave, magisque 

Exanimes trepidare, simul domus alta Molossis 

Personuit canibus. Turn rusticus : Haud mihi vita 115 

Est opus hac, ait, et valeas : me silva cavusque 

Tutus ab insidiis tenui solabitur ervo. 



184 Q. HORATII FLACtH f? 



Satira VII. 

LEPIDE SE IPSE CARPIT EX PERSONA SERVI 
ET OSTENDIT, LIBERUM SOLUM ESSE SA- 
PIENTEM. 

* Davits. 

Jamdudum ausculto et cupiens tibi dicerc servus 

Pauca reformido. 

Horatius. 
Davusne ? 

Davus. 

Ita. Davus, amicuni 
Mancipium domino, et frugi quod sit satis, hoc est, 
TJt vitale putes. 

Horatius. 
Age, libertatc Decembri, 
Quando ita majorcs volucrunt, utere ; nana. £ 

Davus. 
Pars hominum vitiis gaudet constanter, et urget 
Propositum ; pars multa natat, modo recta capessena, 
Interdum pravis obnoxia. Ssepe notatus 
Cum tribus anellis, modo lacva Priscus inani. 
Vixit inaequalis, clavum ut mutaret in horas ; 10 

iEdibus ex magnis subito se conderet, unde 
Mundior exiret vix libertinus honeste : 
Jam mGBchus Romae, jam mallet doctus Athenis 
Vivere ; Vertumnis, quotquot sunt, natus iniquis. 
Scurra Volanerius, postquam illi justa cheragra '5 

Contudit articulos, qui pro se tolleret atque 
Mitteret in phimum talos, mercede diurria 



7.J SERMONUM. LIBER II. 180 

Conductuin pavit : quanto constantior idem 

In vitiis, tanto levius miser ac prior illo, 

Qui jam contento, jam laxo ftmc laborat. 20 

HoRATIUS. 

Non dices hodie, quorsum hcec tarn putida tendoni;, 
Furcifer ? 

Davus. 
Ad te, inquam. 

Horatius. 

Quo pacto, pessirne ? 

Davus. 

Laudaa 
Fortunam et mores antiquse plebis, et idem, 
Si quis ad ilia Deus subito te agat, usque recuses ; 
Aut quia non sentis, quod clamas, rectius esse, 25 

Aut quia non firmus rectum defendis, et heeres, 
Nequidquam como cupiens evellere plantam. 
Romae rus optas, absentem rusticus Urbem 
Tollis ad astra levis. Si nusquam es forte vocatus 
Ad caenam, laudas securum olus ; ac, velut usquam 30 

Vinctus eas, ita te felicem dicis amasque, 
Quod nusquam tibi sit potandum. Jusserit ad se 
Maecenas serum sub lumina prima venire 
Convivam : Nemon oleum fert ocius ? ecquis 
Audit ? cum magno blateras clamore, fngisque. 34 

Mulvius et scurrse tibi non referenda precati 
Discedunt. Etenim, fateor me, dixerit ille, 
Duci ventre levem, nasum nidore supinor, 
Imbecillus, iners ; si quid vis, adde, popino. 
Tu, quum sis quod ego, et fortassis nequior, ultrc 40 

Tnsectere velut melior ? verbisque decoris 



150 a. HORATII FLACCI [1 

Obvolvas vitium ? Quid, si me stultior ipso 

Quingentis emto drachmis deprenderis ? Aufer 

Me vultu terrere ; manum stomaclmmque teneto. 

Tune mihi dominus, rerum imperils hominumque 45 

Tot tantisque minor, quern ter vindicta quaterque 

Imposita haud unquam misera formidine privet ? 

AdJe super dictis, quod non levius valeat : nam 

Sive vicarius est, qui servo paret, uti mos 

Vester ait, seu conservus ; tibi quid sum ego ? Nempe 60 

Tu, mihi qui imperitas, aliis servis miser ; atque 

Duceris ut nervis alienis mobile lignum. 

Quisnam igitur liber ? Sapiens, sibi qui imperiosus , 
Quern neque pauperies neque mors neque vincula terrent ; 
Respor».sare cupidinibus, contemnere honores 55 

Fortis ; et in se ipso totus, teres atque rotundus, 
Externi ne quid valeat per leve morari, 
In quern manca ruit semper Fortuna. Potesne 
Ex Ins ut proprium quid noscere ? 

Die age. Non quia 
Urget enim dominus mentem non lenis, et acres 60 

Subjectat lasso stimulos, versatque negantem. 

Vel quum Pausiaca torpes, insane, tabella, 
Qui peccas minus atque ego, quum Fulvi Rutubaeque 
Aut Placideiani contento poplite miror 
PraBlia, rubrica picta aut carbone ; velut si 65 

Re vera pugnent, feriant, vitentque moventes 
Anna viri ? Nequam et cessator Davus ; at ipse 
Subtilis veterum judex et callidus audis. 
Nil ego, si ducor libo fumante : tibi ingens 
Virtus atque animus coenis responsat opimis '.' 70 

Obsequium ventris mihi perniciosius est : cur ? 
Tergo plector enim ; qui tu impunitior ilia, 
Quae parvo sumi nequeunt, obsonia captas ? 
Nempe inamarescunt epulae sine fine petitee, 
Illusique pedes vitiosum frrre recusant 75 



7, 8. J BERMONUBli — LIBER U. 18/ 

Corpus. An hi 5 pcccat, suh noctcm qui pucr uvam 

Furliva mutat strigili ? qui pradia vendit, 

Nil servile, gula) parens, habet ? Adde, quod idem 

Non horam tecum esse potes, non otia recto 

Ponere ; teque ipsum vitas fugitivus et crro, 80 

Jam vino quserens, jam somno fallere curam : 

Frustra : nam comes atra premit sequiturque fugacem 



Unde mihi lapidem ? 



Horatius. 

Davus. 
Quorsum est opus ? 

Horatius. 



Unde sagittas? 



Davus. 
Ant insanit homo, aut versus facit. 

MoRATIUS. 

Ocius hinc to 
Ni rapis, accedes opera agro nona Sabino. 86 



Satira VIII. 

IN NASIDIENUM RUFUM CONVIVATOREM 
VAPIDE GAE.RULUM. 

HoRATrus. 
Ut Nasidieni juvit te coena beati ? 
Nam mihi convivam q'userenti dictus heri illic 
De medio potare die. 



Fundanius. 
Sic ut mihi nunguam 



In vita fuerit melius. 



18ft Q. HORATII FLACCI [& 

v- 
HORATIUS. 

Da, si grave non est, 
Quaa prima iratuni ventrem placaverit esca. 6 

Fundanius. 
Ail primis Lucanus aper : leni fuit Austro 
Captus, ut aiebat coenae pater ; acria circum 
Rapula, lactucae, radices, qualia lassum 
Pervellunt stomachum, siser, allec, faecula Coa. 
His ubi sublatis puer alte cinctus acernam 10 

Gausape purpureo mensam pertersit, et alter 
Sublegit quodcunque jaccret inutile, quodque 
Posset coDnantes ofiendore ; ut Attica virgo 
Cum sacris Cereris, procedit fuscus Hydaspes, 
Caecuba vina ferens, Alcon Chium maris expers. 16 

Hie herus, Albanum, Maecenas, sive Falernum 
Te magis appositis delectat, habemus utrumque. 

HORATIUS. 

Divitias miseras ! Sed queis coenantibus una, 
Funaani, pu T thre fuerit tibi, nosse laboro. 

Fundanius. 
Summus ego, et prope me Viscus Thurinus, et infra 2C 

Si memini, Varius ; cum Servilio Balatrone 
Vibidius, quos Maecenas adduxerat umbras. 
Nomentanus erat super ipsum, Porcius infra, 
Ridiculus totas simul obsorbere placentas. 
Nomentanus ad hoc, qui, si quid forte lateret, 20 

Indice monsiraret digito : nam cetera turba, 
Nos, inquam, coBnamus aves, conchylia, pisces, 
Longe dissimilem noto celantia succum ; 
Ut vel coxvtinuo patuit, quum passeris atque 
Ingustata mini porrexerat ilia rhombi. 30 



H.] SEEMONUM. LIBER IT ISfi 

Post hoc me doouit, nielimela rubere minorcm 

Ad lunam deleota. Quid hoc intersit, ab ipso 

Audicris melius. Turn Vibidius Balatroni : 

Nos nisi damnose bibimus, moriemur inulti ; 

Et calices poscit majores. Vertere pallor 35 

Turn parochi faciem, nil sic metuentis ut acres 

Potores, vel quod maledicunt liberius, vel 

Fervida quod subtile exsurdant vina palatum. 

Invertunt Allifanis vinaria tota 

Vibidius Balatroque, secutis omnibus : imi 40 

Conviva? lecti nihilum nocuere lagenis. 

Affertur squillas inter murama natantes 

In patina porrecta. Sub hoc herus, Ilcec graviaa, lnquit, 

Capta est, det trior post par turn came futura. 

His mixtion jus est : olco, quod prima Venafri 45 

Prcssit cella ; garo de sicccis 2^iscis Iberi; 

Vino quinquenni verum citra mare nala, 

Diem coquitur (cocto Chium sic convenit, ut non 

Hoc magis ullum aliua) ; priperc albo, non sine acetc , 

Quod Methymnceam vitio mutavcrit uvam. 50 

Erucas virides, inulas ego primus amaras 

Monstravi incoquere ; illotos Curtillus echinos, 

Ut melius muria, quam testa marina remittal. 

Tnterea suspensa graves aulsea ruinas 

In patinam fecere, trahentia pulveris atri 53 

Quantum non Aquilo Campanis excitat agris. 

Nos majus veriti, postquam nihil esse pericli 

Sensimus, erigimur. Rufus posito capite, ut si 

Filius immaturus obisset, flere. Quis esset 

Finis, ni sapiens sic Nomentanus amicum 6JJ 

Tolleret ? Heu, Fortuna, quis est crudelior in nos 

Te Deus ? ut semper gaudes illudere rebus 

rlumanis ! Varius mappa compescere risum 

V'ix poterat. Balatro suspendens omnia nasc 

Ilcec est condicio vivendi, aiebat, eoque 65 



190 Q. HORATII FLACCI SERMONUM. — LIBER II. [8 

Respo?isura tuo nunquam est par fama labori. 

Tene, ut ego accipiar laute, torquericr omni 

Sollicitudine districtum ? ne panis adustus, 

Ne 'male conditum jus apponatur? ut omnes 

Traciiicti rccte pueri comtique ministrent ? 70 

Adde hos praiterea casus, aulaa ruant si, 

Ut modo ; si patinam pede lapsus frangat agaso. 

Sed convivatoris, uti ducis, ingenium res 

Adverse nudare solent, celare sccundce. 

Nasidienus ad haec : Tibi Di, qucccunquc prcceris 75 

Commoda dent ! ita vir bonus cs convivaque comis 

Et soleas poscit. Turn in lecto quoque videres 

Stridere secreta divisos aure susurros. 

HORATTUS. 

Nullos his mallcin ludos spectasse ; Eed ilia 
Redde, age, qua; deinccps risisti. 

FUNDANIUS. 

Vibidius dura 80 

Quserit de pfleris, num sit^guoque fracta lagena, 
Quod sibi poscenti non dantur pocula, dumque 
liidetur fictis rerum, Balatrone secundo, 
Nasidiene, redis mutatas frontis, ut arte 
Emendaturus fortunain ; deinde secuti 85 

Mazonomo pueri magno discerpta ferentes 
Membra gruis, sparsi sale multo non sine farre, 
Pinguibus et ficis pastum jecur anseris albae, 
Et leporum avulsos, ut multo suayius, armos, 
Quam si cum lumbis quis edit. Turn pectore adusto 90 
Vidimus et merulas poni, et sine clune palumbes ; 
Suaves res, si non causas narraret earum et 
Naturas dominus. quem nos sic fugimus ulti, 
Ut nihil omnino gustaremus, velut illis 
Canidia afflasset pejor serpentibus A Has. 



Q. HORATII ELACCI 



EPISTOL^. 



U HORATII F L A C (I I 
EPISTOLARUM 

LIBER TRIM US. 



EriSTOLA I. 

AD 1VLECENATEM. 

i, a dictc* nihi, surama dicende Camena, 
iSpectatum &itis, et donatum jam rude, quairis 
Ma3cenas, itc/um antiquo me includere ludo ? 
Non eadem est setas, non mens Veianius, armis 
Herculis ad postern fixis, latet abditus agro, -$ 

Ne populum cxtrema toties exoret arena. 
Est mihi purgatam crebro qui personet aurem : 
Solve senescentem tnature sanus cquum, ne 
Peccet ad extremum ridendus, et ilia ducat. . 

Nunc itaque et versus et cetera ludicra pono ; 10 

Quid verum atque decens euro et rogo, et omnis in hoc sum \ 
Condo et compono, quss mox depromere possim. 

Ac ne forte roges, quo me duce, quo lare tuter ; 
Nullius addictus jurare in verba magistri, 
Quo me cunque rapit tempestas, deferor hospes. 15 

Nunc agilis fio et mersor civilibus undis, 
Virtutis vera? custos rigidusque satelles ; 
Nunc in Aristippi furtim prsecepta relabor, 
Ec mihi res, non me rebus subjungere conor, 
Lenta dies ut opus debentibus ; ut piger annus 20 

Pupillis, quos dura premit custodia matrum ; 

I 



194 U. H0RAT1I FLACCI _l t 

Sic mihi tarda fluunt ingrataque tempora, qua3 spsm 

Consiliumque morantur agendi gnaviter id, quod 

JEque pauperibus prodest, locupletibus aique, 

iEque neglectum pueris scuibusquc nocebit. 25 

Hestat, ut his ego me ipse regam solerque elementis : 
Non possis oculo quantum contendere Lyiiceus, 
Non tamen idcirco contemnas lippus inungi ; 
Nee, quia desperGS invicti membra Glyconis, 
Nodosa corpus nolis prohibcre cheragra. 30 

Est quadam prodire tonus, si non datur ultra. 
Fcrvet avaritia miseroque cupidine pectus ? 
Sunt verba et voces, quibus hunc lenire dolorem 
Possis, et magnam morbi deponere partem. 
Laudis amore tumes ? sunt certa piacula, qua? te 36 

Ter pure lecto potcrunt rccrearc libello. 
Invidus, iracundus, iners, vinosus, amator ? 
Nemo adeo ferus est, ut non mitescere possit, 
Si modo cultural patientem commodet aurem. 

Virtus est vitium fugere, et sapientia prima 40 

Stultitia caruisse. Vides, qua3 maxima credis 
Esse mala, exiguum censum turpemque repulsam. 
Quanto devites animo capitisque labore. 
Impiger extremos curris mercator ad Indos, 
Per mare pauperiem fugiens, per saxa, per ignes ; 45 

Ne cures ea, qua? stulte miraris et optas, 
Discere et audire et meliori credere non vis ? 
Quis circum pagos et circum compita pugnax 
Magna coronari contemnat Olympia, cui spes, 
Cui sit condicio dulcis sine pulvere palmae ? 50 

Vilius argentum est auro, virtutibus aurum. 
O cives, rives, qucerenda pecunia primum est, 
Virtus post nummos. Hsec Janus summus ab imo 
Prodocet ; hsec recinunt juvenes dictata senesque, 
Laevo suspensi loculos tabulamque lacerto. 55 

Est animus tibi, sunt mores, est lingua fidesque ; 



I.J EHSTOI.ARUM. LIBER I. 195 

Sed quadringentis sex septem millia desint : 
Plcbs eris. At pueri ludentes, Rex cris, aiunt, 
Si recte fades. Hie murua aeneus esto, 
Nil conscire sibi, nulla pallescere culpa. 60 

Roscia, die sodes, melic-r lex, an puerorum est 
Na^nia, quce rcgnum recte facicntibus oflert, 
Et maribus Curiis et decantata Camillis ? 
Isne tibi melius suadet, qui, rem facias ; rem, 
Si possis, recte ; si non, quocunque modo rem, 65 

tJt propius spectes lacrimosa poemata Pupi : 
An qui, fortuna) te responsare superba> 
Liberum et erectum, praesens hortatur et aptat ? 
Quod si me populus Itomanus forte roget, cur 
Non, ut porticibus, sic judiciis fruar isdem, 70 

Nee sequaf aut fugiam, quie diligit ipse vel odit ; 
Olim quod vulpes segroto cauta leoni 
Respondit, referam : Quia me vestigia terrent 
Omnia te adversum spectantia, nulla retrorsum, 74 

Bellua multorum est capitum. Nam quid sequar ? a 1 1 quern 1 
Pars hominum gestit conducere publica ; sunt qu 
Crustis et pomis viduas venentur avaras, 
Excipiantque senes, quos in vivaria mittant ; 
Multis occulto crescit res fenore. Verum 
Esto aliis alios rebus studiisque teneri : 80 

Iidem eadem possunt horam durare probantes ? 
Nullus in orbe sinus Baiis prcelucet amwnis 
Si dixit dives, lacus et mare sentit amorem 
Festinantis heri ; cui si vitiosa libido 

Fecerit auspicium : Cras ferramenta Teanum 85 

Tolletis, fabri. Lectus genialis in aula est : 
Nil ait esse prius, melius nil ccelibe vita ; 
Si non est, jurat bene solis esse maritis. 
Quo teneam vultus mutantem Protea nodo ? 
Quid pauper ? ride : mutat ccenacula, lectos, 90 

Balnea, tonsores ; conducto navigio sequc 
Nauscat ac locuples, quern dueit priva tritemis 



196 Q. HORAVII FLACCI [1,2 

Si curatus inaequali # tonsore capillos 
Occurro, rides : si forte subucula pexae 
Trita subest tunicae, vel si toga dissidet impar, 95 

Rides. Quid ? mea quum pugnat sententia secuni ; 
Quod petiit, spernit ; repetit quod nuper omisit ; 
/Estuat et vitaB disconvenit ordine toto ; 
Diruit, aedificat, mutat quadrata rotuudis : 
f nsanire putas solennia me ? neque rides ? 1 00 

Nee medici credis nee curatoris egere 
A. pra3tore dati, rerum tutela mearum 
Quum sis, et prave sectum stomacheris ob unguein 
De te pendeiitis, te respicieutis amici ? 

Ad summam, sapiens uno minor est Jove, dives, 105 

Liber, honoratus, pulcher, rex denique regum ; 
Prsecipue sanus, nisi quum pituita molesta est. 



EriSTOLA II. 

AD LOLLIUM. 
Trojani belli senptorem, maxime Lolli, 
Dum tu declamas P^omae, Prasncste relegi ; 
Qui, quid sit pulchrum, quid turpe, quid utile, quid non, 
Planius ac melius Chrysippo et Crantore dicit. 
Cur ita crediderim, nisi quid te detinet, audi. 5 

Fabula, qua Paridis propter narratur amorem 
Graecia Barbariae lento collisa duello, 
Stultorum regum et populorum continct aestus. 
Antenor censet belli praecidere causam ■ 
Quod Paris, ut salvus regnet vivatque beatus, 10 

Cogi posse negat. Nestor componere lites 
Inter Peliden festinat et inter Atriden : 
Hunc amor, ira quidem communiter urit utrumque. 
Quidquid delirant reges, plectuntur Achivi. 
Seditione, dolis, scelere, atque libidine et ira 15 

lliacos intra muros peceatur et extra. 



2.J EPISTOLARUM. LIBBR I. 197 

llursum, quid virtus et quid Bapientia possit, 
Utile proposuit nobis exemplar Ulixen ; 
Qui, domitor Trojae, multorum providus urbcs 
Et mores hominum inspexit, lntumque per aequoi, 20 

Dum sibi, dum sociis reditum parat, aspera multa 
Pertulit, adversia rerum immcrsabilis undis. 
Sirenum voces et Circa; pocula nosti , 
Quae si cum sociis stultus cupidusque bibissct. 
Sub domina meretrice fuisset turpis et excors, 25 

Vixisset canis immundus, vel amicp luto sus. 
Nos numerus sumus, et fruges consumere nali, 
Sponsi Penelopa), nebulones Alcinoique, 
In cute curanda "plus aiquo operata juventus ; 
Cui pulchrum fuit in medios dormire dies, et 30 

Ad strepitum citharae cessatum ducere curam. 

Ut jugulent homines, surgunt de nocte latrones : 
Ut te ipsum serves, non expergisceris ? atqui 
Si noles sanus, curres hydropicus ; et ni 
Posces ante diem librum cum lumine, si non 3d 

[ntendes animum studiis et rebus honestis, 
Tnvidia vel amore vigil torquebere. Nam cur, 
Qu33 lsedunt oculum, festinas demere ; si quid 
Est animum, differs curandi tempus in annum ? 
Dimidium facti, qui cospit, habet ; sapere aude, 40 

Incipe. Qui recte vivendi prorogat horam, 
Rusticus exspectat, dum defluat amnis ; at ille 
Labitur et labetur in omne volubilis SGvum. 

Quseritur argentum, puerisque beata creandis 
Uxor, et incultas pacantur vomere silvan : 4£ 

Quod satis est cui contigit, hie nihil amplius optet 
Non domus et fundus, non saris acervus et auri 
/Egroto domini deduxit corpore febres, 
Non animo curas. Valeat possessor oportet, 
Si comportatis rebus bene cogitat uti. 50 

Qui cupit aul metuit, juvat ilium sic domus et res, 



198 a. HORATII FLACCI [2, 3 

Ut lippum picla3 tabula3, fomenta podagrum, 
Auriculas citharae collecta sorde dolentes. 
Sincerum est nisi vas, quodcunque infundis, acescit 

Sperne voluptates ; nocet emta dolore voluptas. 5<t' 

Semper avarus eget ; certum voto pete fmem. 
Invidus alterius macrescit rebus opimis ; 
Invidia Siculi non invenere tyranni 
Majus tormentum. Qui non moderabitur irae, 
Infectum volet esse, dolor quod suaserit amens, 60 

Dum pcenas odio per vim festinat inulto. 
Ira furor brevis est ; animum rege ; qui, nisi paret, 
Imperat ; hunc frenis, hunc tu compesce catena. 
Fingit equum tenera docilem cervice magieter 
Ire, viam qua monstret eques. Venaticus, ex quo be 

Tempore cervinam pellem latravit in aula, 
Militat in silvis catulus. Nunc adbibe puro 
Pectore verba, puer, nunc te melioribus offer. 
Quo semel est imbuta recens, servabit odorem 
Testa diu. Quod si cessas aut strenuus anteis, 70 

Nee tardum opperior nee praecedentibus insto. 



Epistola III. 
AD JUL1UM FLOIIUM. 
Juli Flore, quibus terrarum militet oris 
Claudius Augusti privignus, scire laboro. 
Thracane vos, Hebrusque nivali compede vinctus. 
An freta vicinas inter currentia turres, 

An pingues Asiae campi collesque morantur ? 5 

Quid studiosa cohors operum struit ? Hoc quoque euro. 
Quis sibi res gestas Augusti scribere sumit ? 
Bella quis et paces longum diffundit in aevum ? 
Quid Titius, Romana brevi venturus in ora, 
Pindarici fontis qui non expalluit haustus, ;6 

Fastidire lacus et rivos ausus apertos ? 



3, 4. J EriSTOLARUM. — L.BERI. 199 

Ut vaict ? at mcminit nostri ? fidibusne Latinis 

Thebanos aptare modos studet, auspice Musa ? 

An tragica dcsa3vit ct ampullatur in arte ? 

Quid mihi Celsus agit ? monitus multumque mononaus, 15 

Privatas ut quadrat opes, et tangere vitet 

Scripta, Palatinus quaecunque recepit Apollo ; 

Ne, si forte suas repetitum venerit olim 

Grex avium plumas, moveat cornicula risum 

Furtivis nudata coloribus. Ipse quid audes ? 2(t 

Quae circumvolitas agilis thyma ? non tibi parvum 

Ingenium, non incultum est et turpiter hirtum. 

Seu linguam causis acuis, seu civica jura 

Respondere paras, seu condis amabile carmen : 

Prima feres ederae victricis prsemia. Quod si 2b 

Frigida curarum fomenta relinquere posses, 

Quo te coelestis sapientia duceret, ires. 

Hoc opus, hoc studium parvi properemus et ampli, 

Si patriae volumus, si nobis vivere cari. 

Debes hoc etiam rescribere, si tibi curse, 30 

Quantae conveniat, Munatius ; an male sarta 

Gratia nequidquam coit et rescinditur ? At, vos 

Seu calidus sanguis seu rerum inseitia vexat 

[ndomita cervice feros, ubicunque locorum 

Vivitis, indigni fraternum rumpere faedus, 35 

Pascitur in vestrum reditum votiva juvenca. 



Epistola IV. 
AD ALBIUM TIBULLUM 
Albi, nostrorum sermonum candide judex, 
Quid nunc te dicam facere in regione Pedana ? 
Scribere quod Cassi Parmensis opuscula vincat, 
An taciturn silvas inter reptare salubres, 
Curantem quidquid dignum sapiente bonoque est ? 
Non tu corpus eras sine pectore. Di tibi formam, 



200 a. HORATII FLACL [4, ik 

Di tibi dA'itias dederant, artemque fniendi. 

Quid voveat dulci nutricula majus alumno, 

Qui sapere et fari possit quae sentiat, et cui 

Gratia, fama, valetudo contingat abunde, 10 

Et mundus victus, non deficiente crumena ? 

Inter spem curamque, timores inter et iras, 

Omnem crede diem tibi diluxisse supremum : 

Grata superveniet, quae non sperabitur, hora. 

Me pinguem et nitidum bene curata cute vises, \t 

Quum ridere voles Epicuri de grege porcum. 



ErisTOLA V. 
AD TORQUATUM. 

Si potes Archiacis con viva recumbere lectis, 

Nee modica ccenare times olus omne patella, 

Supremo te sole domi, Torquate, manebo. 

Vina bibes iterum Tauro diilusa, palustres 

Inter Minturnas Sinuessanumque Petrinum. a 

Sin melius quid habes, arcesse, vel imperium fer. 

Jamdudum splendet focus, et tibi munda supellex. 

Mitte leves spes, et certamina divitiarum, 

Et Moschi causam. Cras nato Csesare festus 

Dat veniam somnumque dies; impune licebit 10 

iEstivam sermone benigno tendere noctem. 

Quo mihi fortunam, si non conceditur uti ? 

Parcus ob heredis curam nimiumque severus 

Assidet insano. Potare et spargere flores 

Incipiam, patiarque vel inconsultus haberi. & 

Quid non ebrietas designat ? operta recludit, 

Spes jubet esse ratas, ad prcelia trudit inertem, 

Sollicitis animis onus eximit, addocet artes. 

Fecundi calices quem non fecere disertum ? 

Contracta quem non in paupertate solutum ? 20 

R«bc ego procurare et idoneus imperor, et non 



fi, 6. J EPISTOLARUM. LIBER I. 201 

Invitus, no turpe toral. ne sordida mappa 

Corruget nares, ne 11011 et cantliarus et laitx 

Ostendat tibi te, ne fidos inter amicos 

Sit, qui dicta foras climinet, ut coeat par 2f» 

Jungaturqne pari. Butram tibi Septiciumque, 

Et nisi coena prior potiorque puella Sabinum 

Detinet, assumam ; locus est et pluribus umbris ; 

Sed nimis arcta premunt olidaj convivia capraB. 

Tu, quotus esse velis, rescribe ; et rebus omissis 3U 

Atria servantem postico falle clientem. 



Epistola VI. 
AD NUMICIUM. 
Nil admirari prope res est una, Numici, 
Solaque, qua? possit facere et servare beatum. 
Hunc solem, et Stellas, et decedentia certis 
Tcmpora mcmentis, sunt qui formidine nulla 
Imbuti spectent. Quid censes munera terrse ? 

Quid maris extremos Arabas ditantis et Indos ? 
Ludicra quid, plausus, et amici dona Quiritis ? 
Quo spectanda modo, quo sensu credis et ore ? 
Qui timet his adversa, fere miratur eodem, 
Quo cupiens pacto ; pavor est utrobique molestus, 1 

Emprovisa simul species exterret utrumque. 
Gaudeat an doleat, cupiat metuatne, quid ad rem, 
Si, quid quid vidit melius pejusve sua spe, 
Defixis oculis, animoque et corpore torpet ? 

Insani sapiens nomen ferat, sequus iniqui. 1 6 

Ultra quam satis est virtutem si petat ipsani 
I nunc, argentum et marmor vetus seraque et artes 
Suspice, cum gemmis Tyrios mirare colores ; 
Gaude, quod spectant oculi te mille loquentem ; 
Gnavus mane forum, et vespertinus pete tectum, 20 

Ne plus frumenti dotalibus emetat agris 

12 



202 a. HORATII FLACCI [0. 

Mutus, et (indignum, quod sit pejoribus ortus) 

Hie tibi sit potius, quam tu mirabilis illi. 

Quidquid sub terra est, in apricum proferet aetas ; 

Defodiet condetque nitentia. Quum bene no turn 2«5 

Porticus Agrippae et via te conspexerit Appi, 

Tre tamen restat, Numa quo devenit et Ancus. 

Si latus aut renes morbo tentantur acuto, 
Quaere fugam morbi. Vis recte vivere ? quis non ? 
Si virtus hoc una potest dare, fortis omissis 30 

Hoc age deliciis. Virtutem verba putas, et 
Lucum ligna ? cave ne portus occupet alter, 
Ne Cibyratica, ne Bithyna negotia perdas ; 
Mille talenta rotundentur, totidem altera, porro et 
Tertia succedant, et qua? pars quadret acervum. 36 

Scilicet uxorem cum dote, fidemque, et amicos, 
Et genus et formam regina Pecunia donat, 
Ac bene nummatucn decorat Suadela Venusque 
Mancipiis locuples eget aeris Cappadocum rex : 
Ne fueris hie tu. Chlamydes Lucullus, ut aiunt, 40 

Si posset centum scenae praebere rogatus, 
Qui possum tot ? ait ; tamen et qucdram, et quot habebo 
Mittam. Post paulo scribit, sibi millia quinque 
Esse domi chlamydum ; partem, vel tolleret omnes. 
Exilis domus est, ubi non et multa supersunt, 45 

Et dominum fallunt, et prosunt furibus. Ergo 
Si res sola potest facere et servare beatum, 
Hoc primus repetas opus, hoc postremus omittas. 

Si fortunatum species et gratia praestat, 
Mercemur servum, qui dictet nomina, laevum 50 

Qui fodicet latus, et cogat trans pondera dextram 
Porrigere. Hie multum in Fabia valet, ille Velina ; 
Cui libet hie fasces dabit, eripietque curule 
Cui volet importunus ebur ; Frater, Pater, adde ; 
Ut cuique est aetas, ita quemque facetus adopta. 66 

Si, bone qui coenat, bene vivit, lucet, eamus 



6, 7.] EPISTOLARUM. LIBER .. 20.'> 

Quo due it gula ; piscemur, venemur, ut olim 

Gargilius, qui mane plagas, venabula, servos 

Diflertum transire forum populumque jubebat, 

Unus ut e multis populo spectante referret 60 

Emtum mulus aprum. Crudi tumidique lavemur, 

Quid deccat, quid non, obliti, Cserite ccra 

Digni, remigium vitiosum Ithacensis Ulixoi, 

Cui potior patria fuit interdicta voluptas. 

Si, Mimnermus uti censet, sine amore jocisque 65 

Nil est jucundum, vivas in amore jocisque. 

Vive, vale ! Si quid novisti rectius istis, 
Candidus imperti ; si non, his utere mecura. 



Epistola VII. 
AD IVLECENATEM. 
Qul^ique dies tibi pollicitus me rure futurum, 
Sextilem totum mendax desideror. Atqui 
Si me vivere vis, recteque videre valentem, 
Quam mihi das aegro, dabis segrotare timenti, 
Maecenas, veniam ; dum ficus prima calorque t 

Designatorem decorat lictoribus atris, 
Dum pueris omnis pater et matercula pallet. 
Omciosaque sedulitas et opella forensis 
Adducit febres et testamenta resignat. 

Quod si bruma nives Albanis illinet agris, 1 

Ad mare descendet vates tuus, et sibi parcet, 
Contractusque leget ; te, dulcis amice, reviset 
Cum Zephyris, si concedes, et hirundine prima. 

Non, quo more piris vesci Calaber jubet hospes, 
Tu me fecisti locupletem. — Vescere sodes. — 15 

Tarn satis est. — At tu qitantumvis talle. — Benigne — 
Non invisa feres pueris munuscula parvis. — 
Tarn teneor dono, quam si dimittar onustus. — 
Ut libet ; hcec porch hodie comedenda reliwquis. 



•<J04 a. HORATII FLACCI '7 

Prcdigus et stultus donat, quae spernit et odiL : 20 

Haec seges ingratos tulit, et feret omnibus annis. 

V"ir bonus et sapiens dignis ait esse paratus, 

Nee tamen ignorat, quid distent sera lupinis. 

Dignum prsestabo me etiam pro laude merentis. 

Quod si me noles usquam discedere, reddes Zb 

Forte latus, nigros angusta fronte capillos, 

Reddes dulce loqui, reddes ridere decorum, et 

Inter vina fugam Cinane moerere protervae. 

Forte per angustam tenuis vulpecula rimam 
Repserat in cumeram frumenti, pastaque rursus iU 

Ire foras pleno tendebat corpore frustra. 
Cui mustela procul, Si vis, ait, effugere istinc, 
Macra cavum repetes arctum, quern macra subisti. 
Hac ego si compellor imagine, cuncta resigno ; 
Nee somnum plebis laudo, satur altilium, nee 36 

Otia divitiis Arabum Uberrima muto. 
Sacpe verecundum laudasti ; Rexque Paterque 
Audisti coram, nee verbo parcius absens. 
Inspice, si possum donata reponere laetus. 
Haud male Telemachus, proles patientis Ulixei . 40 

Non est aptus equis Itliace locus, ut neque plants 
P or rectus spatiis, nee multce prodigus herbce : 
Atride, magis apta tibi tua dona relinquam. 
Parvum parva decent : mini jam non regia Roma, 
Sed vacuum Tibur placet, aut imbelle Tarentum. 45 

Strenuus et fortis, causisque Philippus agendis 
Clarus, ab officiis octavam circiter horam 
Dum redit, atque Foro nimium distare Carinas 
Jam grandis natu queritur, conspexit, ut aiunt, 
Adrasum quendam vacua tonsoris in umbra, 50 

Cultello proprios purgantem leniter ungues. 
Demetri (puer liic non lseve jussa Philippi 
Accipiebat), abi, queer e et refer, unde domo, qui*, 
Cujus fortunes, quo sit patre quove patrono. 



7. I ETISTOLARUM. LIBER I. 205 

It, redit, enaiTat : Vulteiurn nomine Menam, 55 

Prseconem, tenui ccnsu, sine crimine, notum ; 

Et propei are loco et eessare, et qurerere ot uti, 

Gaudentem parvisque sodalibus, et lare certo, 

Et ludis, et, post decisa negotia, Campo. 

Scitari libet ex ipso, qucecunque refers : die 60 

Ad coznam veniat. Non sane credere Mena ; 

Mirari secum tacitus. Quid multa ? Benigne, 

P espondet. — Neget Me mild ? — Negat improbus, it te 

Negligit aut horret. — Vulteiurn mane Philippus 

Vilia vendentem tunicato scruta popello 66 

Occupat, et salvere jubet prior. Ille Philippo 

Excusare laborem et mercenaria vincla, 

Quod non mane domum venisset ; denique, quod non 

Providisset eum. — Sic ignovisse putato 

Me tibi, si ccenas liodie mecum. — TJt libet. — Ergo 70 

Post nonam venies ; nunc i, rem strenuus auge. 

Ut ventum ad coenam est, dicenda tacenda locutus, 

Tandem dormitum dimittitur. Hie, ubi saepe 

Occultum vis^s decurrere piscis ad hamum, 

Mane cliens et jam certus conviva, jubetur 75 

Rura suburbana indictis comes ire Latinis. 

Tmpositus mannis arvum coelumque Sabinum 

Non cessat laudare. Videt ridetque Philippus, 

Et sibi dum requiem, dum risus undique quaerit, 

Dum septem donat sestertia, mutua septem 80 

Promittit, persuadet, uti mercetur agellum. 

Mercatur. Ne te longis ambagious ultra 

Quam satis est morer, ex nitido fit rusticus, atque 

Sulcos et vineta crepat mera, prcsparat ulmos, 

Tmmoritur studiis, et amore senescit habendi. 83 

Verum ubi oves furto, morbo periere capellae, 

Spem mentita seges, bos est enectus arando : 

OfTensus damnis, media de nocte caballum 

A.rripit, iratusque Philippi tendit ad ssdes. 



206 Q. KURATIi FLACCI [7. fci, 9 

Quern simiu adspexit sea brum intonsumcue Phi'ippus, 90 
Durus, ait, Vultei, nimis atWitusque videris 
Esse mild. — Pol, me miserum, patrone, vocares, 
Si velles, inquit, venim mild ponere no??icn. 
Quod te per Genium deztramque Deosque Penates 
Obsecro et obtestor, vitcc me redde priori. 95 

Qui semel adspexit, quantum dimissa petitis 
Prsestent, mature redeat repetatque relicta. 
Metiri se quemque suo modulo ac pede verum est. 



Epistola VIII. 

AD CELSUM ALBINOVANUM. 

Celso gaudere et bene rem gerere Albinovano 

Musa rogata refer, comiti scribaeque Neronis. 

Si quaeret quid agam, die, multa et pulchra minantem, 

Vivere nee recte nee suaviter ; haud quia grando 

Contuderit vites, oleamve momorderit aestus, o 

Nee quia longinquis armentum aegrotet in agris ; 

Sed quia mente minus validus quam corpore toto 

Nil audire velim, nil discere, quod levet aegrum ; 

Fidis ofiendar medicis, irascar amicis, 

Cur me funesto properent arcere veterno ; 1 C 

Quae nocuere sequar, fugiam quae profore credam, 

Romae Tibur amem ventosus, Tibure Pvomam. 

Post haec, ut valeat, quo pacto rem gerat et se, 

Ut placeat Juveni, percontare, utque cohorti. 

Si dicet, Recte : primum gaudere, subinde 16 

Praeceptum auriculis hoc instillare memento : 

Ut tu fortunam, sic nos te, Celse, feiemus. 



Epistola IX. 
AD CLAUDIUM NERONEM 

Septimius, Claudi, nimirum intelligit unus, 
Quanti me facias ; nam quum rogat et prece cogil, 
Scilicet ut tibi se laudare et tiadere coner 



V, 10.] EPISTOL.AKUM. LIBER I. 20^ 

Dignum monte dornoquc legentis honesta Neroiiis, 

Munere quum fungi propioris ccnset amici, 6 

Quid possim videt ac novit mc valdius ipso. 

Multa quidern dixi, cur cxcusatus abirem : 

Sed timui, mea ne finxissc minora putarer, 

Dissimulator opis propria}, mihi commodus uni 

Sic ego, majoris fugicns opprobria culpa?, \9 

Frontis ad urbanse descendi praemia. Quod si 

Depositum laudas ob amici jussa pudorcm, 

Scribe tui gregis hunc, et fortem crede bonumque. 



Epistola X. 

AD FUSCUM ARISTIUM. 

Urbis amatorem Fuscum salvere jubemus 
Ruris amatores, hac in re scilicet una 
Multum dissimiles, at cetera psene gemelli, 
Fraternis animis, quidquid negat alter, et alter ; 
Annuimus pariter vetuli notique columbi. 5 

Tu nidum servas, ego laudo ruris amoeni 
Rivos, et musco circumlita saxa, nemusque. 
Quid quaeris ? vivo et regno, simul ista reliqui, 
Quae vos ad coelum fertis rumore secundo ; 
Utque sacerdotis fugitivus, liba recuso ; 10 

Pane egeo jam mellitis potiore placentis. 
Vivere naturae si convenienter oportejfc, 
Ponendaeque domo quaerenda est area primum, 
Novistine locum potiorem rure beato ? 

Est ubi plus tepeant hiemes ? ubi gratior aura l/» 

Leniat et rabiem Canis, et momenta Leonis, 
Quum semel accepit solem furibundus acutum ? 
Est ubi divellat somnos minus invida cura ? 
Deterius Libycis olet aut nitet herba lapillis ? 
Purior in vicis aqua tendit rumpere plumbum, ZO 

Quam quao per pronum trepidat cum murmure rivum ? 



208 Q. 1 DRATII FLACCl 1*0,11 

Nempe inter vanas nutritur silva columnas, 
Laudaturque domus, longos quae prospicit agios 
Naturam expellas furca, tanien usque recurret, 
Et mala perrurnpet furtim fastidia victrix. 24 

Non, qui Sidonio contendere callidus ostro 
Nescit Aquinatem potantia vellera fucum, 
Certius accipiet damnum propiusve medullis, 
Quam qui non poterit vero distinguere falsum. 
Quern res plus nimio delectavere secundae, 3'J 

Mutatae quatient. Si quid mirabere, pones 
Invitus. Fuge magna ; licet sub paupere tecto 
lieges et regum vita praecurrere amicos. 

Cervus equum pugna melior communibus herbis 
Pellebat, donee minor in certamine longo 35 

Imploravit opes hominis, fienumque recepit. 
Sed postquam victor violens discessit ab hoste, 
Non equitem dorso, non frenum depulit ore. 
Sic, qui pauperiem veritus potiore metallis 
Libertate caret, dominum vehet improbus, atque 40 

Serviet aeternum, quia parvo nesciet uti. 
Cui non conveniet sua res, ut calceus olim, 
Si pede major erit, subvertet ; si minor, uret. 

Laetus sorte tua vives sapienter, Aristi ; 
Nee me dimittes incastigatum, ubi plura \6 

Cogere, quam satis est, ac non cessare videbor. 
Imperat, aut servit, collecta pecunia cuique, 
Tortum digna sequi potius quam ducere funem. 

Haec tibi dictabam post fanum putre Vacunae. 
Excepto, quod non simul esses, cetera laetus. 50 



Epistola XI. 

AD BULLATIUM. 
Quid tibi visa Chios, Bullati, notaque Lesbos ? 
Quid concinna Samos ? quid Crcesi regia Sardis ? 
Smyrna quid, et Colophon ? majora minorave fama ? 



il,12.] ' EPISTOLAKUM. LIBER I. 203 

Cunctane prao Campo et Tiberino llumine sonlont ? 

An venit in votum Attalicis ex urbibus una ? 5 

An Lebedum laudas odio maris atque viarum ? 

Scis, Lebedus quid sit ; Gabiis dcsertior atque 

Fidenis vicus : tamen illic vivero vellem, 

Oblitusque meoruin, obliviscendus et illis, 

Neptunum procul e terra speetare furentem 10 

Sed neque, qui Capua Romam petit, imbre lutoque 

Adspersus, volet in caupona vivere ; nee, qui ^ 

Frigus collegit, furnos et balnea laudat, 

Ut fortunatam plene praistantia vitam. 

Nee, si te validus jactaverit Auster in alto, 1 3 

Tdcirco navem trans ^Egaeum mare vendas. 

Tncolumi Rhodos et Mytilene pulchra facit, quod 
Psenula solstitio, campestre nivalibus auris, 
Per brumam Tiberis, Sextiii mense caminus. 
Dum licet, ac vultum servat Fortuna benignum, 20 

Romae laudetur Samos et Chios et Rhodos absens 
Tu, quamcunque Deus tibi fortunaverit horam, 
Grata sume manu, neu duleia differ in annum ; 
Ut, quocunque loco fueris, vixisse libenter 
Te dicas. Nam si ratio et prudentia curas, 25 

Non locus, efTusi late maris arbiter, aufert : 
Caelum, non animum mutant, qui trans mare cu ixmt 
Strenua nos excercet inertia ; navibus atque 
Quadrigis petimus bene vivere. Quod petis, hie est, 
Est Ulubris, animus si te non deficit sequus. i(? 



Epistola XII. 
AD ICCIUM. 
Fructibus Agrippae Siculis, quos colligis, Icci, 
Si recte frueris, non est ut copia maj nr 
Ab Jove donan possit tibi. Tolle querelas ; 
Pauper enim non est, cui rerum suppetit usus. 



21C Q. I10RATII FLACC1 [12,13 

Si ventri l)3ne si lateri est pedibusque tuis, nil 6 

DivitiaB poterunt regales addere majus. 

Si forte in medio positorum abstemius herbis 

Vivis et urtica, sic vrves protinus, ut te 

Confestim liquidus Fortunae rivus inauret ; 

Vel quia naturam mutare pecunia nescit, J d 

Vel quia cuncta putas una virtute minora. 

Miramur, si Democriti pecus edit agellos 
Cultaque, d^fci peregre est animus sine corpore velox ; 
Quum tu inter scabiem tantam et contagia lucri 
Nil parvum sapias, et adhuc sublimia cures ; 15 

Quae mare compescant causae, quid temperet annum, 
Stello3 sponte sua, jussaene vagentur et errent, 
Quid premat obscurum Lunae, quid proferat orbem 
Quid velit et possit rerum concordia discors, 
Empedocles, an Stertinium deli ret acumen. 20 

Verum, seu pisces, seu porrum et caepe trucidas, 
Utere Pompeio Grosplio, et, si quid petet, ultro 
Defer : nil Grosphus nisi verum orabit et aequum . 
Vilis amicorum est annona, bonis ubi quid deest. 

Ne tamen ignores, quo sit Romana loco res : 26 

Cantaber Agrippae, Claudi virtute Neronis 
Armenius cecidit ; jus imperiumque Phrahates 
Csesaris accepit genibus minor ; aurea fruges 
Ttaliae pleno defundit Copia cornu. 



Epistola XIII. 

AD VINIUM ASELLAM. 

Ut proficiscentem docui te saepe diuque, 
Augusto reddes signata volumina, Villi, 
Si rulidus, si l33tus erit, si denique poscet ; 
Ne studio nostri pecces, odiumque libellis 
Sedulus importes, opera vehemente minister. 
Si te for"- moan gravis uret sarcina charts, 



13, 14. J EPISTOI.ARUM. LIBER] '^11 

Abjleito potiuH, quam quo perferrc juberis 

Clitellas ferus impingas, Asinsque patemum 

Cognomen vertaa in risum, et fabula fias. 

Viribus uteris per elivos, flumiua, lamah : 10 

Victor propositi simul ac perveneris illuc, 

Sic positum servabis onus, ne forte sub ala 

Fasciculum portes librorum, ut rusticus agnum, 

CJt vinosa glomus furtivce Pyrrhia lanae, 

Ut cum pileolo soleas conviva tribulis. 15 

Neu vulgo narres te sudavisse ferendo 

Carmina, qua3 possint oculos auresque morari 

Caesaris ; oratus multa prece, nitere porro. 

Vade, vale, cave ne titubes, mandataque i'rai.gas. 



Epistola XIV. 
AD VILLICUM SUUM. 
Villice silvarum et mihi me reddentis agelli, 
Quern tu fastidis, habitatum quinque focis, et 
Quinque bonos solitum Variam dimittere patres ; 
Certemus, spinas animone ego fortius an tu 
Evellas agro, et melior sit Horatius an res. 5 

Me quamvis Lamia) pietas et cura moratur, 
Fratrem moerentis, rapto de fratre dolentis 
Insolabiliter, tamen istuc mens animusque 
Fert, et amat spatiis obstantia rumpere claustra. 
Rure ego viventem, tu dicis in urbe beatum : 10 

Cui placet alterius, sua nimirum est odio sors. 
Stultus uterque locum immeritum causatur inique ; 
In culpa est animus, qui se non efFugit unquam. 
Tu mediastinus tacita prece rura petebas, 
Nunc urbem et ludos et balnea villicus optas. 15 

Me constare mihi scis, et discedere tristem, 
Quandocunque trahunt invisa negotia Romam 
Non eadem miramur ; eo disconvenit inter 



2i2 Q. HORATII FLACCI [11. 15 

Meque et te ; nam, quae deserta et inhospita tesqua 
Credis, amcena vocat mecum qui sentit. et odit 20 

Quae tu pulchra putas. — 

Nunc, age, quid nostrum concentum dividat, audi. 
Quern tenues decuere togae nitidique capilli, 
Quern bibulum liquidi media de luce Falerni, 
Coena brevis juvat, et prope rivum somnus in herba ; 2d 
Nee lusisse pudet, sed non incidere ludum. 
Non istic obliquo oculo mea commoda quisquam 
Limat ; non odio obscuro morsuque venenat : 
Rident vicini glebas et saxa moventem. 
Cum servis urbana diaria rodere mavis ? 3Q 

Horum tu in numerum voto ruis. Invidet usum 
Lignorum et pecoris tibi calo argutus, et horti. 
Optat ephippia bos, piger optat arare caballus. 
Quam scit uterque, libens, censebo, exerceat artem. 



Epistola XV. 
AD NUMONIUM VALAM. 
Quae sit hiems Veliae, quod coelum,Vala, Salerni, 
Quorum hominum regio, et qualis via (nam mihi I aias 
Musa supervacuas Antonius, et tamen illis 
Me facit invisum, gelida quum perluor unda 
Per medium frigus. Sane myrteta relinqui, 5 

Dictaque cessantem nervis elidere morbum 
Sulfura contemni vicus gemit, invidus aegris. 
Qui caput et stomachum supponere fontibus audent 
Clusinis, Gabiosque petunt et frigida rura 
Mutendus locus est, et deversoria nota 1 

Praeteragendus equus. Quo tendis ? non mihi Cumas 
Est iter aut Baias, laeva stomachosus habena 
Dicet eques ; sed equi frenato est auris in ore) ; 
Major utrum populum frumenti copia pascat ; 
Collectosne bibant imbres, puteosne perennes 1 



{5, it/. J EP1ST0LARUM.- -L.IBER I. 213 

Jugis aquae (nam vina nihil moror illius oraj. 

Rure meo possum quidvis perferre patique : 

Ad mare quum veni generosum et lene requiro, 

Quod curas abigat, quod cum spe divite manet 

In venas animumque mcum, quod verba ministret). 2\i 

Tractus uter plures lepores, uter educet apros, 

Utra magis pisces et echinos aequora celent, 

Pinguis ut inde domum possim Phseaxque reverti, 

Scribere te nobis, tibi nos accredere par est. 

Ma3nius, ut rebus maternis atque paternis 26 

Fortiter absumtis urbanus coapit haberi, 
Scurra vagus, non qui certum praesepe teneret, 
Impransus non qui civem dignosceret hoste, 
Quselibet in quemvis opprobria fingere ssevus, 
Pernicies et tempestas barathrumque macelli, 30 

Quidquid quaesierat, ventri donabat avaro. 
Hie, ubi nequitiae fautoribus et timidis nil 
Aut paulum abstulerat, patinas co3nabat omasi, 
Vilis et agninse, tribus ursis quod satis esset. 
Nimirum hie ego sum : nam tuta et parvula laudo, 35 

Quum res deficiunt, satis inter vilia fortis ; 
Verum, ubi quid melius contingit et unctius, idem 
Vos sapere et solos aio bene vivere, quorum 
^onspicitur nitidis fundata pecunia villis. 



Epistola XVI. 
AD QUINCTIUM. 
Ne perconteris, fundus meus, optime Quincti, 
Arvo pascat herum, an baccis opulentet olivae, 
Pomisne, an pratis, an amicta vitibus ulmo, 
Scribetur tibi forma loquaciter, et situs agri. 

Continui montes ni dissocientur opaca 
Valle ; sed ut veniens dextrum I atus adspiciat Sol, 
Lesvum decedons curru fugiente vaporet 



214 a. HOHATII FLACCI [It\ 

Temperiem laudes. Quid, si rubicunda benigui 

Corna vepres ct prima ferant ? si quercus et iiex 

Multa fruge pecus, multa dominum juvct umbra ? 10 

Dicas adductum propius frondcre Tarentum. 

Fons etiam rivo dare nomen idoneus, ut nee 

Frigidior Thracam nee purior ambiat Hebrus, 

Infirmo capiti fluit utilis, utilis alvo. 

ILe latebrse dulces, etiam, si crcdis, amoena), lit 

Tncolumem tibi me praestant Septcmbribus horis. 

Tu rccte vivis, si curas esse quod audis. 
.Tactamus jampridem omnis tc Roma beaturn , 
Sed vereor, ne cui de te plus, quam tibi credas, 
Neve putes alium sapiente bonoque beatum ; 20 

Neu, si te populus sanum recteque valentem 
Dictitet, occultam febrem sub teinpus edendi 
Dissimules, donee manibus tremor incidat unctis. 
Stultorum incurata pudor malus ulcera celat. 
Si quis bella tibi terra pugnata marique 26 

Dieat, et his verbis vacuas permulceat aures : 
Tene magis salvum populus velit, an populum tu, 
Servct in a??ibiguo, qui cousulit et tibi ct urhi, 
Jupiter ; Augusti laudes agnoscere possis. 
Quum pateris sapiens emendatusque vocari, 30 

Respondesne tuo, die sodes, nomine ? — Nempe 
Vir bonus et loudens dici detector ego ac tu. 
Qui dedit hoc hodie, eras, si volet, auferet ; ut si 
Detulerit fasces indigno, detrahet idem. 
Pone, mcum est, inquit ; pono, tristisque recedo. 35 

Idem si clamet furem, neget esse pudicum, 
Contendat laqueo collum pressisse paternum ; 
Mordear opprobriis falsis, mutemque colores ? 
Falsus honor juvat et mendax infamia terret 
Quern, nisi mendosum et medicandum ? Vjt bonus est 
quis ? — 40 

Qui consulta patrum, qui leges juraque servat, 



10. J EL'ISTOLAUI'M. — LIBER I. 215 

Quo midta magnetqtte sccantur judlce lilts. 

Quo res sponsors, et quo causa teste tcnentur. — 

Sed videt liunc omuis domus et vicinia tota 

Introrsua turpcm, speciosum pellc decora. 40 

Nee fur turn feci, necfugi, si mihi dicat 
Servus : TIabcs pretium, laris non uteris, aio. — 
Non hominem occidi. — Non jiasccs in cruce conos.— 
Sum bonus etfritgi. — llenuit negitatque Sabellus. 
Cautus cnim metuit ibveam lupus, accipiterque 50 

Suspectos laqueos, et opertum miluus hamurn. 
Oderunt peccare boiii virtutis amore ; 
Tu nihil admittes ill te formidine poena?. 
Sit spes fallendi, miscebis sacra profanis. 
Nam de millc fabae modiis quum surripis unum, 55 

Damnum est, non facinus mihi pacto lenius isto. 
Vir bonus, omne forum quem spectat et omne tribunil, 
Qu&ndocunque Deos vel porco vel bove placat, 
Jane pater, clare, clare quum dixit, Apollo, 
Labra movet metuens audiri : Pidchra Laverna, 60 

Da mild f oiler e, da justo sancloque videri ; 
Noctem peccatis, et fraudibus objice nubem. 

Qui melior servo, qui liberior sit avarus, 
In triviis fixurn quum se demittit ob assem, 
Non video. Nam qui cupiet, metuet quoque ; porro, 65 
Qui metuens vivet, liber mihi non erit unquam. 
Perdidit arma, locum virtutis deseruit, qui 
Semper in augenda festinat et obruitur re. 
Vendere quum possis captivum, occidcre noli ; 
Serviet utiliter ; sine pascat durus aretque ; 70 

Naviget ac mediis hiemet mercator in undis ; 
Annona? prosit ; portet frumenta penusque. 

Vir bonus et sapiens audebit dicere : Pentium, 
Elector Thebarum, quid me per f err e patique 
Indignum coges ? — Adimambona. — Ncmpe pecus, reiv, 75 
Lcctos, argentum? tollas licet. — In man ids et 



216 a. HORATII FLACCI [16, J7 

Compedibus scevo te sub custode tencbo. — 

Ipse Dcus, simul atque volam, me solvct. — Opinor, 

Hoc sentit : Moriar ; mors ultima linea rerum est. 



Epistola XVII. 
AD SC^EVAM. 
Quamvis, Scaeva, satis per te tibi consulis, ct scis 
Quo tandem pacto deceat majoribus uti, 
Disce, docendus adhuc quae censet amiculus ; ut si 
Caecus iter monstrare velit : tamen aspice, si quid 
Et nos, quod cures proprium fecisse, loquamur. 6 

Si te grata quies et primam somnus in horam 
Delectat, si te pulvis strepitusque rotarum, 
Si kedit caupona, Ferentinum ire jubebo : 
Nam neque divitibus contingunt gaudia solis, 
Nee vixit male, qui natus moriensque fefellit. 10 

Si prodesse tuis pauloque benignius ipsum 
Te tractare voles, accedes siccus ad unctum. 

Si prandcret olus patientcr, rcgibus uti, 
Nollet Aristippus. — Si sciret rcgibus uti 
Fastidiret olus, qui me notat. — Utrius horum 16 

Verba probes et facta, doce ; vel junior audi, 
Cur sit Aristippi potior sententia. Namque 
Mordacem Cynicum sic eludebat, ut aiunt : 
Scurror ego ipse mihi, populo tit : rectius hoc et 
Splendidius multo est. Equus ut me portct, olat t ez : 20 
Officium facio : tu poscis vilia rerum, 
Dante minor, quamvis fers te nullius egentem. 

Omnis Aristippum decuit color et status et res, 
Tentantem majora, fere praesentibus SBquum. 
Contra, quern duplici panno patientia velat, £5 

Mirabor, vitas via si con versa decebit. 
Alter purpureum non exspectabit amictum, 
Quidlibet indutus celeberrima per loca vadet. 



17, ]8.] El'lSTOLARUAI. LIB BE 1. 217 

Pcrsonamque feret non incoiiciniius utramque : 

Alter Milcti textam cane pejus et angui 30 

Vitabit chlamydem ; morietur frigore, si non 

[lettuleris pannum : refer, et sine vivat ineptus. 

P^es gerere et captos ostendere civibus hostes 
Attingit solium Jovis ct ccclestia tentat : 
Principibus placuisse viris non ultima laus est. 35 

Non cuivis homini contingit adire Corinthum. 
Sedit, qui timuit ne non succederet : esto. 
Quid ? qui pervenit, fecitne viriliter ? Atqui 
Hie est aut nusquam, quod qiuerimus. Hie onus horret, 
Ut parvis animis et parvo corpore rnajus ; 40 

Hie subit et perfert. Aut virtus nomen inane est, 
Aut decus et pretium recte petit experiens vir. 

Coram regc suo do paupertate tace.ntes 
Plus poscente ferent. Distat, sumasne pudentor. 
An rapias : atqui rerurn caput hoc erat, hie fons. 45 

Indotata mihi soror est, paupercula mater. 
Et fundus nee vendibilis nee paseere Jirmus, 
Qui dicit, clamat : Yietum date. Succinit alter : 
Et mihi dividuo jindctur munere quadra. 
Sed tacitus pasci si posset corvus, haberet 60 

Plus dapis et rixai multo minus invidiaique. 



EriSTOLA XVIII. 
AD LOLLIUM. 
Si bene te novi, metues, liberrime Lolli, 
Scurrantis speciem praebere, professus amicum. 
Est huic diversum vitio vitium prope majus, 
Asperitas agrestis et inconcinna gravisque, 
Quae se commendat tonsa cute, dentibus atris, 
Dum vult libertas dici mera, veraque virtus. 
Virtus est medium vitiorum, et utrinque reductum. 
Alter in obsequium plus ajquo pronus, et imi 

K 



218 Q. HORATII FLACCI. [18. 

Derisor lecti, sic nutum divitis liorret, 

Sic iterat voces, et verba cadentia tollit, 10 

Ut puerum saevo credas dictata magistro 

Reddere, vel partes mimum tractare secundas : 

Alter rixatur de lana sagpe caprina, et 

Propugnat nugis armatus : Scilicet, ut non 

Sit mihi prima Jides , et vere quod placet ut non 15 

Acriter elatrem ? Pretium cctas altera sordet. 

Ambigitur quid enim ? Castor sciat an Dolichos plus ; 

Brundisium Minuci melius via ducat, an Appi. 

Gloria quem supra vires et vestit et ungit, 
Quern tenet argenti sitis importuna famcsquc, 20 

Quem paupertatis pudor et fuga, dives amicus, 
Saepe decern vitiis instruct ior, odit et liorret : 
Aut, si non odit, regit ; ac, veluti pia mater, 
Plus quam sc sapcre et virtutibus esse priorcm 
Vult, et ait prope vera : Mew {contendere noli) 25 

Stultitiam patmntur opes ; tibi parvula res cat : 
Arcta dccet sanum comitcm toga; dcsine mecum 
Certare. Eutrapelus, cuicunque nocere volebat, 
Vestimeuta dabat pretiosa ; beatus enim jam 
Cum pulchris tunicis sumet nova consilia et spes. 30 

Arcanum neque tu scrutaberis illius unquam, 
Commissumque teges, et vino tortus et ira. 
Nee tua laudabis studia, aut aliena rcprendes ; 
Nee, quum venari volet ille, poemata panges. 
Gratia sic fratrum geminorum, Amphionis atquc 35 

Zethi, dissiluit, donee suspecta severo 
Conticuit lyra. Fraternis cessisse putatur 
Moribus Amphion : tu cede potentis amici 
Lenibus imperiis ; quotiesque educet in agros 
./Etolis onerata plagis jumenta canesque, 40 

Surge, et inhumanas senium depone Camena3, 
Ccenes ut pariter pulmenta laboribus emta; 
Romanis sulenne viiis opus, utile famae, 



18.) EPISTOLARUM. LIBER I. 219 

Vitaeque et membris ; praesertim quum valcas, ei 

Vel cursu superare canem vel viribus aprum 46 

Possis : adde, virilia quod spcciosius arma 

Non est qui tractet (scis, quo clarnore coronas . 

Prcelia sustineas campestria) ; denique sasvam 

Militiam pucr et Cantabrica bella tulisti 

Sub duce, qui templis Parthorum signa refigit 50 

Nunc, et si quid abcst, Italis adjudicat armis. 

Ac (ne te retrahas, et inexcusabilis absis), 

Quamvis nil extra numerum fecissc modumque 

Curas, interdum nugaris rure paterno : 

Partitur lintres exercitus ; Actia pugna 55 

Te duce per pueros hostili more refertur ; 

Adversarius est frater ' lacus Hadria ; donee 

Alterutrum velox Victoria fronde coronet. 

Consentire suis studiis qui crediderit te, 

Fautor utroque tuum laudabit pollice ludura. t»0 

Protinus ut moneam (si quid monitoris egea tu) 
Quid, de quoque viro, et cui dicas, saepe videto. 
Percontatorem fugito, nam garrulus idem est ; 
Nee retinent patulse commissa fidelitcr aures ; 
Et semel emissum volat irrevocabile verbum. 65 

Qualem commendes, etiam atque etiam adspicw , ;i« mox 
Incutiant aliena tibi peccata pudorem. 
Fallimur, et quondam non dignum tradimus ; ergo 
Quern sua culpa premet, deceptus omitte tueii ; 
At penitus notum, si tentent crimina, serves, 70 

Tuterisque tuo fidentem prscsidio : qui 
Dente Theonino quum circumroditur, ecquid 
Ad te post paulo ventura pericula sentis ? 
Nam tua res agitur, paries quum proximus ardet ; 
Et neglecta solcnt incendia sumere vires. 75 

Dulcis inexpertis cultura potentis amici, 
Expertus metuit. Tu, dum tua navis in alto esi. 
Uoc age, ne miitata retrorsum te ferat aura. 



220 



Q. HUSAT1I FLACCI 



L 18, )9 



Oderunt hilarem tristes, tristemque jocosi, 
Sedatum celeres, agilem gnavumque remisbi, 8G 

Potores bibuli media de nocte Falerui 
,Oderunt porrecta negantem pocula, quamvis 
Nocturnos jures te formidare vapores. 
Demc supercilio nubem : plerumque modestus 
Occupat obscuri speciem, taciturnus accrbi. 85 

Inter cuncta leges et percontabere doctos, 
Qua ratione queas traducere leniter arvum, 
Ne te semper inops agitet vexetque cupido, 
Ne pavor, et rerum mediocriter utilium spes ; 
Virtutem doctrina paret, naturane donet ; 90 

Quid minuat curas, quid te tibi reddat amicum ; 
Quid pure tranquillet, hcnos, an dulce lucellum. 
An secretum iter, et fallentis scmita viUe. 

Me quoties reficit gelidus Digentia rivus, 
Quern Mandela bibit, rugosus frigore pagus, l JL* 

Quid sentire putas ? quid credis, amice, precari ? 
Sit mihi, quod nunc est ; etiam minus : ct mild vivam 
Qucd supcrest cevi, si quid supcrcsse volunt Di : 
Sit bona Ubrorum ct proviscc frugis in annum 
Copia ; ncu jluitcni dubice spe pcndulus horce. 100 

Scd satis est orare Jovem, quce dojuit et aufert : 
Del vita?n, det opes ; ccquum mi animum ipse paraoo. 



Epistola XIX. 

AD MiECENATEM. 
Frisco si credis, Maecenas docte, Cratino, 
Nulla placere diu nee vivere carmina possunt, 
Quae scribuntur aquae potoribus. Ut male sanos 
Adscripsit Liber Satyris Faunisque poetas, 
Vina fere dulces oluerunt mane Camense. 
Laudibus arguitur vini vinosus Homerus ; 
Ennius ipse pater nunquam nisi potus ad arma 
Prosiluit dicenda Forum putealque Libonis 



0.] EPJ8TOLARUM, — LIBER I. 221 

Mandabo siccis, ad imam cantare sevens. 

Hoc simul odixi, non cessavere poetae 10 

Nocturno ccrtare mero, puterc diurno. 

Quid ? si quis vultu torvo fcrus, et pede undo, 
Exiguaque toga, simuletquc ex ore Calonetn, 
V'irtutemne rcpraBsentet morcsquc Catonis ? 
Rupit Iarbitam Timagcnis aemula lingua, ! 5 

Dum studet urbanus, tenditque disertus habe.i. 
Decipit exemplar vitiis imitabile : quod si 
rallerem casu, biberent exsangue cumin um. 
O imitatores, servum pecus, ut mihi saepe 
Bilem, saepe jocum vestri movere tumultus ! 20 

Libera per vacuum posui vestigia princeps ; 
Non aliena meo pressi pede. Qui sibi fldit, 
Dux regit examen. Parios ego primus iamboa 
Ostendi Latio, numeros animosque seeutus 
Archilochi, non res et agentia verba Lycamben. 2b 

Ac, ne me foliis ideo brevioribus ornes, 
Quod timui mutare modos et carminis artem : 
Temperat Archilochi musam pede mascula Sappho, 
Temperat Alcaeus ; sed rebus et ordine dispar, 
Nee socerum quaerit, quern versibus oblinat atris, 30 

Nee sponsae laqueum famoso carmine nectit. 
Hunc ego, non alio dictum prius ore, Latinus 
Vulgavi fidicen : juvat immemorata ferentem 
Ingenuis oculisque legi manibusque teneri. 

Scire velis, mea cur ingratus opuscula lector 35 

Laudet ametque domi, premat extra limen iniemus 7 
Non ego ventosoe plebis sufFragia venor * 
Impensis #0Bnarum et tritas munere vestis ; 
Non ego, nobilium scriptorum auditor et ultor, 
Giammaticas ambire tribus et pulpita dignor : 40 

Hinc illae lacrimal ! Spissis indigna theatris 
Scripta pudet recitare, et nugis addere pondns, 
Si dixi : Rides, ait, et Jovis auribus ista 
Servas ; Jidis enim manare poctica mclla 



222 Q. HORATII FLACCI EPISTOLARUM. LIB. I. [19,20 

Te solum, till pulcher. Ad base ego naribus uti 45 

Formido ; et, luctantis acuto ne secer ungui, 
Displicet iste locus, clamo, et diludia posco. 
Ludus eiiim genuit trepidum ccrtamen et iram, 
Ira truces inimicitias et funebre bellum. 



ErisTOLA XX. 
AD LIBUUM SUUM. 

Vertumnum Janumque, liber, spcctare vidcris ; 

Scilicet ut prostes Sosiorum pumice muudus. 

Odisti claves, et grata sigilla pudico ; 

Faucis ostendi gemis, et communia laudas ; 

Non ita nutritus ! Fuge, quo descendere gestis : 

Non erit emisso reditus tibi. Quid miser egi ? 

Quid volui ? dices, ubi quis te lseserit ; et scis 

Tn breve te cogi, plenus quum languet amator. 

Quod si non odio peccantis desipit augur, 

Carus eris Roma?, donee te deserat setas. 10 

Contrectatus ubi manibus sordescerc vulgi 

Coeperis, aut tineas pasces taciturnus inertes, 

Aut fugies Uticam, aut vinctus mitteris Ilerdam. 

Ridebit monitor non exauditus ; ut ille, 

Qui male parentem in rupes protrusit asellum 15 

Iratus : quis enim invitum servare laboret ? 

Hoc quoque te man'et, ut pueros elementa docentem 

Occupet extremis in vicis balba senectus. 

Quum tibi sol tepidus plures admoverit aures, 

Me libertino natum patre, et in tenui re 20 

Majores pennas jiido extendisse loqueris ; 

Lit, quantum generi demas, virtutibus addas. 

Me primis Urbis belli placuisse domique ; 

Corporis exigui, praecanum, solibus aptum, 

Trasci celerem, tamen ut placabilis essem. 26 

Forte meum si quis te percontabitur S3vum, 

Me quater undenos sciat implevisse Decembres 

CoUegam Lepidura quo duxit Lollius anno 



Q H K A T I I F L A C C 1 
EPISTOLARUM 

LIBER SECUNDUS. 



E PISTOL A I. 

AD AUGUSTUM. 

Quum tot sustineas et tanta negotia solus, 

Res It alas armis tuteris, moribus ornes, 

Legibus emendes, in publica commoda peccem, 

Si longo serrnone morer tua tempora, Cajsar. 

ttomulus, et Liber pater, et cum Castore Pollux, fi 

Post ingentia facta Deorum in templa recepti, 

Dum terras hominumque colunt genus, aspera foelia 

Componunt, agros assignant, oppida condunt, 

Ploravere suis non respondere favorem 

Speratum mentis. Diram qui contudit hydram, 10 

Notaque fatali portenta labore subegit, 

Comperit invidiam supremo fine domari. 

Urit enim fulgore suo, qui prsegravat artes 

Infra se positas ; exstinctus amabitur idem. 

Prsesenti tibi maturos largimur honores, 16 

Jurandasque tuum per numen ponimus aras, 

Nil oriturum alias, nil ortum tale fatentes. 

Sed tuus hie populus, sapiens et Justus in uno, 
Te nostris ducibus, te Graiis anteferendo, 
Cetera nequaquam simili ratione modoque @Q 

iEstimat, et, nisi quse terris semota suisque 
^emporibus defuncta videt fastidit et odit ; 



224 a. IIORATII FLACCI [1. 

Sic iautor veterum, ut tabulas peccare vetantes» 

Quas bis quinque viri sanxerunt, foedera regum 

Vel Gabiis vel cum rigidis aequata Sabinis, 25 

Pontificum libros, annosa volumina vatum, 

Dictitct Albano Musas in monte locutas. 

Si, quia Graiorum sunt antiquissima quasque 
Scripta vel optima, Romani pensantur eadem 
Scriptorcs trutina, non est quod multa loquamur : 30 

Nil intra est oleam, nil extra est in nuce duri. 
Venimus ad summum fortunae : pingimus atque 
Psallimus, et luctamur Achivis doctius unctis. 

Si meliora dies, ut vina, poemata reddit, 
Scire velim, chartis pretium quotus arroget annus. 35 

Scriptor, abhinc annos centum qui decidit, inter 
Perfectos vetercsque refcrri debet ? an inter 
Viles atque novos ? excludat jurgia finis. — 
Est vetus atque probus, centum qui perficit annos.-— 
Quid ? qui deperiit minor uno mense vel anno, 40 

Inter quos referendus erit ? veteresne poetas ? 
An quos et pracsens et postera respuat aotas ? — 
Tste quidem vctcrcs inter ponetur Iwneste, 
Qui vel mense brcvi vel toto est junior anno. — 
Utor permisso, eaudacque pilos ut cquinae, 45 

Paulatim vello, et demo unum, demo et item unum, 
Dum cadat elusus ratione mentis acervi, 
Qui redit in fastos, et virtutem apstimat annis, 
Miraturque nihil, nisi quod Libitina sacravit. 

Ennius, et sapiens et fortia, et alter Homerus, 6Q 

Ut critici dicunt, leviter curare videtur, 
Quo promissa cadant et somnia Pythagorea. 
Naevius in manibus non est, et mentibus hacret 
Paene recens ? adeo sanctum est vetus omne poeraa. 
Ambigitur quoties uter utro sit prior, aufert &b 

Pacuvius docti famam senis, Attius alti ; 
Dicitur Afrani toga convenisse Menandro ; 



l.J EPrSTOLAKUM. — LIBER II. 225 

Plautus ad exemplar Siculi properare Epicliarmi , 
Vincere CsBcilius gravitate, Terentius arte. 

Hos ediscit, et bos arcto stipata tlicatro 60 

Spectal Itoma potens ; habct hos numeratque poetai 
Ad nostrum ternpus Livi scriptoris ab bbvo. 

Interduni vulgus rectum videt ; est ubi peeeat. 
Si vetercs ita miratur laudatquc poetas, 
Ut nihil anteferat, nihil illis comparet, errat : 05 

Si qusodarn nimis antique, si pleraque dure 
Dicere ccdit eos, ignave multa fatetur, 
Et sapit, et mecum facit, et Jove judicat soquo. 

Non equidem insector delendave carmina Livi 
Esse rcor, memini qua3 plagosum mihi parvo 70 

Orbilium dictare ) sed emendata videri 
Pulehraquc et exactis minimum distantia miror. 
Inter quae vcrbum emicuit si forte decorum, 
Si versus paulo concinnior unus et alter, 
Injuste totum ducit venditque poema. 76 

[ndignor quidquam reprehendi, non quia crasse 
Compositum illepideve putetur, sed quia nuper ; 
Ncc veniam antiquis, sed honorem et pracmia posci. 
Recte necne crocum floresque perambulet Atta) 
Fabula si dubitem, clament periisse pudorem 80 

Cuncti poene patres, ea quum reprehendere coner, 
Qua) gravis ^Esopus, quae doctus Roscius egit : 
Vel quia nil rectum, nisi quod placuit sibi, ducunt ; 
Vel quia turpe putant parere minoribus, et, qua3 
Imberbes didicere, senes perdenda fateri. 85 

Jam Saliare Numse carmen qui laudat, et illud, 
Quod mecum ignorat, solus vult scire videri, 
Ingeniis non ille favet plauditque sepultis, 
Nostra sed impugnat, nos nostraque lividus odit. 
Quod si tarn Graiis no vitas invisa fuisset, 90 

Quam nobis, quid nunc esset vetus ? aut quid haberet, 
Quod legeret tereretque viritim publicus usus ? 

K2 



22<) Q. IIORATII FLACCI \ 1 

Ut prim urn positis nugari Grnecia bellis 
Coepit, et in vitium fortuna labier soqua, 
Nunc athletarum studiis, nunc arsit equorum, i»4 

Marmoris aut eboris fabros aut seris amavi< 
Suspendit picta vultum mentemque tabella, 
Nunc tibicinibus, nunc est gavisa tragcedis ; 
Sub nutrice puella velut si luderet infans, 
Quod cupide petiit, mature plena reliquit. 10U 

Quid placet aut odio est, quod non mutabile credas ! 
Hoc paces habuere bonae ventique secundi. 

Romae dulce diu fuit et solenne, reclusa 
Mane domo vigilare, clienti promere jura, 
Cautos nominibus rectis expendere nummos, 105 

Majores audire, minori dicere, per quao 
Crescere res posset, minui damnosa libido. 
Mutavit mentcm populus levis, et calet uno 
^eribendi studio : pueri patresque severi 
Fronde comas vincti camant, et carmina dictant 1 1 

Ipse ego, qui nullos me affirmo scribere versus, 
Invenior Parthis mendacior ; et, prius orto 
Sole vigil, calamum et chartas et scrinia posco. 
Navim ao:ere ijrnarus navis timet : abrotonum aenrro 
Non audet, nisi qui didicit, dare ; quod medicorum est, 1 16 
Promittunt medici ; tractant fabrilia fabri : 
Scribimus indocti doctique poemata passim. 

Hie error tamen, et levis hose insania quantas 
Y r irtutes habeat, sic collige : vatis avarus 
Non temere est animus ; versus amat, hoc studet unum 120 
Detrimenta, fugas servorum, incendia ridet ; 
Non fraudem socio, puerove incogitat ullam 
Pupillo ; vivit siliquis et pane secundo ; 
Militiae quamquam piger et malus, utilis urbi ; 
Si das hoc, parvis quoque rebus magna juvasi. 25 

Os tenerum pueri balbumque poeta figurat, 
Torquet ab obsccEnis jam nunc sermonibus aurem, 



1.] EPISTOLARUM. LIBER II. 227 

Mox eliain pectus praeceptis format amicis, 

Asperitatis et invidiam corrector et irffl ; 

Recte facta refert, orientia tempora notis 1 oO 

Instruit exemplis, inopem solatur et a)grum. 

Castis cum pueris ignara puella mariti 

Disceret unde preces, vatem ni Musa dedisset ? 

Poscit opem chorus, et prsesentia numina sentit, 

Ctelestes implorat aquas docta prece blandus, 135 

Avertit morbos, motuenda pericula pellit, 

Impetrat et pacem, et locupletem frugibus annum 

Carmine Di superi placantur, carmine manes. 

Agricolae prisci, fortes, parvoque beati, 
Condita post frumenta, levantes tempore festo 140 

Corpus, et ipsum animum spe finis dura ferentem 
Cum sociis operum, pueris, et conjuge fida, 
Tellurem porco, Silvanum lacte piabant, 
Floribus et vino Genium, memorem brevis a3vi. 
Fescennina per hunc inventa licentia morem 145 

Versibus alternis opprobria rustica fudit, 
Libertasque recurrentes accepta per annos 
Lusit amabiliter, donee jam sajvus apertam 
In rabiem verti coepit jocus, et per honestas 
Ire domos impune minax. Doluere cruento 150 

Dente lacessiti ; fuit intactis quoque cura 
Conditione super communi ; quin etiam lex 
Pcenaque lata, malo qua3 nollet carmine quemquam 
Describi ; vertere modum, formidine fustis 
Ad bene dicendum delectandumque redacti. 155 

Grsecia capta ferum victorem cepit, et artes 
Lntulit agresti Latio : . sic horridus ille 
Defluxit numerus Saturnius ; et grave virus 
Munditiae pepulere : sed in longum tamen aevum 
Manserunt hodieque manent vestigia ruris. 160 

Seius enim Grsocis admovit acumina chartis, 
Et post Punica bella quietus quaerere coepit. 



228 O. HORATIl FLACCI [1. 

Quid Soph jcles et Thespis et iEschylus utile ferrent. 

Teutavit quoque rem, si digne vertere posset ; 

Et placuit sibi, natura sublimis et acer ; 165 

Nam spirat tragicum satis, et feliciter audet ; 

Sed turpem putat inscite metuitque lituram. 

Creditur, ex medio quia res arcessit, habere 
Sudoris minimum, sed habet Comoedia tanto 
Plus oneris, quanto venise minus. Adspice, Plautus 170 
Quo pacto partes tutetur amantis ephebi, 
Ut patris attenti, lenonis ut insidiosi ; 
Quantus sit Dossennus edacibus in parasitis, 
Quam non adstricto percurrat pulpita socco. 
Gestit enim nummum in loculos demittere, post hoc 175 
Securus, cadat, an recto stet fabula talo. 
Quern tulit ad sccnam vcntoso Gloria curru, 
Exanimat lentus spectator, sedulus inflat. 
Sic leve, sic parvum est, animum quod laudis avarum 
Submit aut reficit. Valeat res ludicra, si me 180 

Palma negata macrum, donata reducit opimum. 

Saipe etiam audacem fugat hoc terretque poetam, 
Quod numero plures, virtute et honore minores, 
Indocti stolidique, et depugnare parati, 
Si discordet eques, media inter carmina poscunt 185 

Aut ursum aut pugiles ; his nam plebecula gaudet. 
Verum equitis quoque jam migravit ab aure voluptas 
Omnis ad incertos oculos et gaudia vana. 
Quatuor aut plures aukea premuntur in horas, 
Dum fugiunt equitum turmre peditumque caterva) ; 1 90 

Mox trahitur manibus regum fortuna retortis, 
Esseda festinant, pilenta, petorrita, naves ; 
Captivum portatur ebur, captiva Corinthus. 

Si foret in terris, rideret Democritus, seu 
Diversum confusa genus panthera camelo, 1 95 

Sive elephas albus vulgi converteret ora : 
Spectaret populum ludis attentius ipsis, 



I.J KPISTOLARUM. I.IBl^R II. 229 

Ut sibi prajbenlern mimo spcctacula plura ; 

BcriptoroB autern larrare putaret asello 

Fabellam surdo. Nam qua) pcrvinccre voces 200 

Evaluere sonum, referunt qucm nostra theatra ? 

Garganum mugire putes nemus, aut mare Tuscum, 

Tanto cum strepitu ludi spectantur, et artcs, 

Divitieeque peregrina), quibus oblitus actor 

Quum stetit in scena, concurrit dextera larva). 206 

Dixit adliuc aliquid ? — Nil sane. — Quid placet ergo ? — 

Lana Tarentino violas imitata veneno. 

Ac ne forte putes, me, qua) facere ipse recusem, 
Quum recte tractent alii, laudare maligne ; 
Ille per extentum funem mihi posse videtur 210 

Ire poeta, meum qui pectus inaniter angit, 
Trritat, mulcet, falsis terroribus implet, 
Ut magus, et modo me Th** is, modo ponit Athenis. 
Verum age, et his, qui se lectori credere malunt, 
Quam spectatoris fastidia ferre superbi, 215 

Curam redde brevem, si munus Apolline dignum 
Vis complere libris, et vatibus addere calcar, 
Ut studio majore petant Helicona vircntcm. 

Multa quidem nobis facimus mala saspe poeta) 
(Ut vineta egomet caedam mea), quum tibi librum 220 

Sollicito damus aut fesso ; quum la)dimur, unum 
Si quis amicorum est ausus reprendere versum ; 
Quum loca jam recitata revolvimus irrevocati ; 
Quum lamentamur, non apparere labores 
Nostros, et tenui deducta poemata filo ; 225 

Quum speramus eo rem venturam, ut simul atquo 
Carmina rescieris nos fingere, commodus ultro 
Arcessas, et egere vetes, et scribere cogas. 
Sed tamen est operae pretium cognoscere, quales 
^Edituos habeat belli spectata domique 230 

Virtus, indigno non committenda poetae. 

Gratus Alexandro regi Magno fuit ille 



260 qi. HORATIl FLACci L l 

Chculilus, inrultus qui versions ct male natls 

Rettulit acceptos, regale numisma, Phiiippos. 

» jed veluti tractata notam labemque remittunt 233 

Atramenta, fere scriptores carmine fcedo 

Splendida facta linunt. Idem rex ille, poema 

Qui tarn ridiculum tam care prodigus emit, 

Edicto vetuit, ne quis se, prater Apellem, 

Pingeret, aut alius Lysippo duceret aera 240 

Fortis Alexandri vultum simulantia. Quod si 

Judicium subtile videndis artibus illud 

Ad libros et ad ha)c Musarum dona vocares, 

Boeotum in crasso jurares aere natum. 

At neque dedecorant tua de se judicia, atquf 245 

Munera, quae multa dantis cum laude tulerunt 
Dilecti tibi Virgilius Variusque poetae ; 
Nee magis expressi vultus per aenea signa, 
Quam per vatis opus mores animique virorun> 
Clarorum apparent. Nee sermones ego malk«i 250 

Repentes per liumum, quam res componere gestas : 
Perrarumque situs et flumina dicere, et arees 
Montibus impositas, et barbara regna, tuisque 
Auspiciis totum confecta duella per orbem, 
Claustraque custodem pacis cohibentia Janum, 255 

Et formidatam Parthis te principe Romam ; 
Si, quantum cuperem, possem quoque. Sed neque parvum 
Carmen majestas recipit tua, nee meus audet 
Rem tentare pudor, quam vires ferre recusent. 
Sedulitas autem, stulte quem diligit, urget, 260 

Pra3cipue quum se numeris commendat et arte : 
Discit enim citius meminitque libentius illud, 
Quod quis deride t, quam quod probat et veneratur. 
Nil moror officium, quod me gravat, ac neque ficto 
En pejus vultu proponi cereus usquam, 265 

Nee prave factis decorari versibus opto, 
Ne rubeam pingui donatus mune^e, et una 



1,2.] EPiSTOLAHUM. — LJBJBR II. 2S\ 

Cum Bcriptoro nieo, capaa porrectna apcrta, 
Deibrar in vicum vcndentcin thus et odores 
Et piper et quidquid chartis amicitur ineptis 270 



Epistola II. 

AD JULIUM FLORUM. 

Flore, bono claroque fidelis amice Neroni, 

Si quis forte velit puerum tibi vendere, natum 

Tibure vel Gabiis, et tecum sic agat : Hie et 

Candidus, et talos a vertice pulcher ad imos, 

Fiet eritque tuus nummorum millibus octo, 6 

Vcrna ministeriis ad nutus aptics heriles, 

Literulis Greeds imbutus, idoneus arti 

Cuilibet ; argilla quidvis imitabcris uda ; 

Quin etiam canet indoctum, sed dulce bibenti. 

Midta fidem promt ssa levant, ubi plenius cequo 10 

Laudat venales, qui vult extrudere, merces. 

Res urget me nulla ; meo sum pauper in cere • 

Nemo hoc mangonum faceret tibi : non temere a vie 

Quivis ferret idem : semel hie cessavit, et, ut jit, 

In scalis latuit metuens pendentis Jmbence. 10 

Des nummos, execpta nihil te sifuga Icedit. 

Ille ferat pretium, poenae securus, opinor. 

Prudens emisti vitiosum ; dicta tibi est lex : 

Insequeris tamen hunc, et lite moraris iniqua ? 

Dixi me pigrum proficiscenti tibi, dixi 20 

Talibus officiis prope mancum ; ne mea ssevus 
Jurgares ad te quod epistola nulla rediret. 
Quid turn profeci, mecum facientia jura 
Si tamen attentas ? Quereris super hoc etiam, quod 
Exspectata tibi non mittam carmina mendax. 26 

Luculli miles collecta viatica multis 
/Erumnis, lassus dum noctu stertit, ad assem 
Perdiderat : post hoc vehemens lupus, ( t sibi et hosti 



232 Q. HORATII FLACCI [2. 

Iratus pariter, jejunis dentibus acer, 

Presidium regale loco dejecit, ut aiunt, 30 

Summe munito et multarum divite rerum. 

Ciarus ob id factum donis ornatur honestis ; 

Accipit et bis dena super sestertia nummum. 

Forte sub hoc tempus castellum evertere pra3tor 

Nescio quod cupiens hortari coepit eundem 35 

Verbis, qua? timido quoque possent addere mentem : 

JT, bone, quo virtus tua te vocat, I pcdefausto, 

Grandia laturus mcritorum praimia ! Quid stas ? 

Post haec ille catus, quantumvis rusticus, Ibit, 

Ibit eo quo vis, qui zonam perdidit, inquit. 40 

Romae nutriri mihi contigit atque doceri, 
Eratus Graiis quantum nocuisset Achilles : 
Adjeccre bouse paulo plus artis Athena? ; 
Scilicet ut possem curvo dignoscere rectum, 
Atque inter silvas Academi quaerere verum. 45 

Dura sed emovere loco me tempora grato, 
Civilisque rudem belli tulit eestus in arrna, 
Caesaris Augusti non responsura lacertis. 
Unde simul primum me dimisere Philippi, 
Decisis humilem pennis, inopemque paterni 50 

Et laris et fundi, paupertas impulit audax 
Ut versus facerem : sed, quod non desit, habentem 
Quae poterunt unquam satis expurgare cicutae, 
Ni melius dormire putem quam scribere versus ? 

Singula de nobis anni praedantur euntes ; 55 

Eripuere jocos, Venerem, convivia, ludum ; 
Tendunt extorquere poemata : quid faciam vis ? 
Denique non omnes eadem mirantur amantque . 
Carmine tu gaudes, hie delectatur iambis, 
Ille Bioneis sermonibus et sale nigro. 5C 

Tres mihi convivae prope dissentire videntur, 
Poscentes vario multum diversa palato. 
Quid dem ? quid non dem ? Renuis tu, quod jubet alter ♦ 
Quod petis. id sane est invisum acidumque duobus. 



2.J EPISTOLARUM. IIBERII. 233 

Praetor cetera, rue Romanre poemata censes 65 

Scribcre posse, inter tot curas totque labores ? 
Hie feponsum vocat, hie audit urn scripta relictis 
Omnibus officiis ; cubat hie in colle Quirini, 
[lie extremo in Aventirro, visendus uterque : 
Intervalla vides humane commoda. — Vcrum 70 

Puree sunt platecc, filial ut meditantibus obslct. — 
Festinat calidus mulis gcrulisque redemtor, 
Torque t nunc lapidem, nunc ingens machina tignum 
Tristia robustis luctantur funera plaustris, 
Hac rabiosa fugit canis, hac lutulenta ruit sirs : 75 

I nunc, et versus tecum meditare canoros. 
Scriptorum chorus omms amat nemus, et fugit urbes, 
Rite cliens Bacchi, somno gaudentrs et umbra : 
Tu me inter strepitus nocturnos atque diurnos 
Vis canere, et contacta sequi vestigia vatum ? 80 

Ingenium, sibi quod vacuas desumsit Athenas, 
Et studiis annos septem dedit, insenuitque 
Libris et curis, statua taciturnius exit 
Plerumque, et risu populum quatit : hie ego rerum 
Fluctibus in mediis, et tempestatibus urbis, 8«X 

Verba lyra3 motura sonum connectere digner ? 

Auctor erat Romae consulto rhetor, ut alter 
Alterius scrmonc meros audiret honores ; 
Gracchus ut hie illi foret, huic ut Mucius rile. 
Qui minus argutos vexat furor iste poetas ? 90 

Carmina compono, hie elegos ; mirabile visu 
Caelatumque novem Musrs opus ! Adspice primrrm, 
Quanto cum fastu, quanto molimine circum- 
Spectemus vacuam Romanis vatibus ssdem ! 
Mox etiam, si forte vacas, sequere, et procul audi, W5 

Quid ferat et quare sibi nectat uterque coronam. 
Coedimur, et totidem plagrs consumimus host6m. 
Lento Samnites ad lumina prima duello. 
Discedo Alcseus punc^o illius ; ille meo quia 1 



234 a. IIORATII FLACCI [2 

Quis, iiisi CaUimachus ? si plus adposcere visus. 100 

Fit Mimnerraus, et optivo cognomine crescit. 

Multa fero, ut placem genus irritabile vatum, 

Quum scribo, et supplex populi suffragia capto : 

Idem, finitis studiis et mente recepta, 

Obturem patulas impune legentibus aures. 105 

Ridentur mala qui componunt carmina : verum 

Gaudent scribentes, et se venerantur, et ultro, 

Si taceas, laudant quidquid scripsere, bcati. 

At qui legitimum cupiet fecisse poema, 
Cum tabulis animum censoris sumet honest] ; 110 

Audebit qucecunque parum splendoris habebunt, 
Et sine pondere erunt, et honore indigna ferentur. 
Verba movere loco, quamvis invita recedant, 
Et versentur adhuc intra penetralia Vesta!. 
Obscurata diu populo bonus eruet, atque 115 

Proferet in lucem speciosa vocabula rerum, 
Quae, priscis memorata Catonibus atque Cethegis, 
Nunc situs informis premit et deserta vetustas : 
Adsciscet nova, qua? genitor produxerit usus. 
Vebemens et liquidus, puroque simillimus amni, 120 

Fundet opes, Latii'mque beabit divite lingua ; 
Luxuriantia compescet, nimis aspera sano 
Levabit cultu, virtute carcntia toilet, 
Ludentis speciem dabit, et torquebitur, ut qui 
Nunc Satyrum nunc agrestem Cyclopa movetur. 125 

Praetulerim scriptor delirus inersque videri, 
Dum mea delectent mala me, vel denique fallant, 
Quam sapere et ringi. Fuit haud ignobilis Argis, 
Qui se credebat miros audire tragcedos, 
In vacuo laetus sessor plausorque theatro ; 130 

Cetera qui vitae servaret munia recto 
More^ bonus sane vicinus, amabilis hospes, 
Comis in uxorem, posset qui ignoscere servis, 
Et siguo laeso non insanire lagenae ; 



2. j EPISrOLARUM. LIBER IJ 235 

Posset qui rupcm ct puteum vitarc patcntem. 135 

Ilio ubi cognatorum opibus curisque refectus 

Expulit elleboro morbum bilemque meraco, 

Et redit ad sese : Pol, me occidistis, amici, 

Non servastis, ait, cui sic extorta voluptas, 

Et dcmtus pretium mentis gratissimus error. HO 

Nimirum sapere est abjectis utile nugis, 
Et tempestivum pueris concedcre ludum, 
Ac non verba sequi fidibus modulanda Latinis. 
Sed vera) numerosque modosque cdiscere vita). 
Quocirca mecuin loquor haDC, tacitusque recordor : 145 

Si tibi nulla sitim finiret copia lymphac, 
Narrares medicis : quod, quanto plura parasti. 
Tanto plura cupis, nulline faterier audes ? 
Si vulnus tibi monstrata radice vel herba 
Non fieret levius, fugeres radice vel herba 150 

Proficiente nihil curarier. Audieras, cui 
Rem Di donarent, illi decedere pravam 
Stultitiam ; et, quum sis nihilo sapientior, ex quo 
Plenior es, tamen uteris monitoribus isdem ? 
At si divitiae prudentem reddere possent, 155 

Si cupidum timidumque minus te, nempe ruberes, 
Viveret in terris te si quis avarior uno. 

Si proprium est, quod quis libra mercatur et aere, 
Qussdam, si credis consultis, mancipat usus : 
Qui te pascit ager, tuus est ; et villicus Orbi, 160 

Quum segetes occat tibi mox frumenta daturas, 
Te dominum sentit. Das nummos, accipis uvam, 
Pullos, ova, cadum temeti : nempe modo isto 
Paulatim mercaris agrum, fortasse trecentis, 
Aut etiam supra, nummorum millibus emtum. 166 

Quid refert, vivas numerato nuper an olim ? 
Emtor Aricini quondam Veientis et arvi 
Emtum ccenat olus, quamvis aliter putat ; emtis 
Sub noctem gelidam lignis calefactat aenum ; 



23b a. flORATII FLACCI [2 

Sed vocat usque suum, qua populus adsita certis 170 

Limitibus vicina refugit jurgia ; tanquam 
Sit proprium quidquam. puncto quod mobilis horae, 
Nunc prece, nunc pretio, nunc vi, nunc morte suprema, 
Permutct dominos et ccdat in altera jura. 

Sic, quia perpetuus nulli datur usus, et heres 175 

Hercdem alterius vclut unda supervcnit undam, 
Quid vici prosunt aut horrea ? Quidve Calabris 
Saltibus adjecti Lucani, si metit Orcus 
Grandia cum parvis, non exorabilis auro ? 
Gemmas, marmor, ebur, Tyrrhena sigilla, tabellas, 189 

Argentum, vestes Gaitulo murice tinctas, 
Sunt qui non habeant, est qui non curat habere. 
Cur alter fratrum cessare et luderc et ungi 
Pneferat Herodis palmetis pinguibus ; alter, 
Dives et importunus, ad umbram lucis ab ortu 186 

Silvestrem flammis et ferro mitiget agrum, 
Scit Genius, natale comes qui temperat astrum, 
X ;it uia; Deus humame, mortalis in unum- 
Quodque caput, vultu mutabilis, albus et ater. 

Utar, et ex modico, quantum res poscet, acervo 190 

Tollam ; nee metuam, quid de me judicet heres, 
Quod non plura datis invenerit : et tamen idem 
Scire volam, quantum simplex hilarisque nepoti 
Discrepet, et quantum discordet parous avaro. 
Distat enim, spargas tua prodigus, an neque sumtum 195 
Invitus facias neque plura parare labores, 
Ac potius, puer ut festis quinquatribus olim, 
Exiguo gratoque fruaris tempore raptim. 
Pauperies immunda procul procul absit : ego, utrum 
Nave ferar magna an parva, ferar unus et idem. 20C 

Non agimur tumidis velis aquilone secundo ; 
Non tamen adversis setatem ducimus austris ; 
Viribus, ingenio, specie, virtute, loco, re, 
Extremi primorum, extremis usque pnorea. 



tf.J EHSTOLABUM. — LIBER II ~37 

Nod es avarus : abi. Quid? cetera jam siniul Lstci 205 
Cum vitio fugere ? caret tibi pectus inani 

Ambitione ? caret mortis formaline et ira ? 

Somnia, terrores magicos, miracula, sagas, 

Nocturnos lemures porteutaquc Thessala rides ? 

Natales grate uumcras ? ignoscis amicis ? 12 1 

Lenior et melior fis acccdente senecta ? 

Quid te exemta levat spinis de pluribus una ? 

Viverc si recte nescis, decode peritis. 

Lusisti satis, edisti satis atque bibisti ; 

Tempus abire tibi est ; ne potum largius axjuo 21f> 

Rideat et puk^t lasciva deccntius etas. 



ft. H0RAT1I PLACCJ 



EPISTOLA AD P1SONE& 



Q. II R A T I I F L A C C I 

EPISTOLA AD PIS ONES. 



Humano capiti ccrviccm pictor equinam 

Jungerc si velit, ct varias inducere plumas 

Undique collatis membris, ut turpitcr atrum 

Desinat in pisccm mulier formosa superne, 

Spectatum admissi risum teneatis, amici ? 

Crcdite, Pisoncs, isti tabula? fore librum 

Persimilem, cujus, vclut aegri somnia, vanse 

Fingentur species ; ut nee pes, nee caput uni 

Tleddatur formse. — Pictoribus atque po'ctis 

Quidlibet audendi semper fuit cequa potestas. — 10 

Scimus, et hanc veniam petimusque damusque vicissira : 

Sed non ut placidis coeant immitia : non ut 

Serpentes avibus geminentur, tigribus agni. 

Inceptis gravibus plerumque et magna professis 
Purpureus, late qui splendeat, unus et alter 15 

Assuitur pannus ; quum lucus et ara Diana), 
Et properantis aquae per amcenos ambitus agros, 
Aut numon Rhenum, aut pluvius describitur arcus. 
Sed nunc non erat his locus. Et fortasse cupressum 
Scis simulare : quid hoc, si fractis enatat exspes 20 

Navibus, aere dato qui pingitur ? Amphora coepit 
Institui ; currente rota cur urceus exit ? 
Denique sit quidvis, simplex duntaxat et unum. 

Maxima pars vatum, pater et juvenes patre digni, 
Decipimur specie recti : brevis esse laboro, PA 

Obscurus fio ; sectantcm lenia nervi 



242 a. HORATII FLACCI 

Deficiunt animique ; professus grandia turget ; 

Serpit humi tutus nimium timidusque procelloe , 

Qui variare cupit rem prodigialiter unam, 

Delphinum silvis appingit, fluctibus aprum. 30 

In vitium ducit culpa* fuga, si caret arte. 

iEmilium circa ludum faber unus et ungues 
Exprimet, et mollcs imitabitur sere capillos ; 
Infelix operis summa, quia ponere totum 
Nesciet. Hunc ego me, si quid componcre curcm, 33 

Non magis esse velim, quam naso vivcre pravo, 
Spectandum nigris oculis nigroque capillo. 

Sumite materiam vestris, qui scribitis, sequam 
Viribus, ct versate diu, quid ferre rccusent, 
Quid valeant humeri. Cui lccta potenter erit res, 4C 

Nee facundia deseret hunc, nee lucidus ordo. 

Ordinis haec virtus erit et Venus, aut ego fallor, 
Qt jam nunc dicat jam nunc debentia dici, 
Pleraque differat et pracsens in tempus omittat. 

In verbis etiam tenuis cautusque serendis, \i 

Hoc amet, hoc spernat promissi carminis auctor. 
Dixeris egregie, notum si callida vcrbum 
Reddiderit junctura novum. Si forte necesse est 
Indiciis monstrare rccentibus abdita rerum, 
Fingere cinctutis non exaudita Cethegis 6C 

Continget, dabiturque licentia sumta pudenter. 
Et nova factaque nuper habebunt verba fidem, si 
GrsBco fonte cadant, parce detorta. Quid autem 
Cascilio Plautoque dabit Romanus, ademtum 
Virgilio Varioque ? Ego cur, acquirere pauca 5£ 

Si possum, invideor, quum lingua Catonis et Eim' 
Sermonem patrium ditaverit, et nova rerum 
Nomina protulerit ? Licuit, semperque licebit, 
Signatum praesente nota procudere nomen. 
Ut silvae, foliis pronos mutantis in annos, 60 

Prima cadunt ; ita verborum vetas interim aetai 



E Pi AT OLA AD PJSONE8. 243 

Et juventun rilu florent motlo nata vigentque. 

Debcmur morti nos nostraquc ; sive, reccpto 

Terra Neptuno, classes aquilonibus arcet 

Regis opus ; sterilisve diu palus aptaque remis 65 

Vicinas urbes alit, ct grave sentit aratrum ; 

Seu cursum mutavit iniquum frugibus amnis, 

Doctus iter melius. Mortalia facta peribuut . 

Nedum sermonum stet honos et gratia vivax. 

Multa renascentur, qua; jam cecidere, cadentque 70 

Quce nunc sunt in lionore vocabula, si volet usus, 

Quern penes arbitrium est et jus et norma loquendi 

Res gestae regumque ducumque et tristia bella 
Quo scribi possent numero, monstravit Ilomcrus. 
Versibus impariter junctis querimonia primum, 73 

Post etiam inclusa est voti sententia compos. 
Quis tamen exiguos elegos emiserit auctor, 
Grammatici certant, et adhuc sub judice lis est. 
Archilochum proprio rabies armavit iambo : 
Hunc socci cepcre pedem grandesque cothurni, 80 

Alternis aptum sermonibus, et populares 
Vincentem strepitus, et natum rebus agendis. 
Musa dedit fidibus Divos, puerosque Deorum, 
Et pugilem victorem, et equum certamine primum 
Et juvenum curas, et libera vina referre. 8 l o 

Descriptas servare vices operumque colores, 
Cur ego, si nequeo ignoroque, poeta salutor ? 
Cur nescire, pudens prave, quam discere malo ? 
Versibus exponi tragicis res comic a non vult : 
Indignatur item privatis, ac prope soeco 90 

Dignis carminibus narrari coena Thyestae. 
Singula quseque locum teneant sortita decenter. 
Interdum tamen et vocem Comoedia tollit, 
Iratusque Chremes tumido delitigat ore ; 
Et tragicus plerumque dolet sermone pedcstri. 95 

Telephus ct Peleus, quum pauper ct exsul, uterque 



M4 U. HORATII FLACCI 

Projicit umpullas et sesquipedalia verba, 
Si cor spectantis curat tetigisse querela. 

Non satis est pulchra esse poemata ; dulcia sun to, 
Et quocunque volent, anirnum auditoris agunto. 100 

Ut ridentibus arrident, ita flentibus afflent 
riuraani vultus. Si vis me flere, dolcndum est 
Primum ipsi tibi ; tunc tua me infortunia laedent, 
Telephe vel Peleu : male si mandata loqueris, 
Aut dormitabo aut ridebo. Tristia moestum 105 

Vultuiii verba decent, iratum plena minarum, 
Ludcntcm lasciva, severum seria dictu. 
Format enim natura prius nos intus ad omnem 
Fortunarum habitum ; juvat, aut impcllit ad iram, 
Aut ad humum macrore gravi deducit et angit ; 113 

Post effort animi motus interprcte liugua. 
Si dicentis erunt fortunis absona dicta, 
Romani tollent equites peditesque cachhmuLi. 

Intererit multum, divusne loquatur an heros, 
Maturusnc senex an adhuc florente juventa 115 

Fervidus, et matrona potens an sedula nutrix, 
Mercatorne vagus cultorne virenlis agelli, 
Colchus an Assyrius, Thebis nutritus an Argis. 

Aut famam sequere, aut sibi convenientia iinge, 
Scriptor. Ilonoratum si forte rcponis Acliillem, 120 

Impiger, iracundus, inexorabilis, acer, 
Jura neget sibi nata, nihil non arroget armis. 
Sit Medea ferox invictaque, flebilis Ino, 
Perfidus Ixion, Io vaga, tristis Orestes. 

Si quid inexpertum scenae committis, et audes 125 

Personam formare novam, servetur ad iraura 
Qualis ab incepto processerit, aut sibi constet. 
Difficile est proprre communia dicere : tuque 
Rectius Iliacum carmen diducis in actus, 
Quam si proferres ignota indictaque primus 3fl 

Publica materies privati juris erit, si 



EPISTOLA AD IMSONES. 24f) 

Nee circa vilem patulumque moraberis orbcm, 

Nee verbum verbo curabis reddere fidus 

Interpres, nee desilies imitator in arctum, 

Undo pedem profcrre pudor vetet aut operis lex. 135 

Nee sic incipies, nt scriptor cyclicus olim : 
Fortunam Priami cantabo ct nobile helium. 
Quid dignuin tanto feret liic promissor hiatu ? 
Parturiunt montcs, nascetur ridiculus mus. 
Quanto rcctius hie, qui nil molitur ineptc : 140 

Die mihi, Musa, vintm, cajrtce 2^ost tc?7ij)o?'a Trojcc 
Qui mores hominum multormn vidit ct urbes. 
Non fumum ex fulgore, sed ex fumo dare lucem 
Cogitat, ut speciosa dehinc miracula promat, 
Antiphaten, Scyllamque, ct cum Cyclope Charybdm ; 145 
Nee reditum Diomedis ab interitu Meleagri, 
Nee gemino bellum Trojanum orditur ab ovo. 
Semper ad eventum festinat, et in medias res, 
Non secus ac notas, auditorem rapit, et, qua) 
Desperat tractata nitescere posse, relinquit ; 1 50 

Atque ita mentitur, sic veris falsa remiscet, 
Primo ne medium, medio ne discrepet imum. 

Tu, quid ego et populus mecum desideret, audi : 
Si fautoris eges aula3a manentis, et usque 
Sessuri, donee cantor, Vos plaudite, dicat, 1 5/1 

iEtatis cujusque notandi sunt tibi mores, 
Mobilibusque decor naturis dandus et annis. 
Reddere qui voces jam scit puer, et pede certo 
Signat humum, gestit paribus colludere, et iram 
Colligit ac ponit temere, et mutatur in horas. 160 

Imberbus juvenis, tandem custode remoto, 
Gaudet equis canibusque et aprici gramine campi ; 
Cereus in vitium flecti, monitoribus asper, 
Utilium tardus provisor, prodigus seris, 
Sublimis, cupidusque, et amata relinquere pernix. 165 

(^Jonveisis studiis aetas animusque virilis 



240 a. horvi'i flacci 

QuoDrit opes et amicitias, inservit honori, 

Commisisse cavet, quod mox mutare laboret. 

Multa senem circumveniunt incommoda, vel quod 

Quserit, et inventis miser abstinet, ac timet uti, 170 

Vel quod res omnes timide gelideque ministrat, 

Dilator, spe longus, iners, avidusque futuri, 

Diflicilis, qucrulus, laudator tcmporis acti 

Se puero, castigator censorque minorum. 

Multa ferunt auni venientes commoda secum, 17/5 

MuJta recedcntcs adimunt. Ne forte seniles 

Mandentur juveni partes, pueroque viriles, 

Semper in adjunctis sevoque morabimur aptis. 

Aut agitur res in scenis, aut acta refertur. 
Segnius irritant animos demissa per aurem, 180 

Quam qua) sunt oculis subjecta fidelibus, et quaj 
Ipse sibi tradit spectator : non tamen intus 
Digna geri promes in scenam ; multaque toiles 
Ex oculis, qua; mox narret facundia pisescns. 
Ne pueros coram populo Medea trucidct, 1^5 

Aut humana palam coquat exta nefarius Atreus, 
Aut in avem Progne vertatur, Cadmus in anguem. 
Quodcunque ostendis mihi sic, incredulus odi. 

Neve minor ncu sit quinto productior actu 
Fabula, qua? posci vult et spectata reponi : 190 

Nee Deus intersit, nisi dignus vindice nodus 
Incident ; nee quarta loqui persona laboret. 

Actoris partes Chorus officiumque virile 
Defendat, neu quid medios intercinat actus, 
Quod non proposito conducat et haereat apte. 195 

Ille bonis faveatque et consilietur amice, 
Et regat iratos, et amet pacare tumentes ; 
Ille dapes laudet mensae brevis, ille salubrem 
Justitiam, legesque, et apertis otia portis, 
Ille tegat commissa, Deosque precetur et oret, 20u 

Ut redeat miseris, abeat Fortuna superbis. 



EPLSTOLA AD PISONKS. 24*1 

Tibia non, ut nunc, orichalco vincta, tubaaquo 
42mula, scd tenuis simplcxquc foramina pauco 
Adspirare ct adessc Choris erat utilis, atque 
Nondum spissa nimis complcrc sedilia flatu ; 205 

Quo sane populus numcrabilis, utpole parvus, 
Et frugi castusque verecundusque coibat. 
Postquam co3pit agros extendere victor, et urbem 
Latior arnplecti murus, vinoque diurno 
Placari Genius festis impune diebus, 210 

' Accessit numerisque modisque licentia major ; 
Indoctus quid enim saperet liberque iaborum 
Rusticus, urbano confusus, turpis honesto ? 
Sic prisca3 motumque et luxuriem addidit arti 
Tibicen, traxitque vagus per pulpita vestem ; 216 

Sic etiam fidibus voces crevere severis, 
Et tulit eloquium insolitum facundia procceps ; 
Utiliumquc sagax rerum, et divina futuri, 
Sortilegis non discrepuit scntentia Delphis. 

Carmine qui tragico vilem certavit ob hircum, 220 

Mox etiam agrestes Satyros nudavit, et asper 
(ncolumi gravitate jocum tentavit, eo quod 
Clecebris erat et grata novitate morandus 
Spectator, functusque sacris, et potus, et exlex. 
Verum ita risores, ita commendare dicaces 225 

Conveniet Satyros, ita vertere seria ludo, 
Ne, quicunque Deus, quicunque adhibebitur heros, 
JEvCgali conspectus in auro nuper et ostro, 
Migret in obscuras humili sermone tabernas, 
Aut, dum vitat humum, nubes et inania captet. 230 

EfFutire leves indigna Tragoedia versus, 
Ut festis matrona moveri jussa diebus, 
Intererit Satyris paulum pudibunda protervis. 
Non ego inornata et dominantia nomina solum 
Verbaque, Pisones, Satyrorum scriptor amabo ; *235 

Nee sic enitar tragico differre colori, 



248 U. HORATII FLACCI 

Ut nihil intersit, Davusne loquatur et audax 

Pythias, emuncto lucrata Simone talentum. 

An custos famulusque Dei Silenus alumni. 

Ex noto fictum carmen sequar, ut sibi quivis XAQ 

Speret idem ; sudet multum, frustraque laboret 

Ausus idem. Tantum series juncturaque pollet, 

Tantum de medio sumtis accedit honoris. 

Silvis educti cavcant, me judice, Fauni, 

Ne, velut innati triviis ac paene forenses, 24ft 

Aut nimium teneris juvenentur vcrsibus unquam, 

Aut immunda crepcnt ignominiosaque dicta. 

Ofienduntur cnim, quibus est equus, et pater, et res ; 

Nee, si quid fricti ciccris probat et nucis emtor, 

iEquis accipiunt animis donantve corona. 250 

Syllaba longa brevi subjecta vocatur Iambus, 
Pes citus ; unde etiam Trimetris accrescere jussit 
Nomen iambeis, quum senos redderet ictus 
Primus ad extremum similis sibi. Non ita pridem 
Tardior ut paulo graviorque veniret ad aures, 2&Q 

Spondeos stabiles in jura paterna recepit 
Commodus et patiens ; non ut de sede secunda 
Cederet aut quarta socialiter. Hie et in Atti 
Nobilibus Trimetris apparet rarus, et Enni. 
In scenam missus magno cum pondere versus, 260 

Aut operse celeris nimium curaque carentis, 
Aut ignoratae premit artis crimine turpi. 
Non quivis videt immodulata poemata judex ; 
Et data Romanis venia est indigna poetis. 
Idcircone vager, scribamque licenter ? Ut omnes 265 

Visuros peccata putem mea: tutus et intra 
Spem veniae cautus ? vitavi denique culpam, 
Non laudem merui. Vos exemplaria Graeca 
Nocturna versate manu, versate diurna. 
At vestri proavi Plautinos et numeros et 270 

Jjxudavere sales : nimium patienter utrumque, 



EPI8TOLA AD PI80NXS £49 

Ne dicam stulte, mirati, si modo ego et vos 
Boimufl inuxbanum lcpido teponere dicto, 
Legitimumque sonum digitis callemus et aure. 

Ignotum tragica) genus invenisse Camenoa 27d 

Dicitur et plaustris vexisse poemata Thespis, 
Qui canerent agercntque peruncti faccibus ora. • 

Post hunc personam palla'que rcpertor honestaj 
^Eschylus et modicis instravit pulpita tignis, 
Et docuit magnumque loqui nitique cothurno. 2H3 

Successit vetus his Comaedia, non sine multa 
Laude ; sed in vitium libertas excidit, et vim 
Dignam lege regi. Lex est accepta, Chorusque 
Turpiter obticuit, sublato jure noeendi. 
Nil intentatum nostri liquere poetas : '/8* 

Nee minimum meruere decus, vestigia Grceca 
Ausi deserere, et celebrare domestica facta, 
Vel qui praetextas, vel qui docuere togatas. 
Nee virtute foret clarisve potentius armis, 
Quam lingua, Latium, si non ofFenderet unum- 290 

Quemque poetarum limae labor et mora. Vos, O 
Pompilius sanguis, carmen reprehendite, quod non 
Multa dies et multa litura coercuit, atque 
Pra3sectum decies non castigavit ad unguem. 

Ingenium misera quia fortunatius arte 296 

Credit, et excludit sanos Helicone poetas 
Democritus, bona pars non ungues ponere curat, 
Non barbam, secreta petit loca, balnea vitat. 
Nanciscetur enim pretium nomenque poetae, 
Si tribus Anticyris caput insanabile nunquam 300 

Tonsori Licino commiserit. O ego laevus, 
Qui purgor bilem sub verni temporis horam ! 
Non alius faceret meliora poemata. Verum 
Nil tanti est. Ergo fungar vice cotis, acutum 
Iteddere qute ferrum valet, exsors ipsa secandi 306 

Munus et officium, nil scribens ipse, docebo ; 



250 U. HORATII FLACC 

Undo parentur opes, quid alat formetque poetam ; 

Quid deceat, quid non ; quo virtus, quo ferat error. 

Scribendi recte sapere est et prmcipium et fons : 

Rem tibi Socraticae poterunt ostendere charta3, 310 

V r erbaque provisam rem non invita sequentur. 

Qf!i didicit, patriae quid debeat, et quid amicis, 

Quo sit amore parens, quo frater amandus et hospes, 

Quod sit conscript!, quod judicis officium, quae 

Partes in bellum missi ducis, ille profecto 315 

Reddere personae scit convenientia cuique. 

Respicere exemplar vita? morumque jubebo 

Doctum imitatorem, et veras hinc ducere voces. 

Interdum speciosa locis morataque recte 

Fabula, nullius veneris, sine pondere et arte, 32U 

Valdius oblectat populum meliusque moratur, 

Quam versus inopes rerum nugaeque canorae. 

Graiis ingenium, Graiis dedit ore rotundo 

Musa loqui, praeter laudem nallius avaris. 

Romani pueri longis rationibus assem 326 

Discunt in partes centum diduccre. — Dicas, 

Filius Albini, si de qitincuncc remota est 

Uncia, quid superat ? — Poteras dixisse. — Triens. — Eu ! 

Rem j)otcris servare tuam. Redit uncia, quid fit ? — 

Se??iis. — An, haec animos aerugo et cura peculi 330 

Quum semel imbuerit, speramus carmina fingi 

Tosse linenda cedro, et levi servanda cupresso ? 

Aut prodesse volunt aut delectare poetae, 
Aut simul et jucunda et idonea dicere vitae. 
Quidquid praecipies, esto brevis, ut cito dicta 335 

Percipiant animi dociles, teneantque fideies. 
Omne supervacuum pleno de pectore manat. 
Ficta voluptatis causa sint proxima veris : 
Ne, quodcunqua volet, poscat sibi fabula crcdi ; 
Neu pransae Lamiae vivum puerum extrahat alvo 340 

Centuriae seniorum agitant expertia frugis, 



BPISTOLA AD PISONES. 25] 

Celsi pnotexeunt austera poemata Ramnes : 

Oniric tulit punctum, qui miscuit utile dulci, 

Lectorcm delectando pariterquc monendo. 

Hie meret sora liber Sosiis, hie et mare transit, 340 

Et longum no to scriptori prorogat a3vum. 

Sunt delicta tamen, quibus ignovisse velimus : 
Nam neque chorda sonum reddit, quern vult man us et mem* 
Poscentique gravem persaepc rcmittit acutum ; 
Nee semper feriet quodcunque minabitur arcus. 350 

Verum ubi plura nitent in carmine, non ego paucis 
OiTendar maculis, quas aut incuria fudit, 
Aut humana parum cavit natura. Quid ergo est ? 
Ut scriptor si peccat idem librarius usque, 
Quamvis est monitus, venia caret ; ut citharcedus 355 

Ridetur, chorda qui semper oberrat eadem ; 
Sic mihi, qui multum cessat, fit Choerilus ille, 
Quern bis terve bonum cum risu miror ; et idem 
hidignor, quandoque bonus dormitat Homerus. 
Verum operi longo fas est obrepere somnum. 360 

Ut pictura, poesis : erit, qua3, si propius stes. 
Te capiet magis, et qusedam, si longius abstes ; 
Hsdc amat obscurum, volet haec sub luce videri, 
Judicis argutum quae non formidat acumen : 
Usee placuit semel, haec decies repetita placebit. 366 

O major juvenum, quamvis et voce paterna 
Fingeris ad rectum, et per tc sapis, hoc tibi dictum 
Tolle memor : certis medium et tolerabile rebus 
Recte concedi. Consultus juris et actor 
Causarum mediocris abest virtute diserti 370 

Messalae, nee scit quantum Cascellius Aulus ; 
Sed tamen in pretio est : mediocribus esse poetis 
Non homines, non Di, non concessere columnse. 
Ut gratas inter mensas symphonia discors 
Et crassum unguentum et Sardo cum melle papaver 375 
Offendunt, poterat duci quia ccena sine istis ; 



252 u. iioratii flaccs 

Si; animis natum inventumque poema juvandia, 

Si paulum a summo decessit, vergit ad imura. 

Ludere qui nescit, campestribus abstinet armis. 

Indoctusque pilae discive trochive quiescit, 380 

Ne spissa? risum tollant impune coronae : 

Qui nescit, versus tamen audet iingere ! — Quidni ? 

Liber et ingenuus, prcesertim census equestrem 

Summam nummorum, vitioque remotus ab omni.— 

Tu nihil invita dices faciesve Minerva ; 385 

Id tibi judicium est, ea men3 : si quid tamen olim 

Scripseris, in Maeci descendat judicis aures, 

Et patris, et nostras, nonumque prematur in annum 

Membranis intus positis. Delere licebit, 

Quod non edideris : nescit vox missa reverti. 390 

Silvestres homines sacer interpresque Deorum 
Caedibus et victu fcedo deterruit Orpheus ; 
Dictus ob hoc lenire tigres rabidosque leones : 
Dictus et Amphion, Thebanae conditor urbis, 
Saxa movere sono testudinis, et prece blanda 396 

Ducerc quo vellet. Fuit haec sapientia quondam, 
Publica privatis secernere, sacra profanis, 
Concubitu prohibere vago, dare jura maritis, 
Oppida moliri, leges incidere ligno. 

Sic honor et nomen divinis vatibus atque 400 

Carminibus venit. Post hos insignis Homerus, 
Tyrta^usque mares animos in Martia bella 
Versibus exacuit. Dicta? per carmina sortes, 
Et vitse mon strata via est, et gratia regum 
Pieriis tentata modis, ludusque repertus, 105 

Et longorum operum finis : ne forte pudori 
Sit tibi Musa lyrse sollers, et cantor Apollo. 

Natura fleret laudabile carmen, an arte, 
Quaesitum est : ego nee studium sine divite vena, 
Nee rude quid possit video ingenium ; alterius sio 410 

Altera poscit opem res, et conjurat amice. 



EriSTOLA AD PISONES. 2J>3 

Qui studet optatam cursu contingere mctam, 

Multa tulit fccitque puer, sndavit et alsit, 

Abstinuit Vencre et vino. Qui Pythia cantat 

Tibicen, didicit prius, extimuitque magistrum. • 415 

Nee satis est dixisse : Ego mira pocmata pango : 

Occupet cxtrcmum scabies ; mihi turpe relinqui est, 

Et, quod non didici, sane nescire fateri. 

Ut praeco, ad merces turbam qui cogit emendas, 

Assentatores jubet ad lucrum ire poeta 420 

Dives agris, dives positis in fenore nummis. 

Si vero est, unctum qui recte poncre possit, 

Et spondere levi pro paupere, et eripere atris 

Litibus inplicitum, mirabor si sciet inter- 

Noscere mendacem verumque beatus amicum. 425 

Tu seu donaris, seu quid donare voles cui, 

Nolito ad versus tibi factos ducere plenum 

LaBtitiae ; clamabit enim, Pulchre ! bene ! recte ! 

Pallescet super his ; etiam stillabit amicis 

Ex oculis rorem, saliet, tundet pede terrain, 430 

Ut, quae conductas plorant in funere, dicunt 

Et faciunt prope plura dolentibus ex animo, sic 

Derisor vero plus laudatore movetur. 

Reges dicuntur multis urguere culullis, 

Et torquere mero, quern perspexisse laborant, 435 

An sit amicitia dignus : si carmina condes, 

Nunquam te fallant animi sub vulpe latentes. 

Quinctilio si quid recitares, Corrige sodes 

Hoc, aiebat, et hoc. Melius te posse negares, 

Bis terque expertum frustra, delere jubebat, 440 

Et male tornatos incudi reddere versus. 

Si defendere delictum, quam vertere, malles, 

Nullum ultra verbum aut operam insumebat inanem ; 

Quin sine rivali teque et tua soiu^amares. 

Vir bonus et prudens versus repre^ndet inertes 44^1 

Culpabit duros, incomtis allinet atom 



254 a. HQRATII FLACCI El'ISTOLA AD PISONE3 

Transverso calamo signum, ambitiosa recidet 

Ornamenta, parum claris lucem dare coget, 

Arguet ambigue dictum, mutanda notabit, 

Fiet Aristarchus ; non dicet : Cur ego amicum 450 

Ojfcndam in nugis ? Has nugae seria ducent 

In mala derisum semel exceptumque sinistre. ( 

Ut mala quern scabies aut morbus regius urget, 

Aut fanaticus error, et iracunda Diana, 

Vesanum tetigisse timent fugiuntque poetam, Add 

Qui sapiunt ; agitant pueri, incautique sequuntur 

Hie dum sublimis versus ructatur, et errat, 

Si veluti merulis intentus decidit auceps 

In puteum foveamve, licet, Succuri'itc, longum 

Clamet, io cives ! ne sit, qui tollere curet. 460 

Si curet quis opem ferre, et demittere funem, 

Qui scis, an prudens hue se projecerit, atque 

Servari nolit ? dicam, Siculique poets* 

Narrabo interitum. Deus immortalis haberi 

Dum cupit Empedocles, ardentem frigidus ^Etnam 465 

Insiluit. Sit jus liceatque perire poetis. 

Invitum qui servat, idem facit occidenti. 

Nee semel hoc fecit ; nee, si retractus erit, jam 

Fiet homo, et ponet famosa) mortis amorem. 

Nee satis apparet, cur versus factitet ; utrum 470 

Minxerit in patrios cineres, an triste bidental 

Moverit incestus : certe furit, ac velut ursus 

Objectos caveae valuit si frangere clathros, 

[ndoctum doctumque fugat recitator acerbus : 

^uem vero airipuit, tenet, occiditque legerjdc, 47j 

$5n missura cutem, nisi plena cruoris, hirudo. 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. 



ODES. 

The word Ode (from the Greek (]>di/) was not introduced into the Latio 
tongue until the third or fourth century of our era, and waa then lirst used 
to denote any pieces of a lyric nature. The grammarians, perceiving 
Jhat Horace had more than once used the word carmen to designate thia 
kind of poetry, ventured to place it at the head of his odes, and their ex 
ample has been followed by almost all succeeding editors. We have no 
very strong reason, however, to suppose that the poet himself ever in- 
tended this as a general title for his lyric productions. (Compare Lea 
Poisiet D' Horace, par Sanation, vol. i., p. G.) 



Ode I. Addressed to Maecenas, and intended probably by Horace as a 
dedication to him of part of his odes. It is generally thought that tho 
poet collected together and presented on this occasion the lirst three 
books of his lyric pieces. From the complexion, however, of tho last odo 
of the second book, it would appear that the third book was separately 
given to the world, and at a later period. 

The subject of the present ode is briefly this : The objects of human 
desire and pursuit are various. One man delights in the victor's prize at 
the public games, another in attaining to high political preferment, a third 
in the pursuits of agriculture, &c. My chief aim is the successful culti- 
vation of lyric verse, in which if I shall obtain your applause, O Maecenas, 
my lot will be a happy one indeed. 

1-2. 1. McEccnas atavis, &c. " Maecenas, descended from regal ances- 
tors." Caius Cilnius Maecenas, who shared with Agrippa.the favor and 
confidence of Augustus, and distinguished himself by bis patronage of 
literary men, belonged to the Cilnian family, and was descended from 
Elbius Volterrenus, one of the Lucumones, or ruling chieftains of Etruria. 
He is even said to have numbered Porsena among his more remote an- 
cestors. _ Compare Life, p. liii. — 2. O et prcesidium, &c. "O both my 
pati*on and sweet glory." The expression dulce decus meum refers to the 
feeling of gratification entertained by the poet in having so illustrious a 
patron and friend. — The synalcepha is neglected in the commencement 
of this line, as it always is in the case of O, Heu, Ah, &c, since the voice 
is sustained and the hiatus prevented by the strong feeling which these 
interjections are made to express. 

3. Sunt quos curriculo, &c. "There are some, whom it delights to 
have collected the Olympic dust in the chariot-course," i. e., to have con- 
tended for the prize at the Olympic games. The Olympic, the chief of 
the Grecian games, are here put kclt' etjoxwv for any games. The Olyro 



?58 EXPLANATORY NOTES. — BOOK I., uDE 

pic games were celebrated at Olympia in Elis, on the banks of the AJ 
pheus, after an interval of four years, from the eleventh to the fifteenth of 
the month Hecatombacon, which corresponds nearly to our July. They 
were celebrated in honor of Jove, and the crown which formed the prize 
was of wild olive (oleaster, kotlvoc). The other great games were the 
Pythian, the prize, a crown of bay ; the Ncmean, a crown of fresh parsley , 
and the Isthmian, first a crown of pine, then of withered parsley, and 
then again of pine. 

4. Melaqne fcrvidis, &c. "And whom the goal, skillfully avoided by 
he glowing wheels." The principal part of the charioteer's skill was 
displayed in coming as near as possible to the mctce, or goals. In the 
Roman circus, a low wall was erected which divided the Spatium, or 
raco-ground, into two unequal parts. At each of its extremities, and rest- 
in ■: m hollow basements, were placed three pillars formed like cones; 
these cones were properly called incite; but the whole was often collect- 
ively termed in the singular meta. The chariots, after starting from the 
carccrcs, or barriers, where their station had been determined by lot, ran 
seven limes around the low wall, or spina, as Cassiodorus calls it. Tho 
chief object, therefore, of the rival charioteers, was to get so near to the 
tpina ./.e (cvitarc) the meta in turning. This, of course, would give 

the shortest space to run, and, if effected each heat, would ensure the 
victory. In the Greek hippodromes, the starling place and goal wcro 
each marked by a square pillar, and half way between these was a third. 

r>-C>. 5. Palmaquc nobilis. " And the ennobling palm." Besides tho 
crown, a palm-branch was presented to the conqueror at the Grecian 
S ns n general token of victory : this be earned in his hand. (Com- 
pare Pamtamuu, viii., 48.) — G. Terrarum dominos. "The rulers of tha 
world," referring simply to the gods, and not, as some explain the phrase, 
to the Roman people. 

7-10. 7. Hunc. Understand juvat. Hunc in this line, ilium in tho 
9th, and gaudcnlcm in the 11th, denote, respectively, the ambitious aspi- 
rant after popular favors, the eager speculator in grain, and the content- 
ed farmer. — 8. Ccrtat tergeminis, &c. "Vie with each other in raising 
him to the highest offices in the state." Honoribus is here the dative, by 
a Graecism, for ad honores. The epithet tergeminis is equivalent merely 
to amplissimis, and not, as some think, to the three offices of Curule jEdile, 
Praetor, and Consul. Observe, moreover, the poetic idiom in certat toilers, 
where the prose form of expression would be ccrtat ut tollat, or ccrtat ad 
tciiendum. — 9. Ilium. Understand juvat. — 10. Libycis. One of the prin- 
cipal granaries of Rome was the fertile region adjacent to the Syrtis Minor, 
and called Byzacium or Emporiae. It formed part of Africa Propria. 
Horace uses the epithet Libycis for Africis, in imitation of the Greek 
writers, with whom Libya (Ai3vtj) was a general appellation for the en- 
tire continent of Africa. Other grain countries, on which Rome also re- 
lied for a supply, were Egypt and Sicily. — Areis. The ancient threshing 
Boor was a raised place in the field, open on all sides to the wind. 

11-15. 11. Gaudentem. "While a third who delights." — Sarculc 
u With the hoe." Sarculu m is for sarriculum, from sarrio. — 1 2. AtU licis 



BXPLANATORY NOTES. — BOCK I., 01)1' 1. 259 

tomktiombmi. '• By offeraof all the wealth of Attalus." Alluding to Ana- 
lui III., tho last king of Pergamna, famed for his rioheif, which he bequeath- 
ed, to {ether with his kingdom, to the Hainan people. — L3. TraLc Cypria 

The epithet " Cyprian" .seems to allude here not so much to the commerce 
i>f the island, extensive as it wan, as to the excellent quality ofiti naval 
(imber. The poet, it will ho perceived, uses the expressions Cyprm, 
Myrtoum, Icariit, Aj'ricum, Matlici, &C K(ir' i^uxyv, for any ship, any 

my waves, &c. — 14. Myrtuum. The Myrtoan Sea was a part of the 
JSgean, extending from the promontory of Caryttus, at the southeastern 

mity of Bnboaa, to the promontory of lialea in Laconia, and there 
fore Lying off Attica, Argolis, and the eastern coast of Laconia. It reach- 
ed eastward as far as the Cycladcs. The name was derived from tho 
■mall island of Myrtos near Euhoca. — Pavidus nauia. "Becoming a timid 
mariner." — 15. Icarus jluctiLus. The Icariau Sea was part of the iEgean, 
hetween and also to the south of learia and Samoa. It derived its name, 
us the ancient my thologists pretend, from Icarus, the sou of Daedalus, whot 
according to them, fell into it and was drowned, when accompanying big 
father in his flight fium the island of Crete. — Africum. The wind Africus 
denotes, in strictness, the "west-southwest." In translating the text, it 
will he sufficient to render it hy "southwest." It derived its name from 
the circumstauce of its coming in the direction of Africa Propria. 

16-19. 16. Mcrcator. The Mcrcatores, among the Romans, were those 
who, remaining only a short time in any place, visited many countries; 
and were almost constantly occupied with the exportation or importation 
of merchandise. The Negotiatores, on the other baud, generally con- 
tinued for some length of time in a place, whether at Rome or in tho 
provinces. — Mctuens. "As long as he dreads." Equivalent to dum 
metuit. — Otium et oppidi, &c. "Praises a retired life, and the rural 
scenery around his native place." Orelli, less correctly, joins in construc- 
tion oppidi sui otium et rura. Acidalius [ad Veil. Paterc.) conjectures 
tuta for rura, which Bentley adopts. But the received reading is every 
way supei'ior. — 18. Pauperiem. " Contracted means." Horace and the 
best Latin writers understand by pauperics and paupertas, not absolute 
poverty, which is properly expressed by egestas, but a state in which we 
are deprived indeed of the comforts, and yet possess, in some degree, tho 
necessaries of life. — 19. Massici. Of the Roman wines, the best growths 
are styled indiscriminately Massicum and Falcrnum (vinum). The Massic 
wine derived its name from the vineyards of Moris Massicus, now Monlf. 
Massico, near the ancient Sinuessa. Consult Excursus VIII. 

20-21. 20. Partem solido, &c. Upon the increase of riches, the Romans 
deferred the caena, which used to be their mid-day meal, to the ninth houi 
(or three o'clock afternoon) in summer, and the tenth hour in winter, taking 
only a slight repast {prandium) at noon. Nearly the whole of the natural 
day was therefore devoted to affairs of business, or serious employment, 
and was called, in consequence, dies solidus. Hence the voluptuary, who 
begins to quaff the old Massic before the accustomed hour, is said " to 
take away a part from the solid day," or from the period devoted to more 
active pursuits, and expend it on his pleasures. This is what the poet, 
on another occasion (Ode 2, 6, 7) calls "breaking the lingering day with 
wiue." diem morantcm frangere mero. Wolf, less correctly, understands 



260 EXPLANATORY NOTES. — BOOK I., ODE 1. 

by the words of the text, the taking of an afternoon sleep.— Membra 
stratus. Consult Zum.pt t $ 458. — 21. Arbutd. The arbutus (or arbutum) 
is the arbate, or wild strawberry-tree, corresponding to the KOfiapoc of the 
Greeks, the unedo of Pliny, and the Arbutus unedo of Linnaeus, class 10 
The fruit itself is called Ko/uapov, fi£/j.aiKvXov, or /j.i/j,aiKV?>ov (Athenaus, 
2, 35), and in Latin arbutum. It resembles our strawberry very closely, 
except that it is larger, and has no seeds on the outside of the pulp like 
that fruit. 

22-28. 22. Aguce lene caput sacra. " The gently-murmuring source 
of some sacred stream." The fountain-heads of streams were supposed 
to bo the residence of the river-deity, and hence were always held sacred. 
Fountains generally were sacred to the nymphs and rural divinities. 
Compare Jacob, Qiicest. Epic, p. 13, seg. — 23. Et lituo tuba, &c. "And 
the sound of the trumpet intermingled with the notes of the clarion." 
The tuba was straight, and used for infantry ; the lituus was bent a littla 
at the end, like tha augur's staff, and was used for the cavalry: it had th« 
harsher sound. — 25. Detestata. " Held in detestation." Taken passively 
Compare abominatus, in Epod. xvi., 8. — Manet. M Passes the night.' 
Equivalent to pernoctat. Compare Sat., ii., 3, 234. — Sub Jove frigido. 
■ Beneath the cold sky." Jupiter is here taken figuratively for the higher 
regions of the air. Compare the Greek phrase vtto Aide. — Catulis! The 
dative by a Grajcism for a catulis. Scheller and others erroneously un» 
derstand this of the young of the deer. — 28. Teretcs. "Well- wrought.' 
The epithet teres here conveys the idea of something smooth and round, 
and therefore refers properly to the cords or strands of the net, as being 
smooth, and round, and tapering, and forming, therefore, a well-wrought 
net. Orelli adopts the same general idea, rendering teretcs by festge- 
drekt, " strong-twisted," i. e., ex funiculis complicatis et contortis con- 
nexce. — Marsus. For Marsicus. The mountainous country of the Marsi, 
in Italy, abounded with wild boars of the fiercest kind. 

29-34. 23. Me doctarum, &c. Croft conjectured Te in place of me, an 
emendation first made known by Hare, and subsequently approved of by 
Bentley, Sanadon, Markland, Fea, Wolf, and others. The main argu- 
ment in its favor is the antithesis which it produces. But the common 
reading is well explained and defended by Orelli. — Edera. " Ivy-crowns.' 
The species of ivy here alluded to is the Edera nigra, sacred to Bacchus, 
and hence styled Atovvaia by the Greeks. It is the Edera poetica of 
Bauhin. Servius says that poets were crowned with ivy, because the 
poetic " furor" resembled that of the Bacchanalians. — Doctarum prcemia 
f rontium. Poets are called docti, " learned," in accordance with Grecian 
usage : aotdol ooQoi. — 30. Dis miscent superis. " Raise to the converse 
of the gods above." Literally, "mingle with the gods above," i. e., raise 
to a level with them ; raise to the high heavens. Compare the explana- 
tion of Doring, ■ Corona ederacea ductus deorum admittor concilio." — 33. 
Euterpe cohibet, &c. Euterpe and Polyhymnia, two of the muses, are her« 
very appropriately introduced. Euterpe plays on the tibia, Polyhymnia ac- 
companies her voice with the lyre; hence both are naturally invoked by 
the lyric poet. — 34. Lesboum refugit, bio.. " E-efuses to touch the Lesbian 
lyre." The lyre is called "Lesbian" in allusion to Sappho and Alcaeus, 
both natives of Lesbos, ani both famed for their lyric productions. 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE II. 261 

Ode II. Octaviamis assumed his new title of Augustus on the L7th of 
, mostly (xvi. Cal. Fcbr.), A.U.C. 727. On the following night Rome 
was visited by a severe tempest, and an inunc/ation of the Tiber. Th<? 
present ode was written in allusion to that event. The poet, regarding 
the visitation as a mark of divine displeasure, proceeds to inquire on what 
deity they are to call for succor. Who is to free the Romans from the 
pollution occasioned by their civil strife? Is it Apollo, god of prophecy 7 
Or Venus, parent of Rome ? Or Mars, founder of the Roman line 1 Or 
Mercury, messenger of the skies ? — It is the last, the avenger of Caesar, the 
deity wlm shrouds his godhead beneath the person of Augustus. He alone, 
if heaven spare him to the earth, can restore to us the favor of Jove, and na- 
tional prosperity. — Many of the old commentators refer the subject of this 
ode to the prodigies that occurred on the death of Julius Coosar, and some 
modern scholars have adopted the same idea ; but this is decidedly inferior. 

1-4. 1. Terris. A Grcecism for in terras. — Nivis. It was not the snow 
itself that formed the prodigy, but the heavy fall of it, and the violence of 
the accompanying storm. Snow may be an unusual visitant at the present 
day in central Italy, but it does not appear to have been so in the time of 
Horace. Consult the remarks of Arnold on this subject, Hist, of Rome. 
vol. i., p. 499, seqq. — Dirce grandinis. Every thing sent by the wrath of 
the gods (del ira) was termed dirum. — 2. Patet. "The Father of gods 
andmen." Jupiter. UaTTjpuvdpuv reSetiv re- — Rubcntc dextera. "With 
bis red right hand." Red with the reflected glare of the thunderbolt : an 
dea very probably borrowed from some ancient painting. — 3. Sacras arces. 
u The sacred summits (of the temples)." The lightning struck the Capitol 
containing the temples of Jupiter, Minerva, and Juno. It is unusual to 
find jaculari with the accusative of the thing that is struck. Compare, 
however, Od., iii., 12, 11, " Jaculari cervos." — 4. Urbem. " The city," i. e.. 
Rome. Compare Quintilian (8, 2), " TJrbem Romam accipimus." 

5-10. 5. Gcntes. Understand timentes. "He has terrified the nations, 
fearing lest," &c. Analogous to the Greek idiom, k<p6(3r]ae [if]. — 6. See- 
culum Pyrrlue. Alluding to the deluge of Deucalion in Thessaly, when, 
according to the legend, Deucalion and his spouse Pyrrha were the only 
mortals that were saved. — Nova monstra. " Strange prodigies," i. c., 
wonders before unseen. — 7. Proteus. A sea-deity, son of Oceanus and 
Tethys, gifted with prophecy and the power of assuming any form at 
pleasure. His fabled employment was to keep " the flocks" of Neptune, 
i. e., the pliocce, or seals. — 8. Visere. A Graecism for ad visendum. — 10. Pa- 
lumbis. The common heading is columbis, but the true one is palumbis. 
The " palumba?," or " wood-pigeons," construct their nests on the branch- 
es and in the hollows of trees ; the columbce, or " doves," are kept in dove» 
cots. It is idle to say, in opposition to this, that columbce is the generi: 
name. 

13-16. 13. Flavum Tibcrim. " The yellow Tiber." A recent travel- 
fir remarks, with regard to this epithet of the Tiber : " Yellow is an ex- 
eeedingly undescriptive translation of that tawny color, that mixture of 
red, brown, gray, and yellow, which should answer to Jlavus here ; but 1 
day not deviate from the established phrase, nor do I know a better." 
{lionn>. "'*« the Nineteenth Century, vol. i. p. 84.) — Rclorlis. "Being hurl 



262 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK 1 , ODE II. 

ed back. ' — 1 4. Lilore Etrusco. The violence of the storm forced the wares 
of the Tiber from the upper or Tuscan shore, and caused an inundation on 
the lower bank, or left side of the river, where Home was situated. Some 
make litore Etrusco refer to the sea-coast, and suppose that the violence 
of the storm drove back the waters of the Tiber from the mouth of the 
river, and that this retrocession caused the inundation spoken of. Our 
explanation, however, suits the context better, and especially the "sinis- 
tra labitur ripa," in line 18, scq. — 13. Monumcnta regis. " The venerated 
memorial of King Numa." Observe the force of the plural in monumcnta, 
which we have ventured to express by an epithet. The allusion is to the 
palace of Numa, which, according to Plutarch, stood in the immediate 
vicinity of the Temple of Vesta, and was distinct from his other residence 
on the auirinal Hill. {Pint., Vit. Num., c. 14.)— 16. Vestce. What made 
the omen a peculiarly alarming one was, that the sacred fire was kept in 
this temple, on the preservation of which the safety of the empire was 
supposed in a great measure to depend. If a vestal virgin allowed the 
sacred fire to be extinguished, she was scourged by the Pontifex Maxi 
mus. Such an accident was always esteemed most unlucky, and expiated 
by offering extraordinary sacrifices. The fire was lighted up again, not 
from another fire, but from the rays of the sun, in which manner it was 
renewed every year on the first of March, that day being auciently the be 
ginning of the year. 

17-19. 17. Ilia dum se, &.c. " While the god of the stream, lending 
too ready an ear to his spouse, proudly shows himself an avenger to the 
too complaining Ilia." We have followed Orelli in joining nimium with 
qucrc7iti. It may also be taken with ullorcm, " an intemperate avenger," 
but the collocation of the words seems to be more in favor of the former, as 
Orelli correctly remarks. The allusion is to Hia or Ilea Silvia, the mother 
of Romulus and Remus, and the ancestress of Julius Caesar, whose assas- 
sination she is here represented as making the subject of too prolonged a 
complaint, since the expiatory sufferings of Rome had already been suffi- 
ciently severe. Ancient authorities differ in relation to her fate. Ennius, 
eiled by Porphyrion in his scholia on this ode, makes her to have been 
cast into the Tiber, previously to which she had become the bride of the 
Anio. Horace, on the contrary, speaks of her as having married the god 
of the Tiber, which he here designates as uxorius amnis. Servius (ad 
/£/£., 1, 274) alludes to this version of the fable, as adopted by Horace 
and others. Acron also, in his scholia on the present passage, speaks of 
Ilia as having married the god of the Tiber. According to the account 
which he gives, Ilia was buried on the banks of the Anio, and the river, 
having overflowed its borders, earned her remains down to the Tiber; 
hence she was said to have espoused the deity of the last-mentioned 
etream. It may not be improper to add here a remark of Niebuhr's in 
relation to the name of this female. " The reading Rhea," observes the 
historian, "is a corruption introduced by the editors, who very unseason- 
ably bethought themselves of the goddess : rea seems only to have signi- 
fied 'the culprit,' or 'the guilty woman:' it reminds us of rea femina, 
which often occurs, particularly in Boccacio." (Niebuhr's Roman His 
tory, vol. i., p. 176, Cambr. transl.) — 19. Jove non probante. Jupiter dic( 
dot approve that the Tiber should undertake to avenge the death of Caesar 
«. task which he had reserved for Augustus. 



EXFLANAT0R1 NOTES. BOOK I., ODE II. Sit53 

fet-37. 22. Graven Per**. "The lbrmidable Parthians." Compare 
as regards the force of gravis, the similar employment of flapvc in Greek 
Tims Alexander is called (3api)g Yiepaaiat. (ThcocriL, xvii., 19.) — Perste 
Horace' frequently uses the terms Mcdi and Persce to denote the Parthians 
The Median preceded the Persian power, which, after the interval of the 
Grecian dominion, was succeeded by the Parthian empire. The epithet 
fraves alludes to the defeat of Crassus, and the check of Marc Antony. — 
Peri rent. For perituri fuisscnt. (Zumpt, § 525.) — 23. Vitio parentum 
vara juvenilis. "Posterity thinned through the guilt of their fathers." 
Alluding to the sanguinary conflicts of the civil contest. — 25. Voctt. Fot 
invocct. — RuerUis import rebus. "To the affairs of the falling empire."' 
Rebus by a Graecism for ad res. — 26. Piece qua. " By what supplications." 
— 27. Virgines sanctce. Alluding to the vestal virgins. — Minus audientcm 
carmina. "Less favorably hearing their solemn prayers." Carmen is 
frequently used to denote any set form of words either in prose or verse. 
The reference here is to prayers and supplications, repeated day after day, 
and constituting so many set forms of the Roman ritual. As Julius Caisar 
was Pontifex Maximus at the time of his death, he was also, by virtue of 
his office, priest of Vesta ; it being particularly incumbent on the Pontifex 
Maximus to exercise a superintending control over the rites of that god 
dess. Hence the anger of the goddess toward the Romans on account of 
Cesar's death. 

29-39. 29. Paries scelus expiandi. " The task of expiating our guilt.' - ' 
Scelus refers to the crimes and excesses of the civil conflict. They who 
were polluted by the stain of human blood were excluded from all partici- 
pation in the sacred rites until proper atonement had been made. This 
atonement in the present case is to consist, not in punishing the slayers of 
Caesar, which had already been done, but in placing the state once more 
on the firm basis of peace and concord. As this seemed too great a task 
for a mere mortal, the aid of the gods is solicited. [Gesncr, ad loc.) — 31. 
Nube candentcs, &c. " Having thy bright shoulders shrouded with a cloud." 
The gods, when they were pleased to manifest themselves to mortal eye, 
were generally, in poetic imagery, clothed with clouds, in order to hido 
from mortal gaze the excessive splendor of their presence. — Augur Apollo. 
"Apollo, god of prophecy." — 33. Erycina ridens. "Smiling goddess of 
Eryx." Venus, so called from her temple on Mount Eryx in Sicily. — 34 
Quam Jocus circum, &c. " Around whom hover Mirth and Love." — 36. 
Respicis. "Thou again beholdest with a favoring eye." When the gods 
turned their eyes toward their worshippers, it was a sign o r favor; when 
they averted them, of displeasure. — Auctor. "Founder of the Roman 
line." Addressed to Mars as the reputed father of Romulus and Remus. 
— 39. Marsi. The MSS. have Mauri, for which Faber conjectm-ed Marsi, 
and this last has been adopted by Dacier, Bentley, Cunningham, Sana- 
don, and others. The people of Mauretania were never remarkable fof 
their valor, and their cavalry, besides, were always decidedly superior tc* 
their infantry. The Marsi, on the other hand, were reputed to have been 
one of the most valiant nations of Italy. The modern G erman editors hare 
generally retained Mauri, and give peditis the meaning of" dismounted," 
making the allusion to be to the defeat of Juba at Thapsus. This, how 
over, is extremely unsatisfactory. — Omentum. This epithet beautifully 
describes the foe, as transfixed by the weapon of the Marsian, and " wel 
iering in his hlood." 



204 explanatory: notes. — book i., ode ii 

41-51. 41. Sive mutata, &c. " Or if, winged son of the benign Maia 
having changed thy form, thou assumest that of a youthful hero on the 
earth." Mercury, the offspring of Jupiter and Maia, is here addressed 
The epithet " winged" has reference to the peculiar mode in which Mcr 
cury or Hermes was represented in ancient works of art, namely, with 
wings attached to his petasus, or travelling hat, and also to his staff and 
sandals. — Juvencm. Referring to Augustus. He was now, indeed, thirty 
sis years of age ; but the term juvenis applies to all in the bloom and 
likewise prime of life ; in other words, it comprehended the whole perio-i 
Irom eighteen to forty or forty-five. — 43. Pattens vocari, &c. "Suffering 
thyself to be called the avenger of Caesar." An imitation of the Greek 
idiom, for te vocari Cccsaris vltorem. — 46. Lcctus. "Propitious." — 47. Ini- 
quum. "Offended at." — 48. Odor aura. " Too early a blast." Supply 
rtcto. More freely, " an untimely blast." The poet prays that the de- 
parture of Augustus for the skies may not be accelerated by the crimes 
and vices of his people. — 49. Magnos triumphos. Augustus, in the month 
of August, A.U.C. 725, triumphed for three days in succession: on the first 
day over the Pannonians, Dalmatians, Iapydae, and their neighbors, to- 
gether with some Gallic and Germanic tribes; on the second day, for tho 
victory at Actium ; on the third, for the reduction oQSgypt. The successes 
:-ver the Gauls and Germans had been obtained for him by his lieutenant, 
C. Carinas. — 50. Pater atquc Princcps. Augustus is frequently styled on 
medals, Pater Patrice, a title which the succeeding emperors adopted from 
him. — 51. Mcdos "The eastern nations." Alluding particularly to tho 
Parthians. Compare note on line 22 of this Ode. — Equitarc inultos. " To 
transgress their limits with impunity." To make unpunished inroads inta 
the Roman territory. The main strength of tho Parthians lay in their 
*arahy. Hence the peculiar propriety of equitare. 



Ode III. Addressed to the ship which was about to convey Virgil to 
the shores of Greece. The poet prays that the voyage may be a safe and 
propitious one : alarmed, however, at the same time, by the idea of the 
dangers which threaten his friend, he declaims against the inventor of 
navigation, and the dating boldness of mankind in general. — According to 
Heyne (Virgilii vita per annos digesta), this ode would appear to have 
been written A.U.C. 735, when, as Donatus states, the bard of Mantua 
had determined to retire to Greece and Asia, and employ there the spaco 
of three years in correcting and completing the iEneid. [Donat., Virg 
vit. § 51.) " Anno vero quinquagesimo secundo," observes Donatus, "ut 
nltlmam manum u&neidi imponeret, statuit in Grceciam et Asiam sees- 
dere, triennioquc continuo omnem operant limaiioni dare, ut reliqua vita 
(antum philosophies vacaret. Sed cum ingressus iter Athcnisoccurrissel 
Augusto, ah Oriente Romam revcrtenti, una cu<pi Casarc rcdire statuit. 
Ac cum Megara, vicinum Ailienis oppidum, visendi gratia pcteret, languo- 
rem nactus est : quern non \ntcrmissa navigatio auxit, ita ut gravior in 
dies, tandem Brundisium adventarit, ubi diebus paucis obiit, X.Kal. Oc 
tobr. C. Sentio, Q. Lucretio Coss. 

1-4. 1. Sic te Diva,potens Cypri, &c. "O Ship, that owest to tbo 
shores of Attica, Virgil intrusted by us to thy care, give him up in safety 
fto bis destined haven), and preserve the one half of my soul, so may the 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I , ODE III. 265 

goddess who rules over Cyprus, so may the brothers of Helen, bright lu- 
minaries, and the father of the winds direct thy course, all others being 
confined except Iapyx." Observe that sic, in such constructions as the 
present, becomes a conditional form of wishing : " if you do as I wish you 
to do, so (i. e., in that event) may such or such a result happen unto you." 
Here, however, in order to render it more forcible, the conditional sic is 
placed first, which cannot, of course, be imitated in translating. — Diva 
poletts Cypri. Venus. From her power over the sea, she was invoked 
by the Cnidians, as 'EvirXoia, the dispenser of favorable voyages. (Pau 
san., i., 14.) — 2. Fratres Helena. Castor and Pollux. It was the partic 
ular office of "the brothers of Helen" to bring aid to mariners in time of 
danger. They were identified by the ancients with those luminous ap- 
pearances, resembling balls of fire, which are seen on the masts and yards 
of vessels before and after storms. — 3. Ventorum pater. iEolus. The isl- 
and in which he was fabled to have reigned was Strongyle, the modern 
Stromboh. — 4. Obslrictis aliis. An allusion to the Homeric fable of 
Ulysses and his bag of adverse winds. — Iapyga. The west-northwest. 
It received its name from Iapygia, in Lower Italy, which country lay 
partly in the line of its direction. It was the most favorable wind for sail- 
ing from Brundisium toward the southern parts of Greece, the vessel hav- 
ing, in the course of her voyage to Attica, to double the promontories of 
Tacnarus and Malea. — Anima dimidium mc<£. A fond and frequent ex- 
pression to denote intimate friendship. Thus the old scholiast remarks 
<£>L?ua tare pia ipvx>/ ev dvolv cujiaaiv. 

9-15 9. Mi robur el ces triplex, &c. "That mortal had the strength 
of triple brass ai*ound his breast." Robur et ess triplex is here put for ro 
bur arts triplicis, and the allusion may perhaps be to the ancient coats of 
mail, that were formed of iron rings twisted within one another like chains, 
or else to those which were covered with plates of iron, triplici ordinc, in 
the form of scales. — 12. Africum. The west-southwest wind, answering 
to the Alxfj of the Greeks. — 13, Aquilonibus. The term Aquilo denotes, in 
strictness, the wind which blows from the quarter directly opposite to 
that denominated Africus. A strict translation of both terms, however, 
would diminish, in the present instance, the poetic beauty of the passage. 
The whole may be rendered as follows : " The headlong fury of the south- 
west wind, contending with the northeastern blasts." — 14. Tristes Hya- 
das. "The rainy Hyades." The Hyades were seven of the fourteen 
daughters of Atlas, their remaining sisters being called Pleiades. These 
virgins bewailed so immoderately the death of their brother Hyas, who 
was devoured by a lion, that Jupiter, out of compassion, changed them into 
stars, and placed them in the head of Taurus, where they still retain their 
grief, their rising and setting being attended with heavy rains. Hence the 
epithet tristes ("weeping," "rainy") applied to them by the poet. — 15. 
Hadricc. Some commentators insist that Hadrice is here used for the sea 
in general, because, as the Adriatic faces the southeast, the remark of Hor- 
ace cannot be true of the south. In the age of the poet, however, the 
term Hadria was used in a very extensive sense. The sea which it des- 
.gnated was considered as extending to the southern coast of f^aly and 
4ie western shores of Greece." 

7-19. >7 Quem ^orlis timuit z-adum. "What path of death did 

M 



2(>6 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE IV. 

he fear." i. c., what kind of death. Equivalent to qujm viam ad Orcum 
— 18. Reclis oculis. " With steady gaze," i. e., with fearless eye. Most 
editions read siccis oculis, which Bentley altered, on conjecture, to rectis 
Others yxeter jixis oculis. — 19. Et infames scopulcs Acroceraunia. "And 
the Acroceraunia, ill-famed cliffs." The Cerauuia were a chain of mount 
ains along the coast of Northern Epirus, forming part of the boundary be 
tween it and Illyricum. That portion of the chain which extended beyond 
Oricum formed a bold promontory, and was,termed Acroceraunia ('Atcpo 
Kepavvia), from its summit (uupa) being often struck by lightning (tctpav 
voc). This coast was much dreaded by the mariners of antiquity, because 
Mie mountains were supposed to attract storms ; and Augustus nanowly 
pcaped shipwreck here when returning from Actium. The Acrocerau 
^•a are now called Monte Chimera. 

:i-39. 22. Dissociabili. " Forbidding all intercourse." Taken in an 
vrive sense. — 24. Transsiliunt. "Bound contemptuously over." — 2G. 
iudcix omnia perpeti. A Greek construction : -dpaave navra T?i.7jvac 
" Boldly daring to encounter every hardship." — 25. Per vetilum et nefas 
"Through what is forbidden by all laws both human and divine." The 
common text has vetitum nefas, which makes a disairreeablc pleonasm 
The reading which we have adopted occurs in two MSS., and is decidedly 
preferable. — 27. Atrox Inpcti genus. "The resolute son of Iapetus. 
Prometheus. We have adopted atrox, the conjecture of Bothe. The 
common reading is audax, but the repetition of this epithet appears ex 
tremely unpoetical. As regards the force of atrox here, compare Od., ii. 
1, 24 : "Prater atroccm animum Calonis." — 28. Fran de mala. "By ai 
unhappy fraud." The stealing of the fire from heaven is called " an un 
happy fraud," in allusion to Pandora and her box of evils, with which Ju 
piter punished mankind on account of the theft of Prometheus. — 29. Po& 
ignem tsthcria domo subductum. "After the lire was drawn down bj 
itealth from its mansion in the skies." — 33. Corripuit gradum. " Accel 
erated its pace." We have here the remnant of an old tradition respect 
ing the longer duration of life in primeval times. — 34. Expcrtus (est) 
" Essayed." — 36. Pcrrupit Acheronta Herculeus labor. " The toiling Her- 
cules burst the barriers of the lower world." Alluding to the descent of 
Hercules to the shades. Acheron is here put figuratively for Orcus. The 
expression Herculeus labor is a Gnecism, and in imitation of the Homerio 
form Bit] ' H pa n/.rj sir}. {Od., xi., GCO.) So, also, Kdaropoc f3la (Pind., 
Pyth., xi., 93) ; TuJt-oc ,3ia {s£sck., 6'. C. Th., 77), &c— 39. Cesium. Al- 
luding to the battle of the giants with the gods. 



Ode IV. The ode commences with a description of the return of spring, 
After alluding to the pleasurable feelings attendant upon that delightful 
season of the year, the poet urges his friend Sextius, by a favorite Epicu 
rean argument, to cherish the fleeting hour, since the night of the grave 
would soon close around him, and bring all enjoyment to an end. 

The transition in this ode, at the 13th line, has been censured by some 
as too abrupt. It only wears this appearance, however, to those who are 
unacquainted with ancient customs and thS associated feelings of the Ro- 
mans. " To one who did not know," observes Mr. Dunlop, " that the mor 
tuary festivals almost immediately succeeded those of Facnus, the linos 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE IV. 267 

in question might appear disjointed and incongruous. But to a Roman, 
who at once could ?ace the association in the mind of the poet, the sud- 
den transition from gayety to doom would seem but an echo of the senti 
ment which he himself annually experienced." 

1—4. 1. Solcitur acria hicms, &c. "Severe winter is melting away 
beneath the pleasing change of spring and the western breeze." Liter. 
ally, "is getting loosened or relaxed." — Vtris. The spring commenced, 
according to Varro (R. R., i., 28), on the seventh day before the Ides of 
February (7 Feb.), on which day, according to Columella, the wind Favo- 
nius began to blow. — Fctvoni. The wind Favonius received its name ei 
ther from its he'iug favorable to vegetation (favens geniturts), or from its 
fostering the grain sown in the earth (fovcris sata). — 2. Trahuntque sic 
cas machines carinas. "And the rollers are drawing down the dry hulls 
(to the shore)," i. e., the dry hulls are getting drawn down on rollers. As 
the ancients seldom prosecuted any voyages in winter, their ships during 
that season were generally drawn up on land, and stood on the shore sup- 
ported by props. When the season for navigation returned, they wer a 
drawn to the water by means of ropes and levers, with rollers placed be 
low. — 3. Igni. "In bis station by the fire-side." — 4. Cants pruinh 
" With the hoar-frost." 

5-7. 5. Cythcrea. "The goddess of Cythera." Venus: so called from 
the island of Cythera, now Ccrigo, near the promontory of Malea, in the 
vicinity of which island she was fabled to have first landed. — Choros du 
cit. " Leads up the dances." — Imminente luna. " Under the full light of 
the moon." The moon is here described as being directly overhead, and, 
by a beautiful poetic image, threatening, as it wei*e, to fall. — 6. Junctesque 
Nymphis Graties decentes. ■ " And the comely Graces joined hand in hand 
with the Nymphs." We have rendered decentes here by the epithet 
"comely." In truth, however, there is no single term in our language 
which gives the full meaning of the Latin expression. The idea intended 
to be conveyed by it is analogous to that implied in the to na\bv of the 
Greeks, i.e., omne quod pulchrum et decorum est. We may thcrefoie 
best convey the meaning of Graties decentes by a paraphrase : "the Graces, 
arbitresses of all that is lovely and becoming." — 7. Dum graves Cyclo- 
pum, &c. "While glowing Vulcan kindles up the laborious forges of the 
Cyclopes." The epithet ardens is here equivalent to Jlammis relucens, 
and beautifully describes the person of the god as glowing amid the light 
which streams from his forge. Horace is thought to have imitated in this 
passage some Greek poet of Sicily, who, in depicting the approach of 
spring, lays the scene in his native island, with Mount iEtna smoking in 
the distant horizon. The interior of the mountain is the fabled scene of 
Vulcan's labors ; and here he is busily employed in forging thunderbolts 
for the monarch of the skies to hurl during the storms of spring, which are 
of frequent occurrence in that climate. — Cyclopum. The Cyclopes were 
the sons of Coelus and Terra, and of the Titan race. In the later legend 
here foUP^ed, they are represented as the assistants of Vulcan. 

9-12. 9. Nitidum. " Shining with unguents." — Caput impedire. At 
the banquets and festive meetings of the ancients, the guests weie crown 
ed with garlands of flowers, herbs, or leaves, tied and adorned with rib 



268 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE V. 

hons, cr with the inner rind of the linden-tree. These crowns, it *was 
thought, prevented intoxication. — Myrto. The myrtle was sacred to Ve- 
nus. — 10. Soluta "Freed from the fetters of winter." — 11. Fauno. 
ffiunus, the guardian of the fields and flocks, had two annual festivals 
ca^ed Faunalia, one on the Ides (13th) of February, and the other on the 
Nones (5th) of December. Both were marked by great hilarity and joy 
— 12. Scu poscat agna, Sec. " Either with a lamb, if he demand one, or 
with a kid, if he prefer that offering." Many editions read agnam aiid 
kadum ; but most of the MSS., and all the best editions, exhibit the lec- 
tion which we have given. 

13-1G. 13. Pallida Mors, Sec. "Pale Death, advancing with impartial 
footstep, knocks for admittance at the cottages of the poor and the lofty 
dwellings of the rich." Horace uses the term rex as equivalent to bcatus 
or dives. As regards the apparent want of connection between this por- 
tion of the ode and that which immediately precedes, compare what has 
loeen said la the introductory remarks. — 15. Inckoarc. "Day after day to 
renew." — ]6 Jam le premet ?iox, &c. The passage may be paraphrased 
as follows : " Soon will the night of the grave descend upon thee, and the 
manes of fable crowd around, and the shadowy home of Pluto become also 
thine own." The zeugma in the verb premo, by which it is made to as- 
sume a new meaning in each clause of the sentence, is worthy of notice. 
By the manes of fable are meant the shades of the departed, often made 
the theme of the wildest fictions of poetry. Observe that fabulce is not 
the genitive here, but the nominative plural, and equivalent to fabuiosi. 
Compare Callimachus, Epigr., xiv., 3 : ri Si TLXovtcjv ; Mvdoc : and Per 
eius, Sat., v., lo2 : "Cinis et manes ctf abulajies." 

17-18. 17. Simul. For Simul ac — 18. Talis. This may either be the 
adjective, or else the ablative plural of talus. If the former, the meaning 
of the passage will be, "Thou shalt neither cast lots for the sovereignty 
of such wine as we have here, nor," occ. ; whereas if talis be regarded aa 
a noun, the. interpretation will be, " Thou shalt neither cast lots with the 
dice for the sovereignty of wine, nor," &c. This latter mode of rendering 
the passage is the more usual one, but the other is certainly more anima- 
ced and poetical, and more in accordance, too, with the very early and 
curious belief of the Greeks and Romans in relation to a future state. 
They believed that the souls of the departed, with the exception of those 
\vho had offended against the majesty of the gods, were occupied in the 
lower world with the unreal performance of the same actions which had 
formed their chief object of pursuit in the regions of day. Thus, the friend 
of Horace will still quaff his wine in the shades, but the cup and its con- 
tents will be, like their possessor, a shadow and a dream : it will not be 
such wine as he drank upon the earth. — As regards the expression, " sov 
ereignty of wine," it means nothing more than the office of arbiter bibendi 
"u- "toast-master." (Compare Ode ii., 7, 25.) 



Ode V. Pyrrha, having secured the affections of a new adm^r, is ad 
dressed by the poet, who had himself experienced her inconstancy and 
faithlessness. He compares her youthful lover to one whom a sudden 
and dangerous tempest threatens to surprise on the deep---lurase!f to the 
mariner just rescued from iho perils of shipwreck. 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. 1300K. I., ODE VI. 2(59 

1-5. I. Malta in rosa. " Cr twned with many a rose." An imitation 
of the Greek idiom, lv OTityuvotr thai {ICurip., Here. Fur., Gil). — 2. Ut 
gel. Understand (c. " Prefers unto thee his impassioned suit." Urget 
would seem to imply an affected coyness and reserve on the part of Pyrrha, 
In order to elicit more powerfully the feelings of him who addresses her. — 
5. Simplex mu nditiis. "With simple elegance." Milton translates this, 
"Plain in thy neatness." — Fidem mutatosque dcos. "Thy broken faith, 
and the altered gods." The gods, who once seemed to smile upon his 
suit, are now, under the epithet of midati (" altered"), represented as 
frowning upon it, adverse to Iris prayer. 

7—12. 7. Nigris vcnlis. "With darkening blasts," i. c, blasts darken 
ing the heavens with storm-clouds. The epithet nigri, here applied to 
the winds, is equivalent to "caelum nigrum reddentes" — 8. Emirabitur 
insolens. " Unaccustomed to the sight, shall be lost in wonder «.t." Ob- 
serve that emirabitur is a uizat; /ieyo/xevov for the Golden Age of Latinity, 
but is well defended here by MSS. The verb occurs subsequently in Ap- 
puleius [Met., p. 274) and Luctatius Placidus (Enarr.fab., p. 251, Munck). 
It means "to wonder greatly at," " to be lost in wonder at," and to indi- 
cate this feeling by the gestures. To the same class belong claudare, 
emonere, emutare, everberare, &c. — 9. Aurea. "All golden," i. e., possess- 
ing a heart swayed by the purest affection toward him. — 10. Vacuam 
"Free from all attachment to another." — 11. Nescius aura fallacis 
Pyrrha is likened in point of fickleness to the wind. — 12. Nitcs. An idea 
borrowed from the appearance presented by the sea when reposing in a 
calm, its treacherous waters sparkling beneath the rays of the sun. 

13. Me tabula sacer, &c. Mariners rescued from the dangers of ship 
wreck were accustomed to suspend some votive tablet or picture, together 
with their moist vestments, in the temple of the god by whose interposi- 
tion they believed themselves to have been saved. In these paintings, the 
storm, and the circumstances attending their escape, were carefully de- 
lineated. In the age of Horace, Neptune received these votive offerings ; 
in that of Juvenal, Isis. Ruined mariners frequently carried such pictures 
about with them, in order to excite the compassion of those whom they 
chanced to meet, describing at the same time, in songs, the particulars of 
their story. (Compare the Epistle to the Pisos, v. 20.) Horace, in lik< 
manner, speaks of the votive tablet which gratitude has prompted him to 
offer in thought, his peace of mind having been nearly shipwrecked by the 
brilliant but dangerous beauty of Pyrrha. 



Ode VI. M. Vipsanius Agrippa, to whom this ode is addressed, was the 
intimate friend of Augustus, and a celebrated commander, distinguished 
for various exploits both by land and sea. It was he who, as commandei 
of the naval forces of Augustus, defeated Sextus Pompeius off the coast 
of Sicily, and was afterward mainly instrumental in gaining the victory at 
Actium. He became eventually the son-in-law of Augustus, having mar 
ried, at his request, Julia, the widow of Marcellus. The Pantheon war 
erected by him. He is thought to have complained of the silence which 
Horace had preserved in relation to him throughout his various pieces. 
The poet seeks to justify himself on the ground of his utter inability U 



270 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE VI. 

handls so lofty a theme. " Varius will sing thy praises, Agrippa, with 
all the fire of a second Homer. For my own part, I would as soon attempt 
to describe in poetic numbers the god of battle, or any of the heroes of the 
Iliad, as undertake to tell of thy fame and that of the royal Caesar." The 
language, however, in which the bard's excuse is conveyed, while it speakg 
a high euiogium on the characters of Augustus and Agrippa, proves, at the 
cams time, how well qualified he was to execute the task which he declines. 
Sanadon, without the least shadow of probability, endeavors to trace an 
aUegorical meaning throughout the entire ode. He supposes Pollio to ba 
meant by Achilles, Agrippa and Messala by the phrase duplicis Ulixei, 
Antony and Cleopatra by the "house of Pelops," Statilius Taurus by the 
god Mars, Marcus Titius by Meriones, and Maecenas by the son of Tydeus. 

1. Scriberis Vario, &c. "Thou shalt be celebrated by Varius, a bird 
of M;eoniau strain, as valiant," &c. Vario and aliti are datives, put by a 
Graecism for ablatives.— The poet to whom Horace here alludes, and who 
is again mentioned on several occasions, was Lucius Varius, famed for his 
epic and tragic productions. Q.uintilian (10, 1) asserts, that a tragedy of 
his, entitled Thyestes, was deserving of being compared with any of the 
Grecian models. He composed, also, a panegyric on Augustus, of which 
the ancient writers speak in terms of high commendation. Macrobius 
{Sat., 6, 1) has preserved some fragments of a poem of his on death. 
Varius was one of the friends who introduced Horace to the notice of Mae- 
cenas, and, along with Plotius Tucca, was intrusted by Augustus with 
the revision of the iEneid. It is evident that this latter poem could not 
have yet appeared when Horace composed the present ode, since he would 
never certainly, in that event, have given Varius the preference to Virgil. 

2-5. 2. Mikonii carminis aliti. " A bird of Maeonian song," i. e., a poet 
who sings with all the majesty of Homer, and who wings as bold a flight 
In other words, a second Homer. The epithet " Maeonian" contains an 
allusion to Homer, who was generally supposed to have been bom near 
Smyrna, and to have been consequently of Maeonian (i. e., Lydian) descent. 
The term aliti refers to a custom in which the ancient poets often indulged, 
of likening themselves to the eagle and the swan. — 3. Quam rem cunque. 
'' For whatever exploit," i. e., quod attinet ad rem, quamcunque, <5cc. Ob 
serve the tmesis. 

5-12. 5. Nee gravem Pelida stomachum, &c. "Nor the fierce resent- 
ment of the son of Peleus, ignorant how to yield," i. e., the unrelenting son 
of Peleus. The allusion is to the wrath of Achilles, the basis of the Iliad, 
and his beholding unmoved, amid his anger against Agamemnon, the dis- 
tresses and slaughter of his countrymen. — 7. Cursus duplicis Ulixei. 
•The wanderings of the crafty Ulysses." These form the subject of the 
Odyssey.— ^. Scevam Pelopis domum. "The cruel line of Pelops," i. e n 
the blood-sf lined family of the Pelopidae, namely, Atreus, Thyestes, Aga- 
memnon, Orestes, &c, the subjects of tragedies. — 10. Imbellisque lyra 
Musa potent. "And the Muse that sways the peaceful lyre." Alluding 
to his own inferiority in epic strain, and his being better qualified to han- 
dle sportive and amatory themes. — 12. Culpa deterere ingeni. "To di 
Biinish by any want of talent on our part," i. e., to weaken, &c. The lit 
cral meaning of dd.erere i? "to wear away," "to consume by wearing,' 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE VII. 27J 

|nd tiu metaphor is heru borrowed from the friction and wear ui' metals. 
Compare Orelli, " Tralatio a metallu, quod usu deteritur, cxtenuulur, at 
ipknJore priratur." 

14-20. 14. Dignc. " In strains worthy of the theme." — 15. Merionen 
Meriones, charioteer and friend of ldomeneus. — 16. Tydidcn. Diomeda 
son of Tydeus. — Superii parent, "A match lor the inhabitants of the 
skies." Alluding to the wounds inflicted on Venus and Mars by the Gre- 
cian warrior. — 17. Nos cunvivia, <Scc. "We, whether free from all attach- 
ment to another, or whether we burn with any passion, with our wonted 
exemption from care, sing of banquets ; we sing of the contests of maidens, 
briskly assailing with pared nails their youthful admirers." — IS. Scctis. 
Bentley conjectures strictis, "clinched," and makes the construction to 
be strictis injuven.es ; and, according to Wagner, this emendation of the 
great English scholar was always cited by Hemsterhuis as an instance 
"certtc critices." Still, however, we may be allowed, at the present day, 
to dissent even from this high authority, and express a decided preference 
for the ordinary reading. Bentley's conjecture, as Orelli well remarks, 
"nescio quid habet fariale ct agrcstc," and even the great critic himself 
appears subsequently to have regai'ded his own emendation with less 
favor. Compare Mas. Crit., i., p. 194. 



Ode VII. Addressed toL.Munatius Plancus, who had become suspect 
ed by Augustus of disaffection, and meditated, in consequence, retiring 
from Italy to sorae one of the Grecian cities. As far as can be conjectured 
from the present ode, Plancus had communicated his intention to Horace, 
and the poet new seeks to dissuade him from the step, but in such a way, 
however, as r.ot to endanger his own standing with the emperor. The 
train of thought appears to be as follows : " I leave it to others to celebrate 
the far-famed cities and regions of the rest of the world. My admiration 
is wholly engrossed by the beautiful scenery around the banks and falls 
of the Anio." (He here refrains from adding, "Betake yourself, Plancus, 
to that lovely spot," but merely subjoins), " The south wind, my friend, 
does not always veil the sky with clouds. Do you therefore bear up man- 
fully under misfortune, and, wherever you may dwell, chase away the 
cares of life with mallow wine, taking Teucer as an example of patient 
endurance worthy oi all imitation." 

1. Laudabunt alii . " Others (in all likelihood) will praise." The future 
here denotes a probable occurrence. — Claram Rhodon. "The sunny 
Rhodes." The epithet claram is here commonly rendered by "illustri- 
ous," which weakens the force of the line by its generality, and is deci- 
dedly at variance with the well-known skill displayed by Horace in the 
selection of his epithets. The interpretation which we have assigned to 
the word is in full accordance with a passage of Lucan (8, 248), " Clar- 
amque rcliquit sole Rhodon." Pliny (H. N., 2, 62) informs us of a boast 
on the part of the Ithodians, that not a day passed during which their isl 
and was not illumined for an hour at least by the rays of the sun, to which 
luminary it was sacred. — Mytilenen. Mytilene, the capital of Lesbos, and 
birth-place of Pilfacus, Alcasus, Sappho, and other distinguished individ- 
uals. Cicero, in speaking of this city (2 Oral. i-,. RulL, 14), sa} r s " li'rht 



272 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOCft I.. OLE VII. 

tt natura, et situ et iescriptione adificiorum, et pu/chritndive, in primis 
nobilis. The true form of the name is Mytilene, not Mitylene, as appea* 
from coins. Compare Eckael, Doctr. Num., ii., p. 303. 

2-4. 2. Epheson. Ephesus, a celebrated city of Ionia, iu Asia Minor 
famed for its temple and worship of Diana. — Bimarisvc Corinthi vtoenia 
'Or the walls of Corinth, situate between two arms of the sea." Corintr. 
lay on the isthmus of the same name, between the Sinus Coriuthiacua 
(Gulf of Lcpanto) on the west, and the Sinus Sarouicus (Gulf of Engia) on 
the southeast. Its position was admirably adapted for commerce. — 3. Vel 
Baccftb TJiebas, &c. " Or Thebes ennobled by Bacchus, or Delphi by Apol- 
lo." Thebes, the capital of Boeotia, was the fabled scene of the birth and 
nurture of Bacchus. Delphi, on Mount Parnassus in Phocis, was famed for 
its oracle of Apollo. — 1. Tcmpe. The Greek accusative plural, Tiurrn, con- 
tracted from TtjaTzea. Tcmpe was a beautiful valley in Thessaly, between 
the mountains Ossa and Olympus, and through which flowed the Peneus 

5-7. 5. Intacta Palladis arces. "The citadel o ibe vngin Pallas." 
Alluding to the Acropolis of Athens, sacred to Minerva. A'ices, piuial of 
excellence for arcem. — 7. Indcque decerptam fronti, <5cc. "And to place 
around their brow the olive crown, deserved and gr.^hered by them for 
celebrating such a theme." The olive was sacred to Minerva. Some 
editions read "Undique" for "Indeque," and the meaning will then be, "To 
place around their brow the olive crown deserved and gathered by numer- 
ous other bards." The common lection Undique decerptafrondi, <3cc, must 
be rendered, " To prefer the olive leaf to every other that is gathered." 
Our reading Indeque is the emendation of Schrader. Hunt er cites, in par- 
tial confirmation of it, the following line of Lucretius (iv., 4) : " Insignemqus 
*nco capili petere inde coronam." 

9-11. 9. Apturn equis Argos. "Argos, well-fitted for the nurture c f 
steeds." An imitation of the language of Homer, 'Apytioc 'nrnopoToio [11.. 
2, 2S7). — Ditesque Myccnars. Mycenas was the earlier capital of Argolis, and 
the city of the Pelopidae. Compare, as regards the epithet dites, Sopho- 
cles (Elcctr., 9), MvKTjvac rag tzo?iVXPvgovc. — 10. Patie?is Laccd<emon. Al 
lading to the patient endurance of the Spartans under the severe institu- 
tions of Lycurgus. — 11. Larissee campus opimx. L arissa, the old Pelasgio 
capital of Thessaly, was situate on the Peneus, and famed for the rich and 
fertile territory in which it stood. Compare Homer, II., ii., 841, Kdptaaav 
lotfiukaKa. — Tarn pcrcussit. " Has struck with such warm admiration.* 

12. Domus Albunea resonantis. " The home of Albunea, re-echoing to 
'he roar of waters." Commentators and tourists are divided in opinion 
respecting the domus Albunece. The general impression, however, seems 
to be, that the temple of the Sibyl, on the summit of the cliff at Tibur 
(now Tivoli), and overhanging the cascade, presents the fairest claim to 
this distinction. It is described as being at the present day a most beau- 
tiful niiu. "This beautiful temple," observes a recent travellei - , "winch 
stands on the very spot where the eye of taste would have placed it, and 
on which it ever reposes with delight, is one of the most attractive features 
of the scene, and perhaps gives to Tivoli its greatest charm." [Rome in 
live Nineteenth Century, vol. ii., p. 398, Am. ed.) Among the argumen*.? in 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BUUK I., (iDK Vll 273 

fuvor of the opinion above stated, it maj be remarked, that Varro, as quoted 
hv Laetantius (Pc FaUa Rel., 1, 0), givea a list of the ancient sibyls, an«l 
among them enumerates the one at Tibur, surnamed Albunea, y the tenth 
and last. He farther states that she was worshipped at Tibur, on the 
banks of the Anio. BaidaB also says, Leiidrn i) Tiftovprfa, dvdfxc.ri 'AA- 
Sovvala. Eustace is in favor of the " Grotto of Neptune," as it is called 
at the present day, a cavern in the rock, to which travellers descend in 
order to view the second fall of the Anio. (Class. Tour, vol. ii., p. 230, 
Cond «i.) Others, again, suppose that the domus Albuncce was in the 
neighborhood of the Aqua Albultc, sulphureous lakes, or now rather pools, 
close to the Via Tiburtina, leading from Rome to Tibur; and it is said, 
m defence of this opinion, that, in consequence of the hollow ground in the 
vicinity returning an echo to footsteps, the spot obtained from Horace the 
epithet of resonant is. (Speiice's Polymctis.) The idea is certainly an in- 
genious one, but it is conceived that such a situation would give rise to 
feelings of insecurity rather than of pleasure. 

13-15. 13. Pra>ccps Anio. "The headlong Anio." This river, now 
the Teverone, is famed for its beautiful cascades near the ancient town 
of Tibur, now Tivoli. — Tiburni lucus. This grove, in the vicinity of Tibur, 
took its name from Tiburnus, who had here divine honors paid to his mem- 
ory. — 15. Albus ut obscuro. Some editions make this the commencement 
of a new ode, on account of the apparent want of connection between 
this part and what precedes ; but consult the introductory remarks to the 
present ode, where the connection is fully shown. By the Albus Nolus 
" the clear south wind," is meant the Aevkovotoc, or 'Apyeor-nc Notoc (II.. 
11, 306) of the Greeks. This wind, though for the most part a moist ano 
damp one, whence its name (voroc, a votic, "moisture," "humidity"),!, 
certain seasons of the year well merited the appellation here given it b$ 
Horace, producing clear and serene weather. — Deterget. " Chases away ' 
Literally, "wipes away." Present tense of detergco. 

19-22. 19. Molli mero. " With mellow wine." Some editions place J* 
comma after tristitiam in the previous line, and regard molli as a verb is 
the imperative : " and soften the toils of life, O Plancus, with wine." This, 
however, is inferior. — 21. Tui. Alluding either to its being one of his fa 
vorite places of retieat, or, more probably, to the villa which he possessed 
there. — Teucer. Son of Telamon, king of Salamis, and Hesionc, daughter 
of Laomedon, and, consequently, half-brother of Ajax. On his return from 
the Trojan war, he was banished by his father for not having avenged hi? 
brother's death. Having sailed, in consequence of this, to Cypi'us, he there 
built a town called Salamis (now Costanza), after the name of his native 
city and island. — 22. Uda Ly&o. " Wet with wine." Lyaeus is from the 
Greek AvaToe, an appellation given to Bacchus, in allusion to Iris freeing 
the mind from care (Aveiv, "to loosen," "to free"). Compare the Latin 
epithet Liber ("qui liberat a cura"). 

23-32. 23. Populea. The poplar was sacred to Hercules. Teucer 
wears a crown of it on the present occasion, either as the general badge 
of a hero, or because he was offering a sacrifice to Hercules. The wmte 
or silver poplar is the species here meant. — 26. O socii comitesque. " O 
•'jiiir inions in arms and followers." Socii refers to tac chieftains wha 

M 2 



274 EXPLANATORY NOTES. —BOOK I., OLE VlF 

were Lis companions : comites, to their respective followers. — 27. Auspic* 
Teucro. "Under the auspices of Teucer." — 29. Ambiguam tellnre nova^ 
&c. "That Salamis will become a name of ambiguous import by reasou 
of a new land." A new city of Salamis shall arise in a new land (Cyprus;, 
so that whenever hereafter the name is mentioned, men will be in doubt, 
for the moment, whether the parent city is meant, in the island of the 
same name, or the colony in C}-prus. — 32. Cras ingens itcrabimus aquor. 
" On the morrow, we will again traverse the mighty surface of the deep." 
They had just returned from the Trojan war, and were now a second time 
to encounter the dangers of ocean. The verb iterare is employed here in 
a sense somewhat similar to that which occurs in Columella, ii., 4 : 
•' Quod jam proscissuni est ilerare," i. e., "to plough again." 



Ode VIII. Addressed to Lydia, and reproaching her for detaining the 
young Sybaris, by her alluring arts, from the manly exercises in which ho 
had been accustomed to distinguish himself. 

2-5. 2. Amanda. " By thy love." — 4. Campum. Alluding to the Cam 
pus Martius, the scene of the gymnastic exercises of the Roman youth. 
— Patiens pulveris atque soils. " Though once able to endure the dust 
and the heat." — 5. Militaris. "In martial array." Among the sports of 
the Roman youth were some in which they imitated the costume and 
movements of regular soldiery. 

6-9. 6. Equates. " His companions in years." Analogous to the 
Greek rove ijTiiKac. — GalUca nee lupatis, &c. "Nor manages the Gallic 
steeds with curbs fashioned like the teeth of wolves." The Gallic steeds 
were held in high estimation by the Romans. Tacitus (Ann., ii., 5) speaks 
of Gaul's being at one time almost drained of its horses : "fessas Gallia* 
ministrandis equis." They were, however, so fierce and spirited a breed 
as to render necessary the employment of "frena lupata," i. e., curbs 
armed with iron points resembling the teeth of wolves. Compare the cor- 
responding Greek terms 7>.vkoi and exlvoi. — 8. Flavum Tibcrim. Com- 
pare Explanatory Notes, Ode ii., 13, of this book. — 9. Olivum. "The oil 
of the ring." Wax was commonly mixed with it, and the composition 
was then termed ceroma (af/pufia). "With this the wrestlers were anoint- 
ed in order to give pliability to their limbs, and, after anointing their bod- 
ies, were covered with dust, for the purpose of affording their antagonists 
a better hold. 

10-16. 10. Armis. "By martial exercises." — 11. S&pe disco, &c 
"Though famed for the discus often cast, for the javelin often hurled, be 
yond the mark." The discus (dlokoc), or quoit, was round, flat, and perfo- 
rated in the centre. It was made either of iron, brass, lead, or stone, and 
was usually of great weight. Some authorities are in favor of a central 
aperture, others are silent on this head. The Romans borrowed this ex- 
ercise from the Greeks, and, among the latter, the Lacedaemonians were 
pai'ticularly attached to it. — 12. Exprdito. This term carries with it the 
idea of great skill, as evinced by the ease of performing these exercises. — 
13. Ul marina, Sec. Alluding to the story of Achilles having been con 
cesled in female vestments at the court of Lycomedes, king of Scvros, ir 



EXPLANATORY NOTES.— BOOK J., ODE IX 275 

/rder to avoid going to the Trojan war. — 14. Sub lacryniosa TrojiBfunera. 
''On the eve of the mournful carnage of Troy," i. c, in the midst of the 
preparations for the Trojan war. — 15. Virilis rultus. "Manly attire."— 
16. In cccdem et Lycias catervas. A hendiadys. " To the slaughter of the 
Trojan hands." Lycias is here equivalent to Trojanas, and refers to the 
collected forces of the Trojans and their allies. 



Ode IX. Addressed to Thaliarchus, whom some event had robbed of 
his peace of mind. The poet exhorts his friend to banish care from hii 
breast, and, notwithstanding the pressure of misfortune, and the gloomy 
severity of the winter season, which then prevailed, to enjoy the present 
hour and leave the rest to the gods. 

The commencement of this ode would appear to have been imitated 
from Alcccus. 

2-3. 2. Soracte. Mount Soracte lay to the southeast of Falerii, in the 
territory of the Falisci, a part of ancient Etruria. It is now called Monte 
S. Silvestro, or, as it is by modern conniption sometimes termed, SanV 
Orestc. — 3. Laboranles. This epithet beautifully describes the forests aa 
ttruggling and bending beneath the weight of the superincumbent ice and 
«now. The difference between the temperature of summer and winter in 
ancient Italy may be safely assumed, from this as well as other passages, 
to have been much greater than it now is. Compare note on Ode i., 2, 1 

3-10. 3. Gclu acuto. " By reason of the keen frost." — 5. Dissolve fn- 
$us. "Dispel the cold." — 6. Benignius. "More plentifully," i. c, than 
asual. We may supply solito. Some regard benignius here as an ad 
jective, agreeing with merum, "rendered more mellow by ago;" but the 
Horatian term in such cases is mitis. — 7. Sabina diota. '•' From the Sa- 
bine jar." The vessel is here called Sabine, from its containing wine 
made in the country of the Sabines. The diola received its name from 
\ts having two handles or ears [die and ovc). It contained generally forty 
eight sextarii, about twenty-seven quarts English measure. — 9. Qui simul 
tiravere, &c. "For, as soon as they have lulled," &c. The relative is 
uere elegantly used to introduce a sentence, instead of a personal pronoun 
with a particle. — JFquore fervido. " Over the boiling surface of the deep " 

13-24. 13. Fuge qucercrc. " Avoid inquiring." Seek not to know.— 
14. Quod Fors dierum cunque dabit. A tmesis for quodcunque dierum 
fors dabit, i. e., quemcunque diem, &c. — Lucro appone. " Set down as 
gain." — 16. Pucr. "While still young." — Neque tu choreas. The use, or 
rather repetition, of the pronoun before choreas is extremely elegant, as 
denoting earnestness of injunction, and in imitation of the Greek. — 17. Do- 
nee virenti, &c. "As lAig as morose old age is absent from thee, still 
blooming with youth." — 18. Campus et areee. " Rambles both in the Cam 
pus Martius and along the public walks." By area are here meant those 
parts of the city that were free from buildings, the same, probably, as the 
squares and parks of modern days, where young lovers were fond of stroll- 
ing. — Sub noctem. "At the approach of evening." — 21. Nunc et laientis, 
&c. The order of the construction is, et nunc grains risus (repetatur) ab 
intimo angulo, proditor latentis puellcs. The verb rcpelotur is nude* 



276 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE X. 

stood. The poet alludes to some youthful sport, by the rules of whirl a 
forfeit was exacted from the person whose place of concealment was dis- 
covered, whether by the .ngenuity of another, or the voluntary act of tht> 
parly concealed. — 24. Male pcrtinaci. " Faintly resisting."' Pretending 
only to oppose. 



Ode X. In praise of Mercury. Imitated, according to tin Scholiast 
Porphyrion, from the Greek poet Alceus. 

1-6. 1. FacunJc. Mercury was regarded as the inventor of language 
and the god of eloquence. — Nepos Atlantis. Mercury was the fabled son 
of Mala, one of the daughters of Atlas. — The word Atlantis must be pro- 
nounced here A-llan/is, in order to keep the penultimate foot a trochee. 
This peculiar division of syllables is imitated from the Greek. — 2. Feroa 
cult us kominum irccnlutn. "The savage manners of the early race of 
men." The ancients believed that the early state of mankind was but 
little removed from that of the brutes. — 3. Voce. "By the gift of Ian 
guage." — Cuius. "Wisely." Mercury wisely thought that nothing 
would sooner improve and soften down the savage manners of the prim 
itive race of men than mutual intercourse, and the interchange of ideas by 
means of language. Cains, according to Varro, was a word of Sahine or- 
igin. Its primitive meaning was " acute" or " shrill," and hence it came 
to signify " shrewd," " sagacious," «5cc. — Decora more palastrcc. " B 7 tho 
institution of the grace-bestowing palaestra." The epithet dccor<B is hero 
used to.denote the effect produced on the human frame by gymnastic ex 
ercises. — G. Curvte lyrte parentem. " Parent of the bending lyre." Mer 
cury {Hymn, in Merc, 20, seqq.) is said, while still an infant, to have lbrm 
ed the lyre from a tortoise which he found in his path, stretching seven 
strings over the hollow shell (i:~ru tie av/Mbuvove uiuv kravvaoaro %op- 
oaf). Hence the epithets 'EpfxatT] and KvXTLnvairj, which are applied to 
this instrument, and hence, also, the custom of designating it by the terms 
\k?.vc, chclys, testudo, &c. Compare Gray {Progress of Poesy), " En 
chanting shell." Another, and probably less accurate account, makes 
this deity to have discovered, on the banks of the Nile, after the subsiding 
of an inundation, the shell of a tortoise, with nothing remaining of the 
body but the sinews : these, when touched, emitted a musical sound, and 
'gave Mercury the first hint of the lyre. (Compare Isidor., Or/'g., iii., 4.) 
It is very apparent that the fable, whatever the true version may be, has 
an astronomical meaning, and contains a reference to the seven planets, 
Rud to the pretended music of the spheres. 

9-11. 9. Te boves olim nisi reddidisses, dec. " While Apollo, in former 
days, seeks, with threatening accents, to terrify thee, still a mere stripling, 
unless thou shouldst have restored the cattle rern^ed by thy art, he laughed 
to find himself deprived also of his quiver." — Boves. The cattle of Adme 
tus were fed by Apollo on the banks of the Amphrysus, in Thessaly, after 
that deity had been banished for a time from the skies for destroying the 
Cyclopes. Mercury, still a mere infant, drives off fifty of the herd, and 
conceals them near the Alpheus, nor does he disclose the place whnre 
they are hidden until ordered so to do by his sire. (Hymn, in Merc., 70. 
seqq.) Lurian (Dial.. D.. 7) mentions other sportive thefts of the same 



EXPLANATORY NOT Ed. iJoOK I., OD1'. XI. 211 

deify, by which he deprived Neptune of his trident, Mars of his swcrd 
Apollo of his bow, Venna of her cestus, and Jove himself of las sceptre 
He would have stolen the thunderbolt also, had it not been too heavy aiiQ 
hot. (El tit (ir t ioff 6 Kepavibc yv, nal noXv to nvp eZ^c, kukeIvov 

uv vqeiXeto. Lueian, I. c.) — 11. Vidnus. A Graecism fovviduvm se ten- 
ttens. Horace, probably following Alcams, blends together two mytho- 
logical events, which, according to otlier authorities, hap[>encd at distinct 
penods. The Hymn to Mercury merely speaks of the theft of the cattle, 
efter which Mercury gives the lyre as a peace-offering to Apollo. The 
Only allusion to the arrows of the god is where Apollo, after this, express 
ea his fear lest the son of Maia may deprive him both of these weapons 
•uid of the lyre itself. 

Aeidia, Maiudof vli, fi/uKTope, 'KOLKiXofiTJTa, 
//;/ jioi (h'a/cAt'i/'yc KiQapTjV ical Kaimv?^a ro^a. 

13-19. 13. Quin ct Atridas, &c. "Under thy guidance, too, the ncr: 
Priam passed unobserved the haughty sons of Atreus." Alluding to the 
visit which the aged monarch paid to the Grecian camp in order to ran 
som the corpse of Hector. Jupiter ordered Mercury to be his guide, and 
to conduct him unobserved and in safety to the tent of Achilles. (Consult 
Homer, II., 24, 336, seqq.) — 14. Dives Priamus. Alluding not only to his 
wealth generally, bat also to the rich presents which he was bearing to 
Achilles. — 15. Thcssalos igues. "The Thessalian watch-fires." Refer- 
ring to the watches and troops of Achilles, the Thessalian leader, through 
whom Priam had to pass in order to reach the tent of their leader. — 1G. Fe- 
feUit. Equivalent here to the Greek IXaOev- — 17. Tu pias loetis, <5cc. 
Mercury is here represented in his most important character, as the guide 
Ji departed spirits. Hence the epithets o^ipv^orcofi-Kog and veKpo~ojunuc, 
or veitpayuyog, so often applied to him. The verb reponis in the present 
stanza receives illustration, as to its meaning, from the passage in VirgiL 
where the future descendants of ./Eneas are represented as occupying 
abodes in the land of spirits previously to their being summoned to the 
regions of day. {^fln., 6, 756, seqq.) Hence Mercury is here said " to 
replace" the souls of the pious in, or " to restore" the in to their former 
abodes. — 18. Virgaque levem coerces, &c. " And with thy golden wand 
dost check the movements of the airy throng." The allusion is to the 
caduceus of Mercury, and coerces is a metaphor borrowed from a shepherd's 
guiding of his flock, and keeping them together in a body with his pastoral 
fttaff". — 19. Superis dcorum et imis. " To the upper ones and lowest ones 
of the gods," i. e., to the gods above and below. A Graecism for superis 
it inis deis. % 



Ode XL Addressed to Leuconoe, by which fictitious name a female 
friend cf the poet's is thought to be designated. Horace, having discover- 
ed t hat she was in the habit of consulting the astrologers of the day in or- 
der to ascertain, if possible, the term both of her own as well as his ex- 
istence, entreats her to abstain from such idle inquiries, and leave tha 
events of the future to the wisdom of the gods. 

1-4. 1 Tu ne qnccsieris. " Inquire not, I entreat." The subjurct.lv e 
liood is here used as a softened imperative, to express entreaty or request 



278 FXPLANATCRY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE XII. 

and the air of earnestness with which the poet addresses his female 
friend is increased by the insertion of the personal pronoun. — 2. Finem. 
"Term of existence." — Babylonios numcros. " Chaldean tables," i. e^ 
tables of nativity, horoscopes. The Babylonians, or, more strictly speak- 
ing, Chaldeans, were the great astrologers of antiquity, and constructed 
tables for the calculation of nativities and the prediction of future events. 
This branch of charlatanism made such progress and attained so regular a 
form among them, that subsequently the terms Chaldean and Astrologer 
became completely synonymous. Rome was filled with these impostors. 
— 3. Ut melius. " How much better is it." Equivalent to quanto sapien- 
tins. — Er'U. For acciderit. — 4. Ultimam. " This as the last." 

5-8. 5. Qua: nunc oppositis, <5cc. "Which now breaks the strength 
of the Tuscan sea on the opposing rocks corroded by its waves.'" By the 
term pumicibis are meant rocks corroded and eaten into caverns by the 
constant dashing of the waters. — 5. Vina liques. "Filtrate thy wines." 
Observe that sapias and liques are subjunctives used as imperatives. 
(Zumpt, $ 529.) The wine-strainers of the Romans were made of linen, 
placed round a frame-work of osiers, shaped like an inverted cone. Iu 
consequence of the various solid or viscous ingredients which the an- 
cients added to their wines, frequent straining became necessary to pre- 
rent inspissation. Consult Excursus VI. — Spatio brcvi, &c. "In conse- 
quence of the brief duration of existence, cut short long hope (of the fu- 
tore)," i. c, since human life is at best but a span, indulge in no lengthen- 
ed hope of the future, but improve the present opportunity for enjoyment. 
— 8. Carpe diem. " Enjoy the present day." A pleasing metaphor. 
" Pluck" the present day as a flower from the stem, and enjoy its fra 
grauce while it lasts. 



Ode XII. Addressed to Augustus. The poet, intending to celebrate 
the praises of his imperial master, pursues a course extremely flattering 
to the vanity of the latter, by placing his merits on a level with those of 
gods and heroes. This ode is generally supposed to be in part imitated 
from Pindar, OL, ii., 1, scq. : ' Ava^i<popjuiy-/eg ipvoi, k. t. ?.. 

1-6. I. Qucm virum aid heroa. "What living or departed hero." 
Compare the remark of the scholiast, " Quern virum de vivis ? quern heroa 
de morLuis ?" — Lyra vcl acri tibia. "On the lyre, or shrill-toned pipe," 
i. e., in strains adapted to either of these instruments. — 2. Cclebrare. A 
Graecism for ad celebrandum. — Clio. The first of the nine Muses, and pre 
■iding over epic poetry and history. — 3. Jocosa imago. " Sportive echo." 
Understand poets. Literally, " the sportive image (or reflection) of the 
;oice." As regai'ds the term jocosa, compare the explanation of Orelli : 
'Jocosa autem, quia viatores quasi consul to ludijicatur, unde auribus ac 
tidat, iguora)Ucs." — 5. In umbrosis Heliconis oris. "Amid the shady 
regions of Helicon." A mountain of Boeotia, sacred to Apollo and the 
Muses. On its summit was the grove of the latter, and a little below 
the grove was the fountain of Aganippe, produced from the earth by a blow 
cf the hoof of Pegasus. Helicon is now called Palaovouni or Zagora. — 
6. Super Pindo " On the summit of Pindus." The chain of Pindus 
«**Dwated Tliessalv from Epirus. It was sacred fr Apollo and the Muses 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. — BOOK I., ODE XII. 271) 

—Ihr.rno. Mount II;vmus stretches its great belt round the north of Thrace, 
in a direction nearly parallel with the coast of the ./Egean. The modern 

aame is Eminek Dag, or Balkan. 

7-15, 7. Vocaletn. "The tuneful." — Tcmerc. "In wild confusion.' 
Compare the explanation of Orelli : " PrumUcuc, sine online, cur secla- 
nntur cantorcm vix sibi conscitc." The scene of this wonderful feat of 
Orpheus v^s near Zone, on the coast of Thrace. (Mela, 2, 2.) — 9. Arte 
materna. Orpheus was the fabled son of Calliope, one of the Muses. — 
11. Blandum et auritas, ice. "Sweetly persuasive also to lead along 
with melodious lyre the listening oaks," i. c., who with sweetly persua- 
sive accents and melodious lyre led along, <!cc. The epithet aurilas is 
here applied to quercus by a bold image. The oaks are represented as fol- 
lowing Orpheui with pricked-up cars. — 13. Quidprius dicam, &.c. "What 
shall I celebrate before the accustomed praises of the Parent of us all ?" 
Some read parentum instead of parentis, "What shall I lirst celebrate, 
in accordance with the accustomed mode of praising adopted by our fa- 
thers ?" Others, retaining parentum, place an interrogation after dicam, 
and a comma after laudibus. " What shall I first celebrate in song ? In 
accordance with the accustomed mode of praising adopted by our fathers, I 
will sing of him who," &c. — 15. Variis horis. " With its changing sea 
sons." — Temper at. " Controls." 

17-26. Yi.Undc. "From whom." Equivalent to ex quo, and not, as 
some maintain, to quare. Compare Sat., i., 6, 12, and ii., 6, 21. — 19. Proxi 
mos lamcn, &c. " Pallas, however, enjoys honors next in importance to 
his own." Minerva had her temple, or rather shrine, in the Capitol, on tho 
right side of that of Jupiter, while Juno's merely occupied the left. Some 
commentators think that Minerva was the only one of the deities after 
Jupiter who had the right of hurling the thunderbolt. This, however, is 
expressly contradicted by ancient coins. (Rasche, Lex. Rei Numism., 
fol. ii., pt. 1, p. 1192. Heyne, Excurs. ad Virg., j52n., 1, 42.) — 21. Proeliu 
audax Liber. The victories of Bacchus, and especially his conquest of 
India, form a conspicuous part of ancient mythology. — 22. Sccvis inimica 
Virgo bclluis. Diana. Compare her Greek epithets SqpoKTovoc and 
lox£(iipa. — 25. Alciden. Hercules, the reputed grandson of Alcaeus. — 
Puerosque Lcdce. Castor and Pollux. — 26. Hunc. Alluding to Castor 
Compare the Homeric Kuaropa Irnroda/xov. (II., 3, 237.) — Ilium. Pollux. 
Compare the Homeric ivvt; uyadbv HoTivdevKea. (II., I. c.) — Pugnis. 
"In pugilistic encounters," literally, "with fists." Ablative oipugnua. 

27-35. 27. Quorum simul alba, &c. "As soon as the propitious star 
of each of whom," &c. Alba is here used not so much in the sense of 
lucida and clara, as in that of purum ac sercnum caelum reddens. Com- 
pare the expression Albus Notus (Ode i., 7, 15), and Explanatory Notes 
on Ode i., 3, 2. — 29. Agitatus humor. "The foaming water." — 31. Ponto 
recumbit. " Subsides on the surface of the deep." — 34. Pompili. Numa 
Pompilius.- -Superbos Tarquini fasces. "The splendid fasces of Tarquin- 
ius," i. e., the splendid and energetic reign of Tarquinius Priscus. Some 
commentators refer these words to Tarquinius Superbus, but with less 
propriety. The epithet superbos has the same force here as in Ode i., 35 
' --35 Cafotiis nobile lehi.m. The allusion is to the yonnger "ato, wh* 



28U EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE Xl\. 

put an end to his own existence at Utica. The poet calls his deatti a no 
bleone, without any tear of incurring the displeasure of Augustas, whoso 
policy it was to profess an attachment to the ancient forms of the repub- 
lic, and a regard for its defenders. Cunningham conjectures Juniifascet, 
making the allusion to be to the first Brutus. Beutley, again, thinking 
Calonis too bold, proposes Curti, as referring to Curtius, who devoted 
himself for his country by plunging into the gulf or chasm at Rome. 

• 
37-41. 37. Regtdum. Compare Ode iii., 5, where the story of Regulus 
is touched upon. — Scauros. The house of the Scauri gave many distin- 
guished men to the Roman republic. The most eminent among them 
were If. iEmiliua Belarus, p r inc e ps senatns, a nobleman of great ability, 
and his son II. Scaurus. The former held the consulship A.U.C. 639. Sal- 
l'ist gives an unfavorable account of him (.hi?., 15). Cicero, on the other 
bond, highly extols his virtues, abilities, and achievements [Dc Off., 1, 22 
Brut., 29. Orat. pro Murcrna, 7). Sallust's account is evidently 
tinged with the party-spirit of the day. — 38. Paullum. Paullus jEmilius, 
consul with Terentius Varro, and defeated, along with his colleague, by 
Hannibal, in the disastrous battle of Cannae. — Pccno. "The Carthagin 
iau." Hannibal. — 40. Fabricium. C. Fabricius Luscinus, the famed op- 
ponent of Pyrrhus and of the Samnites. It was of him Pyrrhus declared 
that it would be more difficult to make him swerve from his integrity than 
to turn the sun from its course. (Compare Cic, de Off., 3, 22. Val. Max. 
4, 3.) — 41. Incomtis Curium capillis. Alluding to Mauius Curius Dcnta 
tus, the conqueror of Pyrrhus. The expression incomtis capillis refer* 
bo the simple and austere manners of the early Romans. 

42-41. 42. CamUlum. M. Furius Camillus, the liberator of his coun 
try from her Gallic invaders. — 13. Sdva paupcrtas. "A life of hardy pri 
\ ation." i. c, a life of privation, inuring to toil and hardship. Paupcrtas 
retains here its usual force, implying, namely, a want not of the neces- 
saries, but of the comforts of life. — Et avitus apto cum lare fundus. " And 
an hereditary estate, with a dwelling proportioned to it." The idea in- 
tended to be conveyed is, that Curius and Camillus, in the midst of scanty 
resources, proved far more useful to their country than if they had been 
the owners of the most extensive possessions, or the votaries of luxury. 

45—47. 45. Crescit occulto, &c. "The fame of Marcellus increases like 
a tree amid the undistinguished lapse of time." The term Marcclli here 
contains a double allusion, first to the celebrated M. Claudius Marcellus 
the conqueror of Syracuse, and opponent of Hannibal, and secondly to the 
young Marcellus, the son of Octavia, and nephew of Augustus The fame 
of the earlier Marcellus, increasing secretly though steadily in the lapse 
of ages, is now beginning to bloom anew in the young Marcellus, and to 
promise a harvest of fresh glory for the Roman name. — 46. Micat infer 
umnes, &c. The young Marcellus is here compared to a bright star, il- 
luming with its effulgence the Julian line, and forming the hope and 
glory of that illustrious house. He married Julia, the daughter of Augus 
tus. and was publicly intended as the successor of that emperor, but his 
early death, at the age of eighteen, frustrated all these hopes and pin 
rhe Ltomati world in mourning. Virgil beautifully alludes to him ;it the 
'liwe ol the sixth book oi the £neid. — JuHnm sidus. TV star 



■EXPLANATORY NOTES. — BOOK [., ODE X 1 1 1 . 28] 

Julian lino," »'. c, the glory of the Julian house, commencing with Cmsai; 
and perpetuated in Augustus. — 17. Ignet minor**. "The foetler fires oi 

the night " The stars. 

50-54. 50. Ortt Satvrmo. Jupiter, the Greek Kpovluv. — 51. Tu secu it- 
do C^BSart regneg. " Reign thou (in the heavens) with Cesar as thy vice- 
gerent (uj)on earth)," i. e., Grant, I pray, that thou mayest so parcel out 
thy empire as to sway thyself the sceptre of the skies, and allow Augus- 
tus to represent thee upon earth. Observe the employment of the sub- 
junctive for the imperative. — 53. Parthos Latio immincntcs. Horace is 
generally supposed to have composed this ode at the time that Augustus 
was preparing for an expedition against the Parthians, whom the defeat 
of Crassus, and the check sustained by Antony, had elated to such a de- 
gree, that the poet might well speak of them as "now threatening the re- 
pose of the Roman world." Latio is elegantly put for Romano impcrio. 
— r>4. Egcrit justo Iriumpho. "Shall have led along in just triumph." 
The conditions of a "Justus triumphus," in the days of the republic, were 
as follows : 1. The war must have been a just one, and waged with foreign- 
ers ; no triumph was allowed in a civil war. 2. Above 5000 of the enemy 
must have been slain in one battle (Appian says it was in his time K),000). 
3. By this victory the limits of the empire must have been enlarged. 

55-60. 55. Subjectos Orient is orce. " Lying along the borders of tho 
East," i. e., dwelling on tho remotest confines of the East. Observe that 
ores is the dative, by a Gracism for sub ora. — Seras. By the Seres are 
evidently meant the natives of China, whom an overland trade for silk had 
gradually, though imperfectly, made known to the western nations.— 
57. Te minor. " Inferior to thee alone." Understand solo. — 59. Paruvi 
castis. " Polluted." Alluding to the corrupt morals of the day. The an- 
cients had a belief that lightning never descended from the skies except 
on places stained by some pollution. 



Ode XIII. Addressed to Lydia, with whom the poet had veiy proba 
t»ly quarrelled, and whom he now seeks to turn away from a passion foi 
Telephus. He describes the state of his own feelings, when praises are 
bestowed by her whom he loves on the personal beauty of a hated rival ; 
and, while endeavoring to cast suspicion upon the sincerity of the la.ter's 
passion for her, he descants upon the joys of an uninterrupted union found- 
ed on the sure basis of mutual affection. 

2-8. 2. Cervicem roseam. " The rosy neck." Compare Virgil (sEn. 
1, 402) : "Rosea cervice refulsit." — 3. Cerea brackia. The epithet cerea> 
"waxen," carries with it the associate ideas of whiteness, glossy sur- 
face, &.C., the allusion being to the white wax of antiquity. Bentley, how 
ever, rejects cerea, and reads lactea. — Telephi. The name is purposely 
repeated, to indicate its being again and again on the lips of Lydia.—* 
Difficili bile. "With choler difficult to be repi-essed." The liver was 
held to be the seat of all violent passions. — 6. Manent. The plural is here 
employed, as equivalent to the double maiiet. It is given, likewise by 
Orelli, and has also strong MS. authority in its favor. Bentley, however, 
orefers manet. o^ account of the preceding nee . .. «. J c, and Ic vjrthena ti»-- 



282 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE XIV. 

final syllable of manet by the arsis. Compare Zumpf, § 374, and the pas 
Bage cited from Pliny, Paneg., 75. — Humor et in genas, &c. " And tha 
tear steals silently down my cheeks." — 8. Lentis ignibus. " By the slow- 
consuming fires." 

9-20. 9. Uror. " I am tortured at the sight." Equivalent to adspectu 
crucior.— lO. Immodicce mero. "Rendered immoderate by wine." — 12. 
Mcmorem. "As a memorial of his passion." — 13. Si me satis audias 
" If you give heed to me." If you still deem my words worthy of your at- 
tention. — 14. Perpetuum. "That he will prove constant in his attach- 
ment." Understand fore. — Dulcia barbare Icedentem oscula. "Who bar 
barously wounds those sweet lips, which Venus has imbued with the fifth 
part of all her nectar." Each god, observes Porson, was supposed to 
have a given quantity of nectar at disposal, and to bestow the fifth or the 
tenth part of this on any individual was a special favor. The common, 
but incorrect interpretation of quinta parte is " with the quintessence." — 
16. Irrupta copula. " An indissoluble union." — 20. Suprema die. "The 
last day of their existence." Observe that suprema citius die is an un 
usual construction for citius quam suprema die. 



Ode XIV. Addressed to the vessel of the state, just escaped from tno 
stormy billows of civil commotion, and in danger of being again exposed 
to the violence of the tempest. This ode appears to have been composed 
at the time when Augustus consulted Maecenas and Agrippa whether he 
should resign or retain the sovereign authority. Some, however, refer it 
to the dissensions between Octavianus and Antony, B.C. 32, which nre 
ceded the battle of Actium. In either case, however, the allegory must 
not be too closely pressed. 

1-8. 1. O navis, rcferunt, dec. " O ship ! new billows are beariny 
thee back again to the deep." The poet, in his alarm, supposes the ves 
eel {i. e., his country) to be already amid the waves. By the term navis 
his country is denoted, which the hand of Augustus had just rescued from 
the perils of shipwreck ; and by mare the troubled and stormy waters of 
civil dissension are beautifully pictured to the view. — 2. Novi Jluctus. 
Alluding to the commotions which must inevitably arise if Augustas aban- 
dons the helm of affairs. — 3. Portum. The harbor here meant is the tran- 
quillity which was beginning to prevail under the government of Augus- 
tus. — Ut nudum remigio latus. "How bare thy side is of oars." — 6. Ac 
sinefunibus carina. "And thy hull, withoat cables to secure it." Some 
commentators think that the poet alludes to the practice common among 
the ancients of girding their vessels with cables in violent storms, in order 
to prevent the planks from starting asunder. In carina we have the plu- 
ral used emphatically for the singular, and intended to designate every 
part of the hull. A similar usage occurs even in Cicero : " Quid tarn in 
narigio necessarium quam latera, quam carina?, quam prora, quam pup- 
pis ?" [De Or., iii., 46) where some, less correctly, read cavernai. — Pos- 
sunt. We have not hesitated to read gemunt and possunt, on good MS 
authority, as far more graphic than gemant and possint, the reading of 
a'any editions. Ev ^n Bentley approves of the indicative here, though ho 
doe3 not edit it — 8 Imperiosins a>quor. " The increasing violence of ►be 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK. I., OIJE XV. 283 

sea.' - Tne comparative describes the sea as growing every moment 
more an] more violent. 

10-13. 10. Di. Alluding to the tutelary deities, Neptune, or Castor 
and Pollux, whose images were accustomed to be placed, together with 
a small altar, in the stern of the vessel. The figurative meaning of the 
poet presents to us the guardian deities of Rome offended at the sangui- 
nary excesses of the civil wars, and determined to withhold their protect- 
ing influence if the state should be again plunged into anarchy and confu- 
sion. — 11. Pontica pinus. "Of Pontic pine." The pine of Pontus was 
hard and durable, and of great value in ship-building. Yet the vessel of 
the state is warned by the poet not to rely too much upon the strength of 
her timbers. — 12. Silvce/ilia nobilis. "The noble daughter of the forest." 
A beautiful image, wbich Martial appears to have imitated (xiv., 90) : 
"Non sum Maureefdia silvce." — 13. Et genus et nomen inutile. "Both 
thy lineage and unavailing fame." The idea intended to be conveyed by 
the whole clause is as follows : " Idle, O my country ! will be the boast 
of thy former glories, and the splendor of thy ancient name " 

14-20. 14. Pictis puppibus. Besides being graced with the statues of 
the tutelaxy deities, the stfcrns of ancient vessels were likewise embel- 
lished, on the outside, with paintings and other ornaments. Hence Homer 
occasionally calls ships /uiXroTrdpyot, " red-cheeked." A purple color was 
also sometimes employed. — 15. Nisi debes ventis ludibrium. "Unless 
thou art doomed to be the sport of the winds." An imitation of the Greek 
idiom, ofatlv yeTiura. — 17. Nuper sollicitum, &c. " Thou who wast lately 
a source of disquietude and weariness to me, who at present art an object 
of fond desire and strong apprehension," &c. The expression sollicitum 
tcedium refers to the unquiet feelings which swayed the bosom of the poet 
during the period of the civil contest, and to the weariness and disgust 
which the long continuance of those scenes produced in his breast. Under 
the sway of Augustus, however, his country again becomes the idol of his 
warmest affections (desiderium), and a feeling of strong apprehension 
[cur a non levis) takes possession of him, lest he may again see her in- 
volved in the horrors of civil war. — 20. Nitentcs Cycladas. u The Cycla- 
des, conspicuous from afar." The epithet nitentes appears to refer, not so 
much to the marble contained in most of these islands, as to the circum- 
stance of its appearing along the coasts of many of the group, and render- 
ing them conspicuous objects at a distance. (Compare Vanderbourg 
ad loc.) 



Ode XV. This ode is thought to have been composed on the breaking 
out of the last civil war between Octavianus and Antony. Nereus, the 
sea-god, predicts the ruin of Troy at the very time that Paris bears Helen 
over the iEgean Sea from Sparta. Under the character cf Paris, the poet, 
according to some commentators, intended to represent the infatuated An- 
tony, whose passion for Cleopatra he foretold would be attended with the 
same disastrous consequences as that of the Trojan prince for Helen ; and 
by the Grecian heroes, whom Nereus, in imagination, beholds combined 
against Ilium, Horace, it has been said, represerts the leaders of the par 
ty of Augustus 



254 EXPLANATORY NOTES.- -UOOK I., OUJE XV. 

1-4. 1. Pastor. Paris, whose early life was spent among the shop 
herds of Mount Ida, in consequence of his mother's fearful dream. Sana- 
Jon, who is one of those that attach an allegorical meaning to this ode, 
thinks that the allusion to Antony commences with the very first word of 
the poem, since Antony was one of the Luperci, or priests of Pan, the god 
of shepherds. — Traherct. "Was bearing forcibly away." Horace here 
follows the authority of those writers who make Helen to have been car- 
ried off by Paris against her will. (Compare Ovid, Ilcr., xvii., 21.) Some 
commentators, however, make traherct here the same as raperet, i. e., 
tanquam pradam sccum abducerct ; while others, again, regard the term 
as equivalent to lenta navigatione circumduceret, since Paris, according 
to one of the scholiasts and Eustathius, did not go directly from Lacedae- 
mon to Troy, but, in apprehension of being pursued, sailed to Cyprus, 
Phoenicia, aird Egypt. — Savibus Idceis. "In vessels made of the timber 
of Ida." — 3. Ingrato otio. " In an unwelcome calm." Unwelcome, say 
the commentators, to the winds themselves, which are ever restless, and 
ever love to be in motion. Hence they are styled by iEschylus nanocxo- 
7i0i. — 4. Ut caneret j "era fata. "That he might foretell their gloomy des- 
tinies." 

5-12. 5. Mala avi. "Under evil omens.* Compare Ode hi., 3, 61, 
" aide lugubri ;" and Epod. x., 1, " mala alitc." — 7. Conjurata tuas rum- 
pcre nnptias, &c. " Bound by a common oath to sever the union between 
thee and thy loved one, and to destroy the ancient kingdom of Priam." 
A Graecism for qua conjuravit se rupturam. The term nuptias is hero 
used, not in its ordinary sense, but with reference to the criminal loves of 
Paris and Helen. — 9. Quantus sudor. "What toil." — 10. Quanta funera. 
"What carnage." — 11. sEgida. "Her aegis." In Homer, the aegis (ai- 
yic) is the shield of Jove, which Minerva sometimes bears (//., v., 738), 
and this signification is retained by Seneca [Here. Fur., 905). At a later 
period, it is Minerva's corselet (Eurip., Ion, 1012, cd. Herm. Ovid, Met., 
vi., 17). The term is used in this last sense on the present occasion. — 
i2. Et rabiem parat. " And is kindling up her martial fury." The zeug- 
ma in parat, and the air of conciseness which it imparts to the style, are 
peculiarly striking. 

13-19. 13. Veneris prcesidio ferox. "Proudly relying on the aid oi 
Venus." This goddess favored him, since to her he had adjudged tho 
prize of beauty over Juno and Minerva. — 14. Grataque feminis, &c. "And 
distribute pleasing strains among women on the unmanly lyre." The ex- 
pression carmina dividere feminis means nothing more than to execute 
different airs for different females in succession. This is Doring's explana- 
tion, and is adopted by Dillenburger. Orelli's interpretation appears stiff 
and far-fetched. It is as follows : " Cantus vocalis et cithara soni inter se 
conjuncti totam efficiunt symphoniam ; jam singulatim ipectalis his par- 
tibus, aoidrjv dividit citharm cantus, aotdr/ citharai sonos, id est, altera 
utra dimidia totius symphonies pars est." The allegorical meaning is con- 
sidered by some as being still kept up in this passage : Antony, according 
to Plutarch, lived for a time at Samcs with Cleopatra, in the last excesses 
of luxury, amid the delights of music and song, while all the world around 
were terrified with apprehensions of a civil war. — 16. Thalamo. " In thy 
bed-chamber," i. e., by seeking shelter therein.— 17. Calami spicula Cno- 



EXPLANATORY" NOTES. BOOK I., ODE XV) 285 

tii. Cnosui was one of the oldest and most important cities of Crete, sit- 
uate on the River Cssratns. Hence C/iosius is taken by synecdoche in 
the sense of "Cretan." The inhabit ants of Crete were famed for their skill 
in archery. The oorreot form of the name of the city is Cnosut, as appear* 
from coins [Eckhel, Doclr. Num., ii., p. 307), not Cnossus, or QnOSSUS, as 
commonly written. Hence the true form of the gentile adjective is 
Cnosius, not Cnossius or Gtiossius. — 18. Strepitumque, ct celerem teqw 
Ajaccm. "And the din of battle, and Ajax swift in pursuit." The ex 
pression eclerem scqui is a Groecism for celerem ad tequendum. The Oilcan 
Ajax is here meant, who was famed for his swiftness, and whom Homci 
calls 'Q/./b/oc Taxi'C Alac. {II-, ii., 527.) — 19. Tamcn. This particle is 
to bo referred to quamvis, which is implied in scrus, i. e., quamvis tents, 

tamen collines. "Though late in the conflict, still," <xc. Paris was 

slain in the last year of the war by one of the arrows of Philoctetes. 

21-28. 21. Lacrtiaden. " The son of Laertes." Ulysses. The Greek 
form of the patronymic (Aaepriudrjc) comes from Aatprcoc, for Aakprrjc. 
(Matthice, G. G., vol. i., p. 130.) The skill and sagacity of Ulysses were 
among the chief causes of the downfall of Troy. — 22. Pylium Nestora 
There are three cities named Pylos in the Peloponnesus, two in Elis and 
one in Messenia, and all laid claim to the honor of being Nestor's birth- 
place. Strabo is in favor of the Triphylian Pylos, in the district of Tri 
phylia, in Elis. (Compare Heync, ad II., 4, 591 ; 11, 681.) — 23. Salaminius, 
Teuccr. Teucer, son of Telamon, king of Salamis, and brother of Ajax. — 
84. Teucer. A trochee in the first place, to avoid which some read Teucer 
*e in place of Teucer et. — StJienelus. Son of Capaneus, and charioteer of 
Diomede. — 26. Merionen. Charioteer of Idomeneus, king of Crete. — 
28. Tydides mclior patre. "The son of Tydeus, in arms superior to his 
sire." Horace appears to allude to the language of Sthenelus (//., 4, 405) in 
defending himself and Diomede from the reproaches of Agamemnon, when 
the latter was marshalling his forces after the violation of the truce by 
Pandarus, and thought that he perceived reluctance to engage on the part 
of Diomede and his companion. 'H/telc rot naripuv juey' u/ieivovec ev- 
XOfied' eIvcll, are the words of Sthenelus, who means that they, the Epi- 
goni, were braver than their sires, for they took the city of Thebes, befor« 
which their fathers had fallen. 

29-35. 29. Quern tu, cervus, &c. " Whom, as a stag, unmindful of its 
pasture, flees from a wolf seen by it in the opposite extremity of some 
valley, thou, effeminate one, shalt flee from with deep pantings, not hav- 
ing promised this to thy beloved." Compare Ovid, Her., 16, 356. — 33. Ira- 
cunda diem, &c. Literally, "The angry fleet of Achilles shall protract 
the day of destruction for Ilium," &c, i. e., the anger of Achilles, who re- 
tired to his fleet, shall protract, &c. — 35. Post certas hiemes. "After a 
destined period of years." — Ignis lliacas domos. We have here a tro 
chee in the first place, as in line 24. Some editors, in order to bring in 
the spondee, read Pergameas, which makes an awkward change from 
[Ho in line 33. Witbofius, with much more taste proposes barbarioas . 



Ode XVI. Horace, in early life, had written some severe verses against 
a your.f female. He now retracts his injurious expressions, and Jays the 



£86 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE XVI. 

blame on the ardent and impetuous feelings of youth. The odo turns 
principally on the fatal effects of unrestrained anger. An old comme ntator 
informs us that the name of the female was Gratidia, and that she is the 
same with the Canidia of the Epodes. Acron and Porphyrion call her 
Tyndaris, whence some have been led to infer that Gratidia, whoni Horace 
attacked, was the parent, and that, being now in love with her daughter 
Tyndaris, he endeavors to make his peace with the former by giving up his 
injurious verses to her resentment. Acron, however, farther states, that 
Horace, in his Palinodia, imitates Stesichorus, who, having lost his sight 
aa a punishment for an ode against Helen, made subsequently a full re- 
cantation, and was cured of his blindness. Now, as Tyndaris was the 
patronymic appellation of Helen, why may not the Roman poet have 
merely transferred this name from the Greek original to his own produo 
tion, without intending to assign it any particular meaning ? 

2-5. 2. Criminosis iambis. "To my injurious iambics." The iambic 
measure was peculiarly adapted for satirical effusions. In the heroic 
hexameter, which preceded it, there was a measured movement, with its 
arsis and thesis of equal lengths ; whereas in the iambic versification the 
arsis was twice as long as the thesis, and therefore its light, tripping 
character was admirably adapted to express the lively play of wit and 
sarcasm. — 4. Mari Hadriano. The Adriatic is here put for water general- 
ly'. The ancients were accustomed to cast whatever they detested either 
into the flames or the water. — 5. Non Dindymene, &c. "Nor Cybele, 
nor the Pythian Apollo, god of prophetic inspiration, so agitate the minds 
of their priesthood in the secret shrines, Bacchus does not so shake the 
soul, nor the Corybantes when they strike with redoubled blows on the 
shrill cymbals, as gloomy anger rages." Understand quatiunt with Cory- 
bantes and ira respectively, and observe the expressive force of the zeug- 
ma. The idea intended to be conveyed is, when divested of its poetic 
attire, simply this : "Nor Cybele, nor Apollo, nor Bacchus, nor the Cory- 
bantes, can shake the soul as does the power of anger." — Dindymene 
The goddess Cybele received this name from being worshipped on Mount 
Dindymus, near the city of Pessiuus in Galatia, a district of Asia Minor 
She was worshipped with wild and orgiastic rites. 

6-11. 6. Incola Pythius. The term incola beautifully expresses the 
prophetic inspiration of the god : "habitans quasi in pectore." — 8. Cory- 
bantes. The Corybantes were the enthusiastic priests of Cybele, who 
with drums, cymbals, horns, and in full armor, performed their orgiastic 
dances in the forests and on the mountains of Phrygia. — 9. Noricus ensis. 
The iron of Noricum was of an excellent quality, and hence the expression 
Noricus ensis is used to denote the goodness of a sword. Noricum, after 
its reduction under the Roman sway, corresponded to the modern Carin- 
tkia, Styria, Salzburg, and part of Austria and Bavaria. — 11. Savut 
ignis. " The unsparing lightning." The fire of the skies. — Nee trcmendi\ 
&c. " Nor Jove himself, rushing down with fearful thunderings." Com- 
pare the Greek expression Zci>c Ka~ai{3dr'>c, applied to Jove hurling his 
thunderbolts. 

13-16. 13. Fertur Prometheus, &c. According to the legend here fol 
lowed by Horace, it appears that Prometheus, or his brother Epirr.ctheua 






EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK 1., ODE XVI. 287 

naving exhausted his stock of materials in the formation of other animals, 
was compelled to take a part from each of them (particulam undiqut dc 
sectam), and added it to the clay which formed the primitive element of 
man {principi limo). Hence the origin of angei, Prometheus having 
" placed in our hreast the wild rage of the lion" {insani leonis vim, 1. e., 
tnsanam leonis vim). Whonce Horace borrowed this legend is uncertain, 
probably from some Greek poet. The creation of the human race out 
of clay by Prometheus is unknown to Homer and Hesiod, and can not 
be traced higher than Ennna. (Anthol. Pal., i., p. 301, cp., 352.) The 
uvdoc of Prometheus, as given by Protagoras in the Platonic dialogue ol 
that name (p. 320), approaches very nearly to it. — 16. Stomaclw. The tei'm 
slomachus properly denotes the canal through which aliment descends 
into the stomach : it is then taken to express the upper o ,- ifice of the 
stomach (compare the Greek napdia), and finally the ventricle in which 
the food is digested. Its reference to anger or choler arises from the cir- 
cumstance of a great number of nerves being situated about the uppei 
orifice of the stomach, which render it very sensitive; and fi'om thence also 
proceeds the great sympathy between the stomach, head, and heart. 

17-18. 17. Iras. "Angry contentions," i. e., the indulgence of angry 
feelings between the brothers Atreus and Thyestes. — Thycsten exilio 
gravi straverc. These words, besides containing a general allusion to the 
'ruined fortunes of Thyestes, have also a special reference to his having 
been made to banquet, unconsciously, upon the flesh of his own sons. — 18. 
Et altis urbibus, Sec. " And have been the primary cause to lofty cities 
why," See. A Grrecism for et xdtimae ste.tere causce cur altce urbes fundi- 
tus perirent. "And have ever been the primary cause why lofty cities 
perished from their very foundations," i. e., have been utterly destroyed. 
Compare, as regards the epithet ultimee, the explanation of Orelli : " ab 
ultimo initio repetitce, et propterea prcecipuce." The expression altis ur- 
bibus is in accordance with the Greek, ainv nroXiedpov, tto/Uc alnei^. 
The elegant use of stetere for exstitere or fuere must be no'ced. It carries 
with it theaccompanying idea of something fixed and ,ertain. Comparo 
Virgil (jEn., vii., 735) : " Slant belli causa;." 

20-27. 20. Imprimeretque muris, &c. Alluding to the custom, preva- 
lent among the ancients, of drawing a plough over the ground previously 
occupied by the walls and buildings of a captured and ruined city, and 
sowing salt, as the type of barrenness, in the furrows. — 22. Compescc 
mentem. "Restrain thy angry feelings." — Pectoris tentavit fervor. "The 
glow of resentment seized." Literally, " made trial of." The poet lays 
the blame of his injurious effusion on the intemperate feelings of youth, 
which hurried him away. — 24. Celeres iambos. " The rapid iambics/ 
The rapidity of this measure rendered it peculiarly fit to give expression 
to angry feelings. Compare note on " criminosis iambis," v. 2, and also 
the Epistle to the Pisos, v. 251. — 25. Mitibus mutare tristia. " To ex 
change bitter taunts for soothing strains." Mitibus, though, when render 
ed into our idiom, it has the appearance of a dative, is in reality the ab 
lative, as being the instrument of exchange. — 27. Recantatis opprobriis 
"My injurious expressions t>eing recanted." — Aninum. "My peace o* 
mind." 



288 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE XVII. 

Ode XVII. Horace, having in the last ode made his peace with Tyu 
aaris, now invites ner to his Sabine farm, where she will find retirement 
and security fro.n the brutality of Cyras, who had treated her with un 
manly rudeness and cruelty. In order the more certainly to induce an ac 
ceptance of his offer, he depicts in attractive colors the salubrious position 
of his rural retreat, the tranquillity which reigns there, and the favoring 
protection extended to him by Faunus and the other gods. 

1-4. 1. Velox amcenum, &c. " Ofttimcs Faunus, in rapid flight, changes 
Mount Lycaeus for the fair Lucretilis." Lyc<zo is here the ablative, as de- 
noting the instrument by which the change is made. They who-make 
this an hypallage for Lucretili . . . Lycamm, confound the English idiom 
with the Latin. — Lucrctilcm. Lucretilis w r as a mountain in the country 
of the Sabincs, and amid its windings lay the farm of the poet. It is now 
Monte Libretti. — 2. Lyccco. Mount Lycams was situated in the south- 
western angle of Arcadia, and was sacred to Faunus or Pan. — Faunus. 
Faunus, the god of shepherds and fields among the Latins, appears to 
have become gradually identified with the Pan of the Greeks. — 3. Defend/it. 
"Wards off." — 4. Pluviosque ventos. "And the rainy winds." The poet 
sufficiently declares the salubrious situation of his Sabine farm, when he 
6peaks of it as being equally sheltered from the fiery heats of summer, 
and the rain-bearing winds, the sure precursors of disease. 

5-17. 5. Arbutos. Compare the note on Ode i., 1, 21. — 6. Thyma. The 
thyme of the ancients is not our common thyme, but the thymus capitatus, 
qui Dioscoridis, which now grows in great plenty on the mountains of 
Greece. — 7. Olcntis uxorcs mariti. "The wives of the fetid husband." 
A periphrasis for copra. — 0. Ncc Martialcs Htzdilice lupos. "Nor the 
fierce wolves of Hajdilia." It appears from a gloss appended to one of the 
earliest MSS., that Haedilia was a mountain in the vicinity of the poet's 
farm, infested by wolves. All the MSS. have Had ilia ; but the copyists, 
not understanding the meaning of the term, changed it to hinnulea, which 
last, Bentley, by an ingenious emendation, and guided by analogy, altered 
into the new word hadulea, " young female kids." The restoration of the 
true reading of the MSS. was made by Orelli. The epithet Martiales, as 
applied to lupos, has a double meaning, since it indicates the wolf not only 
as a fierce and savage animal, but also one sacred to Mars. — 10. Utcunque. 
'■' Whenever." For quandocunque. — 11. Usticce cubantis. "Of the low- 
King Ustica," i. e., gently sloping. This was a small mountain near the 
poet's farm. — 12. Levia. In the sense of at tr it a, "worn smooth by the 
mountain rills." — 14. Hie tibi copia, &c. " Here plenty, rich in rural hon- 
ors, shall flow in to thee, from benignant bom filled to the very brim." A 
figurative allusion to the horn of Plenty. — 17. In reducta valle. " In a 
winding vale." — Canicular. We translate this term by "the dog-stai\" 
without specifying whether we mean Sirius, the great dog-star, or Pro- 
cyon, the little dog-star. It may, however, be either, since their heliacal 
risings do not differ by many days. But, strictly speaking, canicula is 
Procyon, and the dies caniculares, or classical " dog-days," are the twenty 
days preceding and the twenty days following the heliacal rising of Ca- 
nicula. 

18-21. 18. Fide Tt id " On the Telan lyre," i. e. in Amvceontic stri ; u 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE ;£VTI. 28U 

Anacrcon was bom at Toos, in Asia Minor. — 19. Laborantes in uno, 
" Striving for one and toe same hero," i. c, Ulysses. Laborantes is ex- 
tremely graphic here, and implies that anxious state of feeling which they 
who love are wont to experience. — 20. Vitrcamque Circen. "And glass- 
'.ike Circe," i. c, as bright and dazzling, but, at the same time, as frail 
and as unworthy of reliance as glass. Compare Sat., ii., 3, 222 : " Vitrea 
fama." — 21. Innoccntis Lesbii. The Lesbian wine would seem to have 
possessed a delicious flavor, for it is said to have deserved the name of 
ambrosia rather than of wine, and to have been like nectar when old. 
(Athenccus, i., 22.) Horace terms the Lesbian an innocent or unintoxicat- 
Uig wine ; but it was the prevailing opinion among the ancients that all 
Bweet wines were less injurious to the head, and less apt to cause intox 
ication, than the strong dry wines. Consult Excu rsus VII. 

22-27. 92. Duces. "Thou shalt quaff." — 23. Semcleius IViyoncn*. 
"Bacchus, offspring of Semele." This deity received the name of Thyo- 
neus, according to the common account, from Thyone, an appellation of 
Semele. It is more probable, however, that the title in question was de- 
rived from &vu, "to rage," "to rush wildly." — 24. Nee mctucs protervum, 
fcc. "Nor shalt thou, an object of jealous suspicion, fear the rude Cyrus.' 
—25. Male dispart. " 111 fitted to contend with him." — 26. Incontinentes 
•Rash," "violent." — 27. Coronam. Previous to the introduction of the 
second course, the guests were provided with chaplets of leaves or flow- 
ers, which they placed on their foreheads or temples, and occasionally, 
also, on their cups. Perfumes were at the same time offered to such as 
chose to anoint their face and hands, or have their garlands sprinkled with 
them. This mode of adorning their persons, which was borrowed from 
the Asiatic nations, obtained so universally among the Greeks and Ro- 
mans, that, by almost every author after the time of Homer, it is spoken 
of as the nocessaiy accompaniment of the feast. It is said to have origi 
nated from a belief that the leaves of certain plants, as the ivy, myrtle, 
and laurel, or certain flowers, as the violet and rose, possessed the power 
of dispersing the fumes and counteracting the noxious effects of wine. On 
this account the ivy has been always held sacred to Bacchus, and formed 
the basis of the wreaths with which his images, and the heads of his wor- 
shippers, were enchcled ; but, being deficient in smell, it was seldom em- 
ployed for festal garlands, and in general the preference was given to the 
myrtle, which, in addition to its cooling or astringent qualities, was sup- 
posed to have an exhilarating influence on the mind. On ordinary occa- 
sions, the guests were contented with simple wreaths from the latter 
shrub ; but, at their gayer entertainments, its foliage was entwined with 
roses and violets, or such other flowers as were in season, and recom- 
mended themselves by the beauty of their colors or the fragrance of their 
smell. Much taste was displayed in the arrangement of these garlands, 
which was usually confided to female hands ; and, as the demand for them 
was great, the manufacture and sale of them became a distinct branch of 
Irrade. To appear in a disordered chaplet was reckoned a sign of inebri- 
ety ; and a custom prevailed of placing a garland, confusedly put together 
{xvfiaiov ortcpavov), on the heads of such as were guilty of excess in their 
cups. (Ffenders on' s History o "Ancient and Modern Wines, p. 119, $eaq ) 



W 



290 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE XV1JI. 

Oj»e XVIII. Varus, the Epicurean, and friend of Augustus, of whom 
mention is made by Q.uintilian (6, 3, 78), being engaged in setting out 
trees along his Tiburtine possessions, is advised by the poet to give the 
" sacred vine" the preference. Amid the praises, however, which he be- 
stows on the juice of the grape, the bard does not forget to inculcate a 
useful lesson as to moderation in wine. The Varus to whom this ode is 
addressed must not be confounded with the individual of the same name 
who killed himself in Germany after his disastrous defeat by Arminius. 
lie is rather the poet Quintilius Varus, whose death, which happened 
AU.C. 729, Horace deplores in the 24th Ode of this book. 

1-4. 1. Sacra. The vine was sacred to Bacchus, and hence the epi- 
thet ufx-e?>o(pvT(op (" producer of the vine"), which is applied to this god. 
—Prius. "In preference to." — Scveris. The subjunctive is here used as 
a softened imperative : " Plant, I entreat." (Zumpt, § 529, note.) The 
whole of this line is imitated from Alcaeus : M^dev aA/lo QvTEvoyc TTpore- 
oov divdpeov up.~i/.u. — 2. Circa mile solum Tiburis. " In the soil of the 
mild Tibur, around the walls erected by Catilus." The preposition circa 
is here used with solum, as Tvepi sometimes is in Greek with the accusa- 
tive : thus, Thucyd., 6, 2, nepl Tvdaav tjjv 2iKe?.iav, "in the whole of 
Sicily, round about." The epithet mile, though in grammatical construc- 
tion with solum, refers in strictness to the mild atmosphere of Tibur. And 
lastly, the particle ct is here merely explanatory, the town of Tibur hav 
ing been founded by Tiburtus, Coras, and Catillus or Catilus, sons of Ca- 
tillus, and grandsons of Amphiaraus. Some commentators, with less pro- 
priety, render mite solum "the mellow soil," and others "the genial soil." 
The true idea is given by Braunhard : "Mite solum, propter aeris miliar is 
tempericm." — 3. Stccis omnia nam dura, Sec. "For the deity has made 
all things appear difficult to those who abstain from wine." More literal- 
ly, "has placed all things as difficult before the view of those," «5cc. Tho 
meaning is simply this: the deity has made all those things, which they 
who refrain from wine undertake, appear to them as burdensome and 
difficult. — 4. Mordaces sollicitudines. "Gnawing cares." — Aliler. "By 
any other means," i. e., by the aid of any other remedy than wine. 

5-8. 5. Post vina. "After free indulgence in wine." The plural im- 
parts additional force to the term. — Crepat. "Talks of." The verb in 
this line conveys the idea of complaint, and is equivalent to "rails at," or 
'decries." In the succeeding verse, however, where it is understood, it 
implies encomium. — 6. Quis non te potius, &c. "Who is not rather loud 
in thy praises." Understand crepat. — Deceits Venus. " Lovely Venus.' 
— 7. Modici munera Liberi. "The gifts of moderate Bacchus," i. e., mod 
eration in wine. The appellation Liber, as applied to Bacchus, is a trans 
lation of the Greek epithet Avaloc, and indicates the deity who frees th# 
soul from cares. — 8. Centaurea monet, <5cc. Alluding to the well-knowa 
conflict between the Centaurs and Lapithae, which arose at the nuptials 
of Pirithous, king of the Lapithae, and Hippodamia. — Superme.ro. " Ovei 
their wine." Merum denotes wine in its pure and most potent state, un 
mixed with water. The Greeks and Romans generally drank their wines 
diluted with water. Tk3 dilution varied according to the taste of the 
drinkers, and the strength of the liquor, from one part of wine and foui 
of water, to two of wine and four or else five parts of water, -which last 
seems to have been the favorite mixture. Compare Excursus IX. 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE XVIIC. 291 

9-10. 9. Sithoniis non Icci*. " Unpropitious to the Tliracians." A» 
lading to the intemperate habits of the Thracians, and the stern influenco 
which the god of wine was consequently said to exercise over them. Tins 
Sithoniam are here taken for the Thracians generally. In strictness, 
however, they were the inhabitants of Sithouia, one of the three penin 
Bulas of Chalcidice, subsequently incorporated into Macedonia. — Euins. 
A name of Bacchus, supposed to have originated from the cry of the Bac- 
chanalians, EVOi. Others derive the appellation from an exclamation of 
Jupiter (ey vie, " Well done, son !"), in approval of the valor displayed by 
Bacchus during the contest of the giants. — 10. Cum. fas atque nrfas, &.c. 
" When, prompted by their intemperate desires, they distinguish right 
from wrong by a narrow limit," i. c, when the only difference in their eyes 
between good and evil is marked by the feeble barrier which their own 
inclinations interpose. 

11. Non ego te candidc Bassarcu, <5cc. " I will not disturb thee against 
thy will, brightly-beauteous Bassareus." The epithet candidc is equiva- 
lent here, as Orelli remarks, to " pulchritudinc splendens." The mythol- 
ogy of the Greeks and Romans assigned perpetual youth and beauty to 
the god of wine. The epithet Bassareus, applied to Bacchus here, is de- 
rived by Creuzer from fjuaaupoc, " a fox ;" and he thinks that the garment 
called fiacGapic, worn in Asia Minor by the females who celebrated the 
rites of this deity, derived its name from its having superseded the skins 
of foxes, which the Bacchantes previously wore during the orgies. (Sy?/i- 
bolik, iii., p. 363.) In order to understand more fully the train of ideas in 
this and the following part of the ode, we must bear in mind that the poet 
now draws all his images from the rites of Bacchus. He who indulges 
moderately in the use of wine is made identical with the true and accept- 
able worshipper of the god, while he who is given to excess is compared 
to that follower of Bacchus who undertakes to celebrate his orgies in an 
improper and unbecoming manner, and who reveals his sacred mysteries 
to the gaze of the profane. On such a one the anger of the god is surfc 
to fall, and this anger displays itself in the infliction of disordered feelings, 
in arrogant and blind love of self, and in deviations from the path of in 
tegrity and good faith. The poet professes his resolution of never incur 
ring the resentment of the god, and prays, therefore (v. 13), that he may 
not be exposed to such a visitation. 

12-16. 12. Qualiam. The verb quatio has here the sense of moveo 
md alludes to the custom of the ancients in bringing forth from the tem- 
ples the statues and sacred things connected with the woiship of the gods, 
on solemn festivals. These were carried round, and the ceremony began 
by the waving to and fro of the sacred vases and utensils. — Nee variis ob- 
silafrondibus, &c " Nor will I hurry into open day the things concealed 
under various leaves." In the celebration of the festival of Bacchus, a se- 
lect number of virgins, of honorable families, called navr/QopoL, carried 
small baskets of gold, in which were concealed, beneath vine, ivy, and 
other leaves, certain sacred and mysterious things, which were not to be 
exposed to the eyes of the profane. — 13. S&va iene cum, Berecyntio, &c 
•'Cease the shrill-clashing cymbals, with the Berecyntian horn." Bere 
cyntus was a mountain in Phrygia, where Cybele was particularly wor 
s'hioped. Cymbals and horns were used at the festivals of this goddesp 



292 EXPLANATORY NOTES. bWR I., ODE XIX- 

as at those of Bacchus. — 14. Qua subscquitur, Sec. " In whose train tol 
fows." — 15. Gloria. "Foolish vanity." — Verticem vacuum. "Theempt; 
head." — 16. Arcanifid.es prodiga. "Indiscretion prodigal of secrets." 



Ode XIX. The poet, after having bid farewell to love, confesses that 
the beauty of Glycera had again made him a willing captive. Venus, 
Bacchus, and Licentia are the authors of this change, and compel him to 
abandon all graver employments. A sacrifice to the first of these deities, 
in order to propitiate her influence, now engrosses the attention of the 
bard. Borne commentators have supposed that the poet's object in com- 
posing this piece was to excuse himself to Maecenas for not having cele- 
brated in song, as the latter requested, the operations of Augustus against 
the Scythians and the Parthians. We should prefer, however, the simpler 
aud more natural explanation of the ode as a mere sportive effusion. 

1-5. 1. Mater sava Cupidinum. "The cruel mother of the Loves." 
The later poets made Venus the mother of numerous loves, who formed 
her train. — 2. Thebance Scmclcs puer. Bacchus; hence called 2f/ztvl^- 
yeve^7]c. — 3. Leaded Licentia. "Frolic License." — 5. Nitor. "The 
brilliant beauty." 

6, Pario marmorc purius. Paros was famed for its statuary marble. 
The quarries were in Mount Marpessus. For an interesting account of a 
*isil to these quarries, consult Clarke's Travels, vi., p. 134. 

8-12. 8. Et vultus nimium lubricus aspici. "And her countenance 
too dangerous to be gazed upon." Lubricus aspici is analogous to the 
Greek cfyahepbg ftXe-eadai, and lubricus, like a^aXepoc, carries with it 
the idea of something slipper}', delusive, dangerous, &c. — 9. Tota. " In 
all the strength." — 10. Cyprum. The island of Cyprus was the favorite 
abode of Venus. Here she had her celebrated Idalian grove. — Scythas. 
rty the Scythians are here meant the tribes dwelling on or near the banks 
of the Ister, and who were among the most persevering foes of the Roman 
name. Horace professes his inability to sing of Roman triumphs under 
Augustus, or to handle in any way such lofty themes, in consequence of 
the all-controlling power of love. — 11. Versis animosum, &c. " The Par- 
thian, fiercely contending on retreating steeds." Compare the language 
of Plutarch in describing the peculiar mode of fight practiced by this na- 
tion. (Vit. Crass., c. 24; ed. Hutten, vol. iii., p. 422.) 'YiitQevyov yap 
afia (3d?L?,ovTec ol Tidpdoi, nal tovto Kpdriara tzolovol //era 1,Kvdac- nai 
~o$6)Ta-6v eariv, hfivvoiitvovc Itzl rtj ou&odat, rfjc Qvyijc dipatpelv rd 
aiaxpov. " For the Parthians shot as they fled ; and this they do with a 
degree of dexterity inferior only to that of the Scythians. It is indeed an 
excellent invention, since they fight while they save themselves, and thus 
escape the disgrace of flight." — 12. Nee qua nihil attinent. Understand 
ad se. " Nor of aught that bears no relation to her sway." 

13-14. 13. Vivum cespitem. "The verdant turf." An altar of turf is 
now to be erected to the goddess. This material, one of the earliest that 
was applied to such a purpose, was generally used on occasions vrhertf 
little, previous preparation conld be made. — 14. Verbenas. "Vervain 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE XX. 21iS 

Tne Verbena of the Romans corresponds to the 'ItpolSuruvrjor Ilepio lepeuv 
of the Greeks, and to the Valeria officinalis of Linnams (Gen. 43). The 
origin of the superstitious belief attached to this plant, especially among 
the Gauls, can hardly be ascertained with any degree of certainty. One 
of the Greek names given to it above ('lepofioTuvn, "sacred plant"), showa 
Uie high estimation in which it was held by that people. The Latin ap- 
pellation is supposed to come from the Celtic Jerj'ain, from which last is 
also derived the English word "vervain." It became customary, how- 
ever, to call by the name of verbena all plants and leaves used for sacred 
purposes. Compare Scrvius, ad Virg., sEn., 12, 120 

15-16. 15. Bimimeri. " Of wine two years old." New wine was al 
ways preferred for libations to the gods. So, also, the Romans were ac 
customed to use their own, not the Greek wines, for such a purpose, the 
former being more free from any admixture of water. Hence the remark 
of Pliny (//. N., 14, 19), " Grteca vina libare nejas, quo?iiam aquam ha- 
beant. " — 16. Mactata hostia. Tacitus informs us (Hist., 2) that it was un- 
lawful for any blood to be shed on the altar of the Paphian Venus, " Sangui 
ncm arte offundere vetitum," and hence Catullus (66, 91) may be explain- 
ed: " Placabis festis luminibus \ 'enerem sanguinis expertcrn." It would 
appear, however, from other authorities, especially Martial (9, 91), that 
animal sacrifices in honor of this goddess, and for the purpose of inspect- 
ing the entrails in order to ascertain her will, were not unfrequent. The 
very historian, indeed, from whom we have just given a passage, clearly 
proves this to have been the case. (Tacit., I. c), "Hostia, ut quisque 
vovit, sed mares dcliguntur. Ccrtissimajides hadorum Jibris." The ap- 
parent contradiction into which Tacitus falls may be explained away, if 
we refer the expression " sanguinem arcs offundere vetitum" not to the 
total absence of victims, but merely to the altar of the goddess being kept 
untouched by their blood. The sacrifices usually offered to Venus would 
seem to have been white goats and swine, with libations of wine, milk, 
and honey. The language of Virgil, in describing her altars, is somewhat 
in accordance with that of Catullus : " Thure calent arce, sertisque rcccn 
tibus halantr (JEn., 1, 417.) 



Ode XX. Addressed to Maecenas, who had signified to the poet his in 
tention of spending a few days with him at his Sabine farm. Horace 
warns him that he is not to expect the generous wine which he has been 
accustomed to quaff at home ; and yet, while depreciating the quality of 
that which his own humble roof affords, he mentions a circumstance re- 
specting its age, which could not but prove peculiarly gratifying to his 
patron and intended guest. 

1-3. \. Vile Sabinum. " Common Sabine wine." The Sabine appears 
to have been a thin table-wine, of a reddish color, attaining its maturity 
in seven years. Pliny (H. N., xiv., 2) applies to it the epithets rrudum 
and austerum. — 2. Cantharis. The cantkarus was a bowl or vase fo? 
holding wine, furnished with handles, and from which the liquor was trans- 
ferred to this drinking-cups. It derived its name, according to most au 
thorities, from its being made to resemble a beetle (nuvdapoe). Some, 
however, deduce the appellation from a certain Cantharus, who was the 



4#£4 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE XX. 

mventot- jf the article. The cantharus w is peculiarly sacred to Bacchus 
— Testa. The testa, or "jar," derived its name from having been sub 
jected, when first made, to the action of fire [testa, quasi tosta, a torreo). 
The vessels for holding wine, in general use among the Greeks and Ro- 
mans, were of earthenware. — 3. Levi. "I closed up." When the wine- 
vessels were filled, and the disturbance of the liquor had subsided, the 
pavers or stoppers were secured with plaster or a coating of pitch, mixed 
with the ashes of the vine, so as to exclude all communication with the 
external air. — Datus in theatro, &c. Alluding to the acclamations with 
which the assembled audience greeted Maecenas on his entrance into the 
theatre, after having, according to most commentators, recovered from a 
dangerous malady. Some, however, suppose it to have been on occasion 
of the celebrating of certain games by Maecenas ; and others, among whom 
is Faber, refer it to the time when the conspiracy of Lepidus was detect- 
ed and crushed by the minister. (Compare Veil. Paterc, ii., 88, 3.) The 
theatre alluded to was that erected by Pompcy, prohahly after the termi- 
nation of the Mithradatic war. It was overlooked by the Vatican on the 
other side of the river, and is generally supposed to have stood in that 
part of the modern city called Campo di Fiore. 

5-9. 5. Care Mcccenas eques. " Dear Maecenas, contented with eqaes 
triau rank." We have paraphrased rather than translated eques. Mae- 
cenas, notwithstanding the height of favor and power to which he attain- 
ed under Augustus, remained ever contented with his equestrian rank. 
Hence the term eques here is meant to be peculiarly emphatic. Bentley, 
following one of his MSS., reads Clare, Maecenas, eques, in order to give 
eques an epithet ; but Care breathes more of the feeling of true friendship 
" —Patcrni fiuminis. The Tiber is meant. The ancestors of Maecenas 
were of Etrurian origin, and the Tiber belonged in part to Etruria, as it 
formed, in a great measure, its eastern and southern boundary. — 7. Vati- 
cam montis. The Vatican Mount formed the prolongation of the Janicu- 
lum toward the north, and was supposed to have derived its name from 
the Latin word vales, or vaticinium, as it was once the seat of Etruscan 
divination. — 8. Imago. " The echo." Understand vocis. — 9. Ccecubam. 
The Caecuhan wine derived its name from the CcEcubus ager, in the vicin- 
ity of Amyclae, and is described by Galen as a generous, durable wine, 
but apt to affect the head, and ripening only after a lung tenn of years. 
[Athenceus, \, 27.)— Caleno. The town of Cales, now Calvi, lay to the 
south of Teanum, in Campania. The ager Calenus was much celebrated 
for its vineyards. It was contiguous, in fact, to that famous district, so 
well known in antiquity under the name of ager Falernus, as producing 
the best wine in Italy, or, indeed, in the world. Compare Excursus VIII. 

11-12. 11. Formiani. The Formian Hills are often extolled for the 
superior wine which they produced. Formiae, now Mola di Gaeta, was 
a city of great antiquity in Latium, near Caieta. — 12. Mea temperant poc- 
ula. " Mix my cups," i. e., with water. The meaning of the whole clause 
may be best expressed by a paraphrase: "Neither the produce of the 
Falemian vines, nor that of the Formian hills, mingles in my cups with 
the tempering water." These were the drinking-cups, into which the wina 
was poured after having been diluted with water in the crater, or mixer 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. HOOK I., ODE XXI. 2U5 

Odr XXL A hymn in praise of Apollo and Diana, which has given 
rise to much diversity of opinion among the learned. Many regard it as a 
piece intended to be sung in alternate stanzas by a chorus of youths and 
maidens on some solemn festival. Acron refers it to the Saccular Games, 
and Sanadon, who is one of those that advocate this opinion, actually re- 
moves the ode from its present place and makes it a component part of 
the Saccular Hymn. Others, again, are in favor of the Ludi Apollinarcs. 
All this, however, is perfectly arbitrary. No satisfactory arguments can 
be adduced for making the present ode an amocba)an composition, nor cau 
it bo fairly proved that it was ever customary for such hymns to be sung 
in alternate chorus. Besides, there are some things in the ode directly 
at variance with such an opinion. Let us adopt, for a moment, the distri. 
bution of parts which these commentators recommend, and examine the 
result. The first line is to be sung by the chorus of youths, the second by 
the chorus of maidens, while both united sing the third and fourth. In the 
succeeding stanzas, the lines from the fifth to the eighth inclusive are as- 
signed to the youths, and from the ninth to the twelfth inclusive to the 
maidens, while the remaining lines are again sung by the double chorus. 
In order to effect this arrangement, we must change, with these critics, 
the initial Hie in the thirteenth line to Hcec, in allusion to Diana, making 
the reference to Apollo begin at hie miseram. Now, the impropriety of 
making the youths sing the praises of Diana (verses 5-8), and the maid- 
ens those of Apollo (v. 9-12), must be apparent to every unprejudiced ob- 
server, and forms, we conceive, a fatal error. Nor is it by any means a 
feeble objection, whatever grammatical subtleties may be called in to ex- 
plain it away, that motus occurs in the sixteenth line. If the concluding 
stanza is to commence with the praises of Diana as sung by the youths, 
then evidently motus should be mota, which would violate the measure. 
The conclusion, therefore, to which we are drawn, is simply this : The 
present ode is merely a private effusion, and not intended for any public 
solemnity. The poet only assumes in imagination the office of choragus, 
and seeks to instnict the chorus in the proper discharge of their general 
duties. 

1-8. 1. Dianam. Apollo and Diana, as typifying the sun and moon, 
were ranked in the popular belief among the averters of evil (Dii aver- 
runci, $eoi corf/peg, akzt-inaKoi, &c), and were invoked to ward off fam- 
ine, pestilence, and all national calamity. — 2. Intonsum Cynthium. 
"Apollo ever young." Compare the Greek uKEpGeKOfiTjv. It was cus 
tomary among the ancients for the fii*st growth of the beard to be conse- 
crated to some god. At the same time the hair of the head was also cut 
off, and offered up, usually to Apollo. Until then they wore it uncut. 
Hence the epithet intonsus (literally, "with unshorn locks"), when ap- 
plied to a deity, carries with it the idea of unfading youth. — The appella- 
tion of Cynthius is given to Apollo from Mount Cynthus in the island of 
Delos, near which mountain he was born. — 4. Dilectam penitus. " Deep- 
ly beloved." — 6. Qucecunque aut gelido, &c. "Whatsoever (foliage of 
groves) stands forth prominent to the view, either on the bleak Algidus, 
?>r," Sec. Commentators complain of tautology here ; but they forget f,hat 
nemus is strictly speaking a part, and silva a whole. — Algido. Algj'dua 
was a mountain in Latium, consecrated to "Diana and Fortune. It ap- 
pears to have been, strictly speaking, that chain which stretched from 'lie 



196 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOR I., ODE XXII. 

rear of the Alban Mount, and ran parallel to the Tusculan Hills, beinjb 
separated from them by the valley along which ran the Via Latina.— 
7. Eryman/hi. Erymanthus was a chain of mountains in Arcadia, on the 
borders of Elis, and forming one of the highest ridges in Greece. It waa 
celebrated in fable as the haunt of the savage boar destroyed by Hercu- 
les.^ — 8. Cragi. Cragus was a celebrated ridge of Lycia, in Asia Minor, 
extending along the Glaucus Sinus. The fabulous monster Chimera, said 
to have been subdued by Bellerophon, frequented this range, according to 
the poets. 



a 



9-15. 9. Tempe. Compare the note on Ode i., 7, 4. — 10. Natclem Delon 
Deloa, one of the Cyclades, and the fabled birth-place of Apollo and Diana 
— 12. Fraterna Lyra. The invention of the lyre by Mercury has already 
been mentioned. (Compare note on Ode i., 10, G.) This instrument he 
bestowed on Apollo after the theft of the oxen was discovered. — 15. Per- 
sas (itque Brilaanos. Marking tho farthest limits of the empire on the 
east and west. By the Pcrsce are meant the Parthians. (Compare note 
on Ode i., 2, 22.) 



Ode XXII. It was a very prominent feature in the popular belief of 
antiquity, that poets formed a class of men peculiarly under the protec- 
tion of the gods ; since, wholly engrossed by subjects of a light and pleas- 
ing nature, no deeds of violence, and no acts of fraud or perjury, could evet 
be laid to their charge. Horace, having escaped imminent danger, writes 
the present ode in allusion to this belief. The innocent man, exclaims 
the bard, is shielded from peril, wherever he may be, by his own purity 
of life and conduct. (The innocent man is here oniy another name foi 
poet.) The nature of the danger from which he had been rescued is next 
described, and the ode concludes with the declaration that his own in- 
tegrity will ward off every evil, in whatever quarter of the world his lot 
may be cast, and will render him, at the same time, tranquil in mind, and 
ever disposed to celebrate the praises of his Lalage. 

The ode is addressed to Aristius Fuscus, to whom the tenth Epistle oi 
the first book is inscribed. 

l-€, l. Integer vitce, &c. "The man upright of life, and free from 
guilt. ; — 2. Mauris jaculis. For Mauritanicis jaculis. The natives of 
Mauritania were distinguished for their skill in darting the javelin, the 
frequent use of this weapon being required against the wild beasts which 
infested their country. — 5. Syrtes astuosas. " The burning Syrtes." The 
allusion here is not so much to the two remarkable quicksands or gulfs on 
the Mediterranean coast of Africa, known by the name of the Greater and 
Smaller Syrtis (now the gulfs of Sidra and CabesY, as to the sandy coast 
lying along the same. (Compare Orelli, ad loc.) — 6. Inhospitalem Cau- 
casum. The name Caucasus was applied to the ridge of mountains be- 
tween the Euxine and the Caspian Seas. The epithet inhospitalem re- 
fers to the dreary solitude, and the fierce wild beasts with which it was 
supposed to abound. 

7-12. 7. Vel quae loca, &c " Or through those regions which the Hy 
daspes, source of many a fable, laves " The epithet fabulosus refers U 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK 1., ODE XXII. 2Ul 

the arrange accounts which were circulated respecting this river, its gold 
en sands, the monsters inhabiting its waters, &e. The Hydaspes, now 
the Fi/lttm, is one of the five eastern tributaries of the Indus, which, bj 
their union, form the Punj/iub, while the region which they traverse is de 
nominated the Punj&b, or country of the five rivers. — 9. Namque. Equiv 
alent to the Greek kul yap. Supply the ellipsis as follows : "And this ] 
have plainly learned from my own case,/t>r," &c. — -Silva in Sabina. He 
refers to a wood in the vicinity of his Sabine farm. — 10. Ultra terminum 
"Beyond my usual limit." — 11. Curis expeditis. " With all my cares dis 
pelled." Some read curis expeditus, "freed from cares." — 12. Incrmem 
'Though unarmed." 

12-17. 12. Militaris Daunias. "Warlike Daunia." Dan mas is here 
the Greek form of the nominative. The Daunii were situate along the 
northern coast of Apulia. The Apulians, like the Marsi, were famed for 
their valor among the nations of Italy. — 14. Juba tellus. "The land of 
Juba." Mauritania is meant. The allusion is to the second or younger 
Juba, who had been replaced on his father's throne by Augustus. — 17 
Pone me pigria, &c. "Place me where no tree is refreshed, in torpid 
plains," &c, x. e., in the torpid or frozen regions of the north. For the 
connection between this and the previous portion of the ode, consult the 
introductory remarks. The poet alludes in this stanza to what is termed 
at the present day the frozen zone, and he describes it in accordance with 
the general belief of his age. The epithet pigris refers to the plains of 
the north, lying sterile and uncultivated by reason of the excessive coi^. 
Modern observations, however, assign two seasons to this distant quartei 
of the globe : a long and rigorous winter, succeeded, often suddenly, by 
insupportable heats. The power of the solar beams, though feeble, from 
the obliquity of their direction, accumulates during the days, which are 
extremely long, and produces effects which might be expected only in the 
torrid zone. The days for several months, though of a monotonous mag- 
nificence, astonishingly accelerate the growth of vegetation. In three 
days, or rather three times twenty-four hours, the snow is melted, and 
the flowers begin to blow. (Malte-Brun, Geogr., vol. i., p. 418.) 

19-22. 19. Quod latus mundi, &c. "In that quarter of the world, 
which clouds and an inclement sky continually oppress." Complete the 
sentence as follows : In eo latere mundi, quod latus mundi, &c. — 21. Nim- 
ium propinqui. " Too near the earth." Understand terris. — 22. Domi- 
bus negata. "Denied to mortals for an abode." Most of the ancients 
conceived that the heat continued to increase from the tropic toward the 
equator. Hence they concluded that the middle of the zone was unin- 
habitable. It is now, however, ascertained that many circumstances 
combine to establish even there a temperature that is supportable. The 
clouds; the great rains ; the nights naturally very cool, their duration ba 
ing equal to that of the days ; a strong evaporation; the vast expanse of 
the sea; the proximity of very high mountains, covered with perpetual 
snow ; the trade-winds, and the periodical inundations, equally contribute 
to diminish the heat. This is the reason why, in the torrid zone, we meet 
with all kinds of climates. The plains are burned up by the heat of the 
Bun. All the eastern coasts of the great continents, fanned by the trade 
winds, enjoy a mild temperature. The elevated districts are ever* cull 



298 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE XXIV. 

Che valley of Quito is always green; and perhaps the interior of .Afrit* 
contains more than one region which nature has gifted with the same 
privilege. (Malte-Brun, Gcogr., vol. i., p. 416.) 



Ode XXIII. The poet advises Chloe, now ofnuhile years, no longer tc 
ollow her parent like a timid fawn, alarmed at every whispering breeze 
and rustling of the wood, but to make a proper return to the affection of 
one whom she had no occasion to view with feelings of alarm. 

1-10. 1. Hinntdeo. The term hinnuleus is here used for kinnulus. — 
Pavidam. Denoting the alarm of the parent for the absence of her off- 
spring. — Aviis. "Lonely." — 5. Vepris. The common reading is veris 
instead of vepris, and in the next line adventus instead of adventum. The 
one which we have adopted is given as a conjectural emendation by Bent 
ley, though claimed for others before him. Great difficulties attend the 
common reading. In the first place, the foliage of the trees is not suffi 
ciently put forth in the commencement of spring to justify the idea of its 
being disturbed by the winds ; secondly, the young fawns do not follow 
the parent animal until the end of this season, or the beginning of June • 
and, in the third place, it is very suspicious Latinity to say adventus veris 
hihorruit foliis, since more correct usage would certainly require folia 
inhorrncrunt adventu veris. — 6. Inhorruit. " Has rustled." — 10. Gatu- 
lusve leo. That part of Africa which the ancients denominated Gaetulia, 
appears to answer in some measure to the modern Belad-el-Djerid. — 
Frangere. This verb has here the meaning of " to rend," or " tear in 
pieces," as dyvvvat is sometimes employed in Greek. 



Ode XXIV. The poet seeks to comfort Virgil for the loss of their mu 
Vual friend. The individual to whom the ode alludes was a native of Cre- 
mona, and appears to have been the same with the Quiuctilius of whom 
Horace speaks in the Epistle to the Pisos (v. 438). 

1-7. 1. Desiderio tarn cari capitis. "To our regret for the loss of so 
•Jear an individual." The use of caput in this clause is analogous to that of 
KEtyaXi] and ndpa in Greek. — 2. Praecipe lugubres cantus. " Teach me the 
6trains of woe." Literally, "precede me in the strains of woe." — 3. Mel- 
pomene. One of the Muses, here invoked as presiding over the funeral 
dirge, but elsewhere the muse of Tragedy. — Liquidam vocem. "A clear 
and tuneful voice." — Pater. The Muses were the daughters of Jupiter 
and Mnemosyne. — 5. Ergo Quinctilium. The muse here commences the 
rineral dirge. — 7. Nudaque Veritas. " And undisguised Truth." An al 
lesian to the sincerity that characterized his thoughts and actions. 

11-16. 11. Tufrustra pius, &c. "Thou, alas! fruitlessly displaying 
a pious affection, dost ask the gods for Q,uinctilius, not on such terms in- 
trusted to their care." The meaning is this : When with vows and prayers 
thou didst intrust Quinctilius to the care of the gods as a sacred deposite, 
thou didst not expect that he would be so soon taken away by a cruel 
fate. Thy pious affection, therefore, has proved altogether unavailing 
and it has not been allowed thee to obtain him ba:k again from the gorlp 



EXPLAN/TORY NOTUS. HOOK I., ODE XXVI. 29U 

{OreUi, ad loc.) — 13. Blandius moderere. "Thou rule with more persua 
live melody." Observe the employment of tlie subjunctive here, and also 
in redeat. The meaning is, that even if there be a possibility of his ruling 
or swaying the lyre more sweetly than Orpheus, still there is no possibil 
ity of his friend's being restored to existence. The allusion is to the le- 
gend of Orpheus and Eurydice. — 16. Virga horrida. "With his gloomy 
wand." Alluding to the caduceus. The epithet horrida regards its 
dreaded influence over the movements of departed shades, as they pass on- 
ward to the fatal river. — 17. Non lenis, &c. " Not gentle enough to open 
the fatal portals in compliance with our prayers," i. c, sternly refusing to 
change the order of the fates, &c. Leiiis recludere, a Graecism for lenis ad 
recludendum. 



Ode XXVI. In praise of iElius Lamia, a Roman of ancient and illu» 
trious family, and distinguished for his exploits in the war with the Can- 
tabri. The bard, wholly occupied with the Muses and his friend, consigns 
every other thought to the winds. As regards the Lamian line, consult 
notes on Ode iii., 17. 

2-5. 2. Mare Crelicum. The Cretan, which lay to the north of the 
island of Crete, is here put for any sea. — 3. Portare. " To waft them." 
— Quis sub Arcto, &c. " By whom the monarch of a frozen region be- 
neath the northern sky is feared," &c., i. e., by what people, &c. The 
present ode appears to have been written at the time when Phrahatcs, 
king of Parthia, had been dethroned by his subjects for his excessive 
cruelty, and Teridates, who headed a party against him, appointed in his 
stead. Phrahates fled for succor to the Scythians, and a monarch of that 
nation was now on his march to restore him. The king of the frozen re- 
gion is therefore the Scythian invader, and the people who fear his ap 
proach are the Parthians with Teridates at their head. Dio Cassius in- 
forms us that Phrahates was reinstated in his kingdom, and that Teridates 
fled into Syria. Here he was allowed to remain by Augustus, who obtain- 
ed from him the son of Phrahatcs, and led the young prince as a hostage 
to Rome. This son was subsequently restored to the father, and the 
standards taken by the Parthians from Crassus and Antony were deliv- 
ered in exchange. (Compare Dio Cassius, 51, 18, vol. i., p. 649, ed. Reim. 
Justin., 42* 5.) Strabo, however, states that the son of Phrahates was re 
ceived as a hostage from the father himself, and along with him sons and 
grandsons (rzaidac nai Traidov naldae. Strab., 6, extr.). Compare with 
this the language of Suetonius [vit. Aug., 43), who speaks of the hostages 
of the Parthians (" Parthorum obsides"). — Unice securus. "Utterly re 
gardless." 

6-11. 6. Fontibus integris. " The pure fountains." By the fontes in- 
(egri lyric poetry is designated, and the poet alludes to the circumstance 
Df his having been the first of his countrymen that had refreshed the litera- 
ture of Rome with the streams of lyric verse. Hence the invocation of 
the muse. — 6. Apricos necte flores. "Entwine the sunny flowers." By 
aprici Jlores are meant flowers produced in sunny spots, and therefore 
of sweeter fragrance and brighter hue. These " sunny flowers" and 
tfie chaplet which they form are figurative expressions, and mean sin. 



oOO EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I,, ODE XXVIJ. 

ply a lyric effusion. The muse is solicited to aid the bard iu celebrating 
the praises of his friend. — Pimplel. The Muses were called Pimpleides 
from Pimplea, a town and fountain of Pieria, sacred to these goddesses 
Orpheus was said to have been born here. — 9. Nil sine te met, &c, 
i; Without thy favoring aid, the honors which I have received can prove 
of no avail in celebrating the praises of others." By the term honored 
the poet alludes to the reputation he has gained for his successful cul- 
tivation of lyric verse. — 10. Fidibus novis. " In new strains," i. e., in 
lyric verse. Hence the bard speaks of himself as the first that had adapt 
ed the iEolian strains to Italian measures [Ode iii., 30, 13). — 11. Lesbio 
plectro. " On the Lesbian lyre." The plectrum, or quill, is here taken 
figuratively for the lyre itself. Compare Ode i., 1, 34. This verse is ob- 
jectionable in point of rhythm, and is the only instance of the kind in 
Horace. On all other occasions, if the fourth syllable of the minor alcaio 
end in a word, that word is a monosyllable. Compare Lachmann, ap, 
Frank., p. 239. — Sacrare. " To consecrate to immortal fame." 



Ode XXVII. The poet is supposed to be present at a festal party 
where the guests, warming under the infkience of wine, begin to break 
forth into noisy wrangling. He reproves them in severe terms for conduct 
so foreign to a meeting of friends, and, in order to draw off their attention 
to other and more pleasing subjects, he proposes the challenge in verse 
10th, on which the rest of the ode is made to turn. 

1-6. 1. Nalis in usum, &c. "Over cups made for joyous purposes." 
The scyphus was a cup of rather large dimensions, used both on festal oc 
casions, and in the celebration of sacred rites. Like the caniharus, it was 
sacred to Bacchus. — 2. Thracum est. Compare note on Ode i., 18, 9. — 
3. Verecundum. " Foe to excess." Equivalent here to modicum. — 5. Vi 
no et lucernis, &c. " It is wonderful how much the dagger of the Parthian 
is at variance with nocturnal banquets," literally, " with wine and lights." 
[mmane quantum is analogous to the Greek Savnaorbv baov. Vino and 
lucernis are datives, put by a Graecism for the ablative with the preposi- 
tion a. — Mcdus. Compare Ode i., 2, 51. — Acinaces. The term is of Pei*- 
sian origin. The acinaces was properly a small dagger in use among the 
Persians, and borrowed from them by the soldiers of later ages. It was 
worn at the side. Hesychius, in explaining the word, calls it dopv YLeo- 
tixov, ^i(poc. Suidas remarks : aiavaKnc, fiiapov dopv JlepatKov, and 
Pollux (1, 138), TleptJinbv t;i(j)Ldi6v ri, r<2> ix'npC) 7rpognpT7)/j.evov. This last 
eomes nearest the true explanation as given above. — 6. Impium clamo- 
rem. The epithet impius has here a particular reference to the violation 
of the ties and duties of friendship, as well as to the profanation of the 
table, which was always regarded as sacred by the ancients. 

8-9. 8. Cubito remanete press o. " Remain with the elbow pressed on 
the couch," i. e., stir not from your places. Alluding to the ancient cus- 
tom of reclining at their meals. — 9. Severi Falerni. All writers agree in 
describing the Falernian wine as very strong and durable, and so rongli 
in its recent state that it could not be drunk with pleasure, but required 
to be kept a great number of years before it was sufficiently raello'7- 
For farther remarks on this wine, consult Excursus VIII, 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE XXVJU. 301 

U-14. 10. Opuntite. So called from Opus, the capital of the Opun 
iiaii Lo'.u-i in Greece, at the northern extremity of Boootia. — 13. Cessal 
voluntas. "Does inclination hesitate?" i. c, dost thou hesitate so to do? 
— JSon alia bibam mcrccde. "On no other condition will I drink." — 14 
Quiz tc cunquc, &c. An encomium well calculated to remove the hashful 
reserve of the youth. The whole sentenco may be paraphrased as foi 
lows : " Whoever the fair object may be that sways thy bosom, she causes 
it to burn with a flame at which thou hast no occasion to blush, for thou 
always indulgest in an honorable love." The allusion in ingenno amort 
is to a female of free birth, as opposed to a slave or freed-woman. 

18-23. 18. All miser ! The exclamation of the poet when the secret 
is divulged. — 19. Quanta laborabas, &c. "In how fearful a Charybdis 
wast thou struggling!" The passion of the youth is compared to the dan- 
gers of the fabled Charybdis, and hence the expression Quanta laborabas 
Charybdi is equivalent in effect to Quam periculosam tibi puellam ama- 
bas. — 21. Thessalis venenis. Thessaly was remarkable for producing nu- 
merous herbs that were used in the magical rites of antiquity. — 23. Viz 
illigatum, &c. " (Even) Pegasus will hardly extricate thee, entangled by 
this three-shaped Chimajra." A new comparison is here made, by which 
the female in question is made to resemble the fabled Chimajra. This 
animal, according to the legend, was a lion in the fore part, a serpent in 
the hinder part, and a goat in the middle ; and it also spouted forth fire 
It was destroyed, however, by Bellerophon mounted on the winged steed 
Pegasus. 



Ode XXVIII. The object of the present ode is to enforce the useful 
lesson, that we are all subject to the power of death, whatever may be 
our station in life, and whatever our talents and acquirements. The dia- 
logue form is adopted for this purpose, and the parties introduced are a 
mariner and the shade of Archytas. The former, as he is travelling along 
the shore of Southern Italy, discovers the dead body of the philosopher, 
which had been thrown up by the waves near the town of Matinum, on 
the Apulian coast. He addresses the corpse, and expresses his surprise 
that so illustrious an individual could not escape from the dominion of the 
grave. At the seventh verse the shade replies, and continues on until the 
end of the ode. "Be not surprised, O mariner, at beholding me in this 
state," exclaims the fallen Pythagorean. "Death has selected far nobler 
victims. Bestow the last sad offices on my remains, and so shall prosper 
tfvm foi'tune crown your every effort. If, on the contrary, you make light 
fe'my request, expect not to escape a just retribution." 

Tie ode would appear, from its general complexion, to have been imi- 
aix)£ from the Greek. 

1 . Ti maris el terra, &c. The order of construction is as follows : " Par 
va munera cxigui pulvcHs (negata tibi) cohibent te, dec. " The scanty 
present of a little dust (denied to thy remains) confines thee," ice. The 
ellipsis of negata tibi must be noted, though required more by the idiom 
of our own than by that of the Latin tongue. According to the popular 
belief, if a corpse were deprived of the rites of sepulture, the shade of the 
deceased was compelled to wander for a hundred years either around the 



302 tXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I. ODE XXVlll 

dead body or along the banks of tbe Styx. Hence tbe peculiar propiietj 
of cohibent in the present passage. In 'order to obviate so lamentable a 
result, it was esteemed a most solemn duty for every one who chanced to 
encounter an unburicd corpse to perform tbe last sad offices to it. Sprink- 
ling dust or sand three times upon the dead body was esteemed amply 
sufficient for every purpose. Hence the language of the text, "pulveris 
exigui ])arva munera." Whoever neglected this injunction of religion 
was compelled to expiate his crime by sacrificing a sow to Ceres. Some 
editors maintain that pulveris exigui parva munera is a mere circumlo- 
cution for locus exiguus, and that cohibent is only the compound used for 
the simple verb. Hence, according to these commentators, the meaning 
will be, " A small spot of earth now holds thee," &c. This mode of ex- 
plaining, however, appears stiff and unnatural. — Maris et term menso- 
rem. Alluding to the geometrical knowledge of Archytas. — Naiueroque 
carentis arena:. The possibility of calculating the number of the graios 
of sand was a favorite topic with the ancient mathematicians. Archime- 
des has left us a work on this subject, entitled 6 "fya/i/LLiTTjc (Arenarius), in 
which he proves that it is possible to assign a number greater than that 
of the grains of sand which would fill the sphere of the fixed stars. This 
siugular investigation was suggested by an opinion which some persons 
had expressed, that the sands on the shores of Sicily were either infinitev 
or, at least, would exceed any numbers which could be assigned for them 
and the success with which the difficulties caused by the awkward and 
imperfect notation of the ancient Greek arithmetic are eluded by a device 
identical in principle with the modern method of logarithms, affords one 
of the most striking instances of the genius of Archimedes. 

2-7. 2. Archyla. Archytas was a native of Tarentum, and distinguish 
ed as a philosopher, mathematician, general, and statesman, and was no 
less admired for his integrity and virtue both in public and private life. He 
was contemporary with Plato, whose life he is said to have saved by his 
influence with the tyrant Dionysius. He was seven times the general 
of his native city, though it was the custom for the office to be held for no 
more than one year; and he commanded in several campaigns, in all of 
which he was victorious. As a philosopher, he belonged to the Pytha- 
gorean school, and, like the Pythagoreans, paid much attention to mathe- 
matics. He was also extremely skillful as a mechanician, and construct- 
ed various machines and automatons, among which his wooden flying 
dove in particular was the wonder of antiquity. He perished in a ship 
wreck on the Adriatic. — 3. Matinum. Some difference of opinion exists 
with regard to the position of this place. D'Anville makes the Matinian 
shore to have been between Callipolis and the Iapygian promontory on 
the Tarentine Gulf; and the town of Matinum to have lain some little 
distance inland. Later investigations, however, place Matinum, and a 
mountain called Mons Matinus, in Apulia, near the promontory of Gargfc- 
num, and northeast of Sipontum. — 5. Aerias tentasse domos. &c " To have 
essayed the ethereal abodes." Alluding to the astronomical knowledge 
of the philosopher. — Rotundum polum. " The round heavens."' — 6. Mori- 
turo. " Since death was to be thy certain doom." — 7. Pelopis genitor 
Tantalus. — Conviva deorum. " Though a guest of the gods." The com 
mon mythology makes Tantalus to have been the entertainer, not the 
guest, of the gods, and to have served up his own son as a banquet in or 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE XXVIII. 303 

der to test their divinity. Horace follows the earlier fable, by which Tan 
talus is represented as honored with a seat at the table of the gods, and 

as having incurred their displeasure hy imparting nectar and ambrosia tu 
mortals. (Pi/u/., Olymp., i., 98, eeqq.) 

8-14. 8. Titlionusque remotus in auras. "And Tithonus, though 
translated to the skies." An allusion to the fable of Tithonus and Aurora. 
—9. Arcanis. Understand consiliis. — Minos. In order to gain more rev- 
erence for the laws which he promulgated, Minos pretended to have had 
secret conferences with Jove respecting them. — 10. Panlhoiden. "The 
son of Panthous." Euphorbus is here meant in name, but Pythagoras in 
reality. The philosopher taught the doctrine of the transmigration of souls, 
and is said to have asserted that he himself had animated various bodies, 
and had been at one time Euphorbus the Trojan. To prove his identity 
with the son of Panthous, report made him to have gone into the Temple 
of Juno at or near Mycenae, where the shield of Euphorbus had been pre 
served among other offerings, and to have recognized and taken it down 
— Iterum Oreo demissum. Alluding to the doctrine of the transmigration 
of souls. — 11. Clypeo refixo. " By the shield loosened from the wall of the 
temple." — 13. Nervos atquc culcm. " His sinews and skin," i. e., his body. 
— 14. Judice te, &c. " Even in thine own estimation, no mean expoundei 
of nature and truth." These words are addressed by the shade of Archy 
tas to the mariner, not by the latter to Archytas, and they are meant to 
indicate the widespread reputation of Pythagoras as a Natural and Moral 
Philosopher, since his name had become so well known as to be even in 
the mouths of the lower classes. In this explanation, Doring, Orelli, Braun- 
hard, Dillenburger, and most other commentators agree. Some read me, 
lpplying the remark to the speaker himself, but without any necessity 

15-22. 15. Una nox. This expression, and also semel immediately 
after, contain nothing inconsistent with the Pythagorean tenets, since 
they merely regard the end or limit of each particular transformation. — 
18. Avidum mare. " The greedy ocean." Some editions read avidis 
("greedy after gain") as agreeing with nautis. This, however, would 
8mply a censure on the very individual from whom the favor of a burial is» 
oupposed to be asked. — 19. Mixta senum, &c. " The intermingled funer- 
»k of the old and young are crowded together." Densenlur is from den 
aeo, -ere, an old verb, used by Lucretius, and after him by Virgil and Pliny 
The common text has densantur, from denso, -are. — Nullum caput, &.c 
"No head escapes the stern Proserpina." An hypallage for milium 
caput fu git scevam Proserpinam. The ancients had a belief that no one 
could die unless Proserpina, or Atropos her minister, cut a lock of hair 
from the head. The idea was evidently borrowed from the analogy of ani- 
mal sacrifices, in which the hair cut from the front, or from between the 
horns of the victims, was regarded as the first offering. Compare Virgil, 
/En., iv., 698, seq. — 21. Devexi Orionis. "Of the setting Orion." The 
setting of this star was always accompanied by tempestuous weather. 
It took place on the fifth day before the Ides of November, or, according 
to our mode of expression, on the ninth of the month. — 22. Illyricis undis. 
"Amid the Illyrian waters." The allusion is to the Adriatic Sea in gen- 
oral. The Ulyrians, besides their settlements on the northeastern shores 
of the Adriatic, had at one time extended themselves as far as Anoomi. 
on the coast of Italy 



304 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I. ODE XXIX. 

23-35. 23. Ne parce m alt g mis dare. "Do not unkindly refuse to bo 
stow. — 24. Capili iniiumalo. Observe the apparent hiatus here, in 
reality, however, no hiatus whatever takes place between the two words, 
but one of the two component short vowels in the final syllable of capili 
is elided before the initial vowel of the next word, and the remaining one 
is thou lengthened by the arsis. There is no need, therefore, of our read- 
ing intumulato with some editors. — 25. Sic. " So," i. e., if you do so, or 
on this condition. — 26. Fluctibus Hespcriis. "The western waves." The 
seas around Italy, which country was called Hesperia by the Greeks.— 
Venusina plcctantur silvce. " May the Venusian woods be lashed by it." 
—28. Unde potest. Equivalent to a quibus hoc fieri potest, " For they are 
able to enrich thee." In construing, place unde potest at the end of the 
sentence. — 29. Sacri custode Ncptuni. Neptune was the tutelary deity 
of Tarentum. — Negligis immcrito, &c. " Dost thou make light of com- 
mitting a crime which will prove injurious to thy unoffending posterity?" 
The crime here alluded to is the neglecting to perform the last sad offices 
to the shade of Archytas. — 31. Postmodo le natis. Equivalent to nepoti 
bus. Te is nere the ablative, depending on natis. — Fors et debita jura^ 
&c. " Perhaps both a well-merited punishment and a haughty retribu- 
tion may be awaiting thee thyself." — 33. Inultis. " Unheard." Literal- 
ly, " unavenged." — 35. Licebit injecto, &c. " Thou mayest run on after 
having thrice cast dust on my remains." Three handfuls of dust were on 
such an occasion sufficient for all the purposes of a burial. 



Ode XXIX. The poet, having learned that his friend Iccius had aban 
doned the study of philosophy, and was turning his attention to deeds of 
arms, very pleasantly rallies him on this strange metamorphosis. 

1-5. 1. Beatis gazis. " The rich treasures." Beatus is often used, a€ 
in the present instance, for dives, from the idea of happiness which the 
crowd associate with the possession of wealth. — Nunc. Emphatical, re- 
ferring to his altered course of life. — Arabum. Augustus, A.U.C. 730 
(which gives the date of the present ode), sent iElius Gallus, praefect ol 
Egypt, with a body of troops against Arabia Felix. The expedition 
proved unsuccessful, having failed more through the difficulties which tin 
country and climate presented than from the desultory attack* of the un 
disciplined enemy. It was in this army that Iccius would seem to havt 
had a command. — Sabaxe. Saboea, a part of Arabia Felix, is here put fo> 
the whole region. The Sabcci would seem to have occupied what cor 
responds to the northernmost part of the modern Yemen. — Horribiliqui 
Medo. " And for the formidable Parthian." It is more than probable, 
from a comparison of Ode i., 12, 56, aud i., 35, 31, with the present passage, 
that Augustus intended the expedition, of which we have been speaking f 
not merely for Arabia Felix, but also for the Parthians and Iudi. — 5. Nectis 
catenas. A pleasant allusion to the fetters in which Iccius, already vic- 
torious in imagination, is to lead his captives to Rome. — Qua virginum 
barbara. " What barbarian virgin." A Graecisni for quce virgo barbara 

7-15. 7. Puer quis ex aula. Equivalent to quis puer regius. The 
term aula may refer to the royal court either of the Arabians or the Par 
thians — 8. Ad, ovathum statvetur. "Shall stand as thy cup hearer' 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE XXti. 305 

Literally, "shall bo placed," &e. — 9 Ductus tcndcrc. "Skilled in aim 
ing." A Gnucism. — Serious. The Seres were famed for their manage 
meut of the bow. The reference here, however, is not so much to these 
people in particular as to the Eastern nations in general. In relation to 
tiie Seres, compare Explanatory Note, Ode i., 12, 56. — 11. Relabi posse. 
M Can glide back." In this sentence, vionlibus is the dative by a Grcu 
c';s in. Prose Latinity would require ad monies. Some make monlibus the 
ablative, with which they join j?ro?ios in the sense of decurrentes. This 
arrangement is decidedly inferior to the one first given. As regards the 
idea intended to be conveyed, it may be observed, that the poet compares 
his friend's abandonment of graver studies for the din of arms to a total 
alteration of the order of nature. The expression appears to be a pro- 
verbial one, and is evidently borrowed from the Greek. — 12. Reverti. 
" Return in its course." — 13. Coemtos undique. "Bought up on all sides. w 
A pleasant allusion to his friend's previous ardor in philosophic pursuits. 
— 14. Panccti. Panoetius, a native of Rhodes, holds no mean rank among 
the Stoic philosophers of antiquity. Ho passed a considerable part of hi a 
life at Rome, and enjoyed an intimate acquaintance with several eminent 
Romans, particularly Scipio and Laelius. Cicero highly extols his moral 
doctrine in his treatise " De Officiis." Toward the end of his life Pauaj- 
tins removed to Athens, where he died. — Socraticam el domum. "And 
the writings of the Socratic school." Alluding to the philosophical inves- 
tigations of Plato, Xenophon, iEschines, and others. — 15. Loricis Ibcris 
The Spanish coats of mail obtained a decided preference among the Ro- 
mans, from the excellence of the metal and its superior temper. Com- 
pare Shakspeare : " It is a sword of Spain, the ice-brook's temper :" Othel- 
lo, v., 11, referring to the blades of Toledo. 



Ode XXX. Venus is invoked to grace with her presence, and witl 
that of her attendant retinue, the temple prepared for her at the home ot 
Glycera. 

1-8. 1. Cnidi. Cnidus was a Dorian city, on the coast of Caria, at the 
extremity of the promontory of Triopium. Venus was the tutelary god 
dess of the place. — Paphique. Paphos was a very ancient city of Cyprus, 
on the southwestern side of the island. It was famed for the worship of 
Venus, who was fabled to have been wafted from Cythera to the coast in 
its vicinity after her birth amid the waves. — 2. Sperne. " Look with con- 
tempt on," i. e., leave. — 3. Decoram. " Adorned for thy reception." — 5. 
Fervidus puer. Cupid. — Solutis zonis. Indicative, as Braunhard re- 
marks, o{"negligentia amabilis." — 7. Parum comis sine te. " Little able 
to please without thee." Observe the inverted form of expression, for 
" deriving additional attractions from thee." — Juventas. The goddess of 
youth, or Hebe, who appears also in the train of Venus in the Homeric 
Hymn to Apollo, v. 195. — 8. Mercuriusque. Mercury is enumerated 
among tbe retinue of Venus, in allusion to his being the god of language 
and persuasive eloquence. 



Ode XXXI. The poet raises a prayer to Apollo on the day when A.U 
gustus dedicated a temple to this deity on the Palatine Hill. Standing 



30G EXPLANATORY NOTES. KOOK 1., ODE XXXI. 

amid the crowd of worshippers, each of whom is offering up some petition 
to the god, the bard is supposed to break forth on a sudden with the abrup 
inquiry, " "What does the poet (i. e., what do I) ask of Apollo on the dedi- 
cation o* his temple ?" His own reply succeeds, disclaiming all that the 
world considers essential to happiness, and ending with the simple and 
beautiful prayer for the " mens sana in corpore sano.' 

1-8. I. Dedicatum. "On the dedication of his temple.'' — 2. Novum 
liquorem. It was customary to use wine of the same year's make in liba- 
tions to the gods. Compare Petron., c. 130: " Spumabit paleris hornus 
liquor." — 4. Sardinia:. Sardinia was famed for its fertility, which com- 
pensated in some degree for its unhealthy climate. — Segcles. " Har- 
vests." — 5. Grata armenta. "The fine herds." — JEstuosa Calabria:. 
u Of the sunny Calabria." Calabria, in Southern Italy, was famed for its 
mild climate and excellent pastures. — 6. Ebur Tndicum. The ivory of 
India formed one of the most costly instruments of Roman luxury. Com- 
pare Virgil, Georg., i., 57 : "India mittit ebur." — 7. Liris. This river, 
now the Garigliano, rises in the Apennines, and falls into the Tuscan 
Sea near Minturna?. The Liris, after the southern boundary of Latium 
was extended below the Circaean Promontory, separated that region from 
Campania. Subsequently, however, the name of Latium was extended 
to the mouth of the Vulturnus and the Massic Hills. (Compare Cramer's 
Ancient Italy, vol. ii., p. 11, and the authorities there cited.) — 8. Mordet 
" Undermines" or " eats away." 

9-16. 9. Premant. "Let those prune." — Calena falce. An allusion 
to the Falernian vineyards. Compare note on Ode i., 20, 9. — 11. Exsic- 
cet. Equivalent to cbibat. " Let the rich trader drain." — Culullis. The 
culullus was properly of baked earth, and was used in sacred rites by the 
pontifices and vestal virgins. Here, however, the term is taken in a gen- 
eral sense for any cup. — 12. Syra reparata mercc. " Obtained in exchange 
Soy Syrian wares." By Syrian wares are meant the aromatic products of 
Arabia and the more distant East, brought first to the coast of Syria by 
the overland trade, and shipped thence to the western markets. — 16. Ci 
chorea. " Endives." The term cichoreum (Kixopeia, or k.i,x&P~ov) is, 
Btrictly speaking, confined to the cultivated species of Inlvbum or Inly- 
bum. The wild sort is called aspic by the Greeks, and answers to our 
bitter succory. The name cichoreum is of Coptic or Egyptian origin, the 
plant itself having been brought from Egypt into Europe. The appella- 
tion Endive comes from the barbarous word endivia, used in the Middle 
Ages, and an evident corruption as well of the Arabic hendib as of the 
classical intybum. (Compare Fie, Flore de Virgile, p. 70, 71. Martyn 
ad Virg., Georg., i., 120.) — Levesque malvat. "And mallows, easy of di 
gestion." Compare Orelli : " stomachum non gravantes ; facile conco- 
yuenda:." Dioscorides (ii., Ill) and Theoph?-astus (i., 5) both designate 
mallows as aliment: the first of these two authors speaks of the garden 
mallows as preferable, in this respect, to the uncultivated kind from 
which it may be fairly inferred that several species of this plant were 
used as articles of food. The Greek name of the mallows (//a/ld^?;), from 
which both the Latin and English are said to be deduced, has reference 
to their medicinal properties. It is formed from uaXdoocj, "to soften*' 
•so 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. — BOOK I., ODE XXXIV. 30T 

i.7-20. 17. Frui paratis, &c. "Sou of Latona, give me, I pray, to en 
Joy my present possessions, being, at the same time, both healthful in 
frame and with a mind unimpaired by disease." Or, more freely, " Give 
me a sound mind in a sound body, that I may enjoy, as they should be en- 
joyed, the possessions which are mine." The expression doncs miki vol- 
ido, &.c.,frui paratis, is a Graocism for doncs ut ego validus, dec., fruar 
paratis. Compare, in relation to the idea here expressed, the well-known 
line of Juvenal (x., 356) : " Orandum est ut sit mens sana in corpore sano." 
Compare also, in reference to the structure of the whole sentence, the ex 
planation of Dillenburger : " Dua voti Horatiani partes sunt : dones pre- 
cor et valido mihi et intcgra cum mente paratis frui ; turn dones degere 
senectam nee turpem nee cithara carentem. Hunc ordincm verborum ipse 
Horatius indicavit artijiciose positis parliculis, ct . . . et, nee . . . nee." — 
19. Ncc turpem senectam degere, &c. "And to lead no degenerate old 
age, nor one devoid of the lyre," i. e., no old age unworthy of my present 
contentment, nor devoid of the charms of poetry and music. {Osborne, 
ad loc.) 



Ode XXXII. The bard addresses his lyre, and blends with the address 
the praises of Alcaeus. The invocation comes with a peculiar grace from 
one who boasted, and with truth, of having been the first to adapt the 
i£o} ; an strains to Italian measures. (Compare Ode iii., 30, 13.) 

1-15. 1. Poscimur. " We are called upon for a strain." Compare 
Ovid, Met., v., 333, " Poscimur, Aonides." The request probably came 
from Augustus or Maecenas. Bentley reads Poscimus, which then becomes 
a part of the apostrophe to the lyre. — Si quid vacui lusimus tecum. " If 
we have ever, in an idle moment, produced in unison with thee any sportive 
effusion." — 3. Die Latinum carmen. "Be responsive to a Latin ode." 
—5. Lesbio primum,&cc. "Attuned to harmony most of all by a Lesbian 
citizen." Primum is here equivalent to maxime. Horace assigns to 
Alcieus the merit of having brought lyric poetry to its highest state of 
perfection. — 6. Ferox bello. Understand quamvis. — 7. Udo litorc. "On 
*he wave-washed shore." Supply in. — 0. Illi semper hwrentem. "Ever 
clinging to her side." — 14. Laborum dulce lenimen. "Sweet solace of 
toils." — 15. Mihi cunque, &c. "Be propitious unto me whenever duly 
invoking thee." Cunque for quandocunque. 



Ode XXXIV. Horace, a professed Epicurean, having heard thunder in 
a cloudless sky, abandons the tenets which he had hitherto adopted, and 
declares his belief in the superintending providence of the gods. Such, 
at least, appears to be the plain meaning of the ode. It is more than 
probable, however, that the poet merely wishes to express his dissent 
from the Epicurean dogma which made the gods take no interest what- 
ever in the affairs of men. The argument employed for this purpose is 
trivial enough in reality, and yet to an Epicurean of the ancient school it 
would carry no little weight along with it. Thus Lucretius positively 
states that thunder in a serene and cloudless sky is a physical impossi 
oility : 

" Fulmina gigni de crassis, altrque, puiandum est, 



308 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE XX A V. 

Nubibus exstructis : nam cceCo nulla sereno, 
Nee leviter densis mittuntur nubibus unquam..'' 

De R. N., vi., 245, seqij. 

1-7. 1. Parcus deorum, &c. The Epicureans would appear only Ui 
have conformed to the out wai'd ceremonies of religion, and that, too, in n« 
very strict or careful manner. The doctrine of their founder, after all tha 
may be said in its praise, tended directly to atheism ; and there is strong 
reason to suspect that what he taught concerning the gods was artfully 
designed to screen him from the odium and hazard which would havo at- 
tended a direct avowal of atheism. — 2. Insanientis dum philosophice, <5cc. 
" While I wander from the true path, imbued with the tenets of a vision - 
a-y philosophy." The expression insanientis sapientice (literally, " an 
unwise system of wisdom") presents a pleasing oxymoron, and is levelled 
directly at the philosophy of Epicurus. Consultus is here equivalent to 
versalus in doctrina, as in the expression juris consultus. Compare Liv. t 
x., 22: "Juris atque eloquential consultus." — 4. Iterare cursus rclictos. 
"To return to the course which I had abandoned." Heinsius proposes 
relectos for relictos, which Bentley advocates and receives into his text. 
— 5. Dicspiter. "The father of light." Jupiter. — 7. Perpurum. "Through 
a cloudless sky." Understand caelum. Thunder in a cloudless sky was 
ranked among prodigies. 

9-14. 9. Bruta tcllus. By the "brute earth" is meant, in the language 
of commentators, " terra qua si?iesensu immola et gravis manet." — 10. In- 
visi horrida Tanari sedes. The promontory of Tamarus, forming the south- 
ernmost projection of the Peloponnesus, was remarkable for a cave in its 
vicinity, said to be one of the entrances to the lower world, and by which 
Hercules dragged Cerberus to the regions of day. — 11. Atlanteusque finis. 
"And the AtlantSan limit," i. e., and Atlas, limit of the world. The an- 
cients believed this chain of mountains to be the farthest barrier to the 
west. — 12. Valet ima summis, <fcc. "The deity is all powerful to change 
the highest things into the lowest." Literally, " to change the highest 
things by means of the lowest." Observe that summis is the instru 
mental ablative. — Atlenuat. " Humbies." Literally, "weakens," or 
"makes feeble." The train of thought is as follows: "Warned bv this 
prodigy, I no longer doubt the interposition of the gods in human affairs ; 
nay, I consider the deity all-powerful to change things from the lowest to 
the highest degree, and to humble to the dust the man that now occupies 
the loftiest and most conspicuous station among his fellow-creatures. — 
14. Hinc apicem, &c. " From the head of this one, Fortune, with a sharp, 
rushing sound of her pinions, bears away the tiara in impetuous flight; 
on the head of that one she delights to have placed it." Sustulit is here 
taken in an aorist sense, as denoting what is usual or customary. As re- 
gards the term apicem, it maybe remarked, that, though specially signify- 
ing the tiara of Eastern royalty, it has here a general reference to the 
crown or diadem of kincrs. 



Ode XXXV. Augustus, A.U.C. 726, had levied two armies, the one 
intended against the Britons, the other against the natives of Arabia Fe- 
lix and the East. The former mf these was to be led by the emperor in 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE XXXV. 30E 

person. At this period the present ode is supposed to have heen written. 
It is an address to Fortune, and invokes her favoring influence for tho 
arms of Augustus. 

The latter of these two expeditions has already heen treated of in the 
fntroductory Remarks on the 29th ode of this hook. The first enly pro- 
ceeded as far as Gaul, where its progress was arrested by the Britons 
suing for peace, and by the troubled state of Gallic affairs. The negotia- 
tions, howevfer, were subsequently broken off, and Augustus prepared 
anew for a campaign against the island; but the rebellion of the Salassi, 
Cantabri, and Astures intervened, and the reduction of these tribes en- 
grossed the attention of the prince. (Compare Dio Cassius, 53, 22, and 
25, vol. i., p. 717 and 719, cd. Reim.) 

1-8. 1. Ant mm. A city on the coast of Latium, the ruins of which aro 
now called Porto d'Anzo, celebrated for its temple of Fortune. — 2. Pr<s- 
sens tollere. " That in an instant canst raise." By prcesentes dei are meant 
those deities who are ever near at hand and ready to act. — 3. Vel super- 
bos, &c. " Or convert splendid triumphs into disasters.' Funeribus is 
the instrumental ablative. — 5. In this and the following line, we have 
adopted the punctuation recommended by M arid and, viz., a comma after 
prece, and another after ruris, which latter word will then depend on dom 
inam understood, and the whole clause will then be equivalent to "pau 
per colonus, sollicita prece, ambit te, dominam ruris ; quicunquc lacessit, 
&c, te dominam cequoris (ambit)." — Ambit sollicita prece. " Supplicates 
in anxious prayer." — 7. Bithyna. Bithynia, in Asia Minor, was famed 
for its natural productions, which gave rise to a very active commerce be- 
tween this region and the capital of Italy. The expression in the text, 
however, refers more particularly to the naval timber in which the coun- 
try abounded. — 8. Carpalhium pelagus. A name applied to that part of 
the Mediterranean which lay between the islands of Carpathus and Creto 

9-13. 9. Dacus. Ancient Dacia corresponds to what is now, in a great 
measure, Wallachia, Transylvania, Moldavia, and that part of Hungary 
which lies to the east of the Teiss. — Profugi Scylhcc. " The roving Scyth- 
ians." The epithet profugi is here used with reference to the peculitii 
habits of this pastoral race, in having no fixed abodes, but dwelling in 
wagons. — 10. Latium ferox. "Warlike Latium." — 11. Regum barbaro- 
rum. An allusion to the monarchs of the East, and more particularly to 
Parthia. — 12. Purpurei Tyranni. " Tyrants clad in purple." — 13. Inju- 
Hoso ne pedc, &c. " Lest with destructive foot thou overthrow the stand- 
ing column of affairs." The scholiast makes stantem columnam equiva- 
lent to prasentem felicitatem, and the allusion of the poet is to the exist- 
ing state of affairs among the Dacians, Scythians, and others mentioned 
in the text. A standing column was a general symbol among the ancients 
of public security. Some editions place a colon or period after tyranni, 
and the meaning then is, "Do not with destructive foot overthrow the 
standing column of the empire," alluding to the durability of the Bx>man 
sway. The interpretation first given, however, is decidedly preferable : 
the change in the latter is too sudden and abrupt. 

14-18. 14. Neu populus j'requens, &c. " Or lest the thronging popu- 
lace arouse the inactive to arms ! to arms ! and destroy the public reposo " 



310 EXFLANATORf NOTES. BOOK I., ODE XXXV. 

The repetition of the phrase ad arma is intended to express the redoublei 
outcries ot an agitated throng, calling upon the dilatory and inactive fcs 
add themselves to their number. Compare Ovid, Met., xi. 377 : "Cunctt 
coeamus et arma, Arma capessamus." The term imperium in this pas- 
sage is equivalent merely to publicam quietem, or reipublicat statum, tak 
ing rcspublica in the general sense of " government."— 17. Te semper an- 
teit, &c. The idsa intended to be conveyed is. that all things must yield 
to the power of Fortune. This is beautifully expressed in the language of 
the text: "Thee thy handmaid Necessity ever precedes." — Anteit must 
be pronounced ant-yit, as a dissyllable, by synasresis. — 18. Clavos traba- 
Us. Necessity is here represented with all such appendages as may 
serve to convey the idea of firm and unyielding power. Thus she bears 
in her hand clavos trabales, " large spikes," like those employed for con 
necting closely together the timbers of an edifice. She is armed also 
with " wedges," used for a similar purpose, not for cleaving asunder, as 
some explain it. In like manner, the "unyielding clamp" (sevcrus uncus) 
makes its appearance, which serves to unite more firmly two masses of 
stone, while the "melted lead" is required to secure the clamp in its bed 
Some commentators erroneously regard the clavos trabales, &c, as instru 
uients of punishment. 

21-29. 21. Te Sp°s ct albr, &c. The idea which the poet wishes to 
convey is, that Hope ind Fi<V lity are inseparable from Fortune. In other 
words, Hope always chet^s ie unfortunate with a prospect of better days 
to come, and a faithful frit-nd only adheres the more closely to us under 
the pressure of adversity The epithet rara alludes to the paucity of true 
friends, while the expression alho vclata panno refers in a very beautiful 
manner to the sincerity and cardor by which they are always distinguish- 
ed. — 23. Ulcunquc mxdata, &c. "Whenever, clad in sordid vestments, 
thou leavest in anger the abodes of th* powerful." Prosperous fortune is 
arrayed in splendid attire, but when tha anger of the goddess is kindled, 
and she abandons the dwellings of the mighty, she changes her fair vest- 
ments for a sordid garb. — 26. Cadis cum fence siccatis. "When the casks 
are drained to the very dregs." Faithless friends abandon us after ouv 
resources have been exhausted in gratifying their selfish cupidity. — 2J 
Ferrc jugum pariter dolosi. A Graecism for dolosiores quam ut feranl 
&c. " Too faithless to bear in common with us the yoke of adversity."— 
29. Ultimos orbis Britannos. In designating the Britons as "ultima? 
orbis," Horace must be understood to speak more as a poet than a geog 
rapher, since the Romans of his day were well acquainted vith the exist 
ence of Hibernia. It must be acknowledged, however, that it was no un 
common thing to call all the islands in this quarter by the general nam« 
of Insulce Britannica (BperraviKal vtjcoi). 

30-33. 30. Juvenum recens examen. " The recent levy of youthful w/v 
riors." These are compared to afresh swarm of bees issuing fromr th#> 
parent hive. — 32. Oceanoque Rubro. "And by the Indian Sea." The al 
lusion is to the Mare Erythrceum or Indian Ocean, not to the Sinus Arab- 
tews, or lied Sea. — 33. Eheu ! cicatricum, &c. "Ah ! I am ashamed of out 
scars, and our guilt, and of brothers — " The poet was going to add, " slain 
by the hand of brothers," but the thought was too horrid fcr utterance, and 
tne sentence is therefore abruptly broken off. Hence we have placed a 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE XXXVI. 31 I 

dash after fratrumque. He merely adds, in general language, "What 
in line, have we, a hardened age, avoided?" &c. The reference through 
out the stanza is to the hloody struggle of the civil wars. 

38-2'). 38. O utinam dijfmgas. " O maycst thou forge again." The 
poet's prayer to Fortune is, that she would forge anew the swords which 
had heen stained with the hlood of the Romans in the sivil war, so that 
they might he employed against the enemies of the republic. While 
polluted with civil blood, they must be the objects of hatred and aversion 
to the gods. — 39. In Massagclas Arabasquc. "To be wielded against 
the Massagetao and the Arabians." The Massageta) were a branch of the 
great Scythian race, and, according to Herodotus (i., 204), occupied a level 
tract of country to the cast of the Caspian. They are supposed by some 
to have occupied the present country of the Kirgish Tatars. 



Ode XXXVI. Plotius Numida having returned, after a long absence, 
from Spain, where he had been serving under Augustus in the Cantabrian 
war, the poet bids his friends celebrate in due form so joyous an event 
This ode would appear to have been written about A.U.C. 730. 

1-10. 1. Et thure el/idibus, &c. "With both incense and the music 
of the lyre, and the blood of a steer due to the fulfillment of our vow." 
The ancient sacrifices were accompanied with the music of the lyre and 
flute. — 3. Numidce. A cognomen of the Plotian and iEmilian lines.— 
4. Hesperia ah ultima. "From farthest Spain." Referring to the situa 
tion of this country as farthest to the west. Hesperia was a more con? 
mon name for Italy, as lying to the west of Greece. For distinction' 
sake, Spain was sometimes called Hesperia ultima. — 6. Dividit. " Di& 
tributes." — 8. Non alio rege. "Under the same preceptor." — Puerlia. 
Contracted for pucritice. — 9. Mutatceque simzel toga. Young men, amonj 
the Romans, when they had completed their seventeenth year, laid aside 
the toga pr<stexta, and put on the toga virilis, or manly gown. — 10. Cressr 
nota. "A white mark." The Romans marked their lucky days, in thr 
calendar, with white or chalk, and their unlucky days with black. 

11-20. 11. Neu promtce, &c. "Nor let us spare the contents of the 
wine-jar taken from the vault." Literally, "nor let there be any limit tc 
the wine-jar," &c. ; i. e., any limit to an acquaintance with its contents- 
12. Salium. The Salii, or priests of Mars, twelve in number, were in 
stituted by Numa. They were so called because on solemn occasions 
they used to go through the city dancing (saltantes). After finishing their 
solemn procession, they sat down to a splendid entertainment. Hence 
Saliares dapes means " a splendid banquet." — 13. Multi Damalis meri 
" The hard-drinking Damalis." — 14. Threicia amystide. " In tossing off 
the wine-cup after the Thracian fashion." The amystis {afivGTtc) was a 
mode of drinking practiced by the Thracians, and consisted in draining 
the cup without once closing the lips. (&, priv., fxvu, to close.) It denotes 
also, a large kind of drinking-cup. — 16. Vivax apium. " The parsley that 
long retains its vei'dure." The poet is thought to allude to a kind of wild 
parsley, of a beautiful verdure, which preserves its freshness for a long 
period —Breve lilium. " The short-lived lily." 



312 EXPLANATORY VOTES. BOOK I., ODE XXXVII. 

Ode XXXVII. Written in celebration of the victory at Actium, auc 
the final triumph of Augustus over the arms of Antony and Cleopatra 
The name of the unfortanate Roman, however, is studiously concealed 
and the indignation of the poet is made to fall upon Cleopatra. 

2-6. 2 Nunc Saliaribus, &c. "Now was it the time to deck the 
temples of the gods with a splendid banquet." The meaning becomes 
plainer by a paraphrase : "We were right, my friends, in waiting until 
the present moment: this was indeed the true period for the expression 
of our joy." We must imagine these words to have proceeded from the 
poet after the joyous ceremonies had already begun — Saliaribus dapibus. 
Literally, " with a Salian banq_et." Consult note on verse 12 of the pre 
ceding ode. — 3. Pulvinar. The primitive meaning of this term is. a cush- 
ion or pillow for a couch; it is then taken to denote the couch itself; and 
finally it signifies, from the operation of a peculiar custom among the 
Etonians, a temple or shrine of the gods. When a general had obtained 
ft signal victory, a thanksgiving was decreed by the Senate to be made in 
ali the temples, and what was called a Lcclislernium took place, when 
couches were spread for the gods, as if about to feast ; and their images 
were taken down from their pedestals, and placed upon these couches 
around the altars, which were loaded with the richest dishes. Dr. Adam, 
in his work on Roman Antiquities, states that on such occasions the image 
of Jupiter was placed in a reclining posture, and those of Juno and Minerva 
erect on seats. The remark is an eiToneous one. The custom to which 
he refers was confined to solemn festivals in honor of Jove. Compare 
Vol. Max., ii., 1, 2. With regard to the meaning wo have assigned pul- 
vinar in the text, and which is not given by some lexicographers, con- 
sult Ernesti, Clav. Cic, s. v. Schiitz, Index Lat. in Cic. Op., s. v. — 
5. Antchac. To be pronounced as a dissyllable [ant-yac). The place of 
the caesura is not accurately observed either in this or the 14th line. Con- 
sult Classical Journal, vol. xi., p. 354. — Ccecubum. Used here to denote 
any of the more generous kinds of wine. Compare note on Ode i., 20, 9. 
— 6. Dum Capitolio, &c. "While aphrensied queen was preparing ruin 
for the Capitol and destruction for the empire." An hypallage for dum 
Capitolio rcgina demens, &c. Horace indulges here in a spirit of poetic 
exaggeration, since Antony and Cleopatra intended merely, in case they 
proved victorious, to transfer the seat of empire from Rome to Alexandrea. 
Dio Cassius (50, 4, vol. i., p. 606, cd. Reimar) states as one of the rumors 
of the day, that Antony had promised to bestow the city of Rome a? a 
present upon Cleopatra, and to remove the government to Egypt. 

9-14. 9. Contaminato cum grege, <fcc. "With a contaminated herd of 
followers polluted by disease." — 10. Quidlibet impotens sperare. "Weak 
enough to hope for any thing." A Graecism for impotens ut quidlibet 
fperaret. Observe that impotens is here equivalent to impotens sui, i. e., 
having so little control over herself as to hope for any thing. — 11. For- 
tunaque dulci ebria. "And intoxicated with prosperity." — 13. Sospes ab 
ignibus. " Saved from the flames." We have here somewhat of _poetic 
exaggeration. Cleopatra fled with'sixty ships, while three hundred were 
taken by Augustus. Many of Antony's vessels, however, were destroy- 
ed by fire during the action. — 14. Lymphatam Mareotico. "Maddened 
with Mareotic wine." A bitter, though not strictly accurate, allusion to 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK I., ODE XXXVII. lii'3 

the luxurious habits of Cleopatra. The poet protends in this way to ac- 
count tor the panic which seized her at Actium. — Marcotico. The Marcotic 
wino was produced along the borders of the Lake Marcotis, in Egypt. It 
was a light, sweetish white wine, with a delicate perfume, of easy diges 
lion, and not apt to affect the head, though the allusion would seem to im 
ply that it had not always preserved its innocuous quality. 

16-23. 16. Ab Italia volantcm, Sec. "Pursuing her with swift galleys, 
as she fled from Italy." The expression ab Italia volantcm is to be ex 
plained by the circumstance of Antony and Cleopatra's having intended 
to make a descent upon Italy before Augustus should be apprised of their 
coming. Hence the flight of Cleopatra, at the battle of Actium, was in 
reality ab Italia. — 20. Hcemonia. Haemonia was one of the early names 
of Thossaly. — Catenis. Augustus did not pi'oceed to Alexandrea till the 
year following; but the poet blends the defeat with the final conquest. 
[Osborne, ad loc.) — 21. Fatale monstrum. " The fated monster," i. c, the 
fated cause of evil to the Roman world. — Q?t<£. A syllepsis, the relative, 
being made to refer to the person indicated by monstrum, not to the gram 
matical gender of the antecedent itself. — 23. Expavit ensem. An allusion 
to the attempt which Cleopatra made upon her own life, when Proculcius 
was sent by Augustus to secure her person. — Ncc latcntes, Sec. "Nor 
sought with a swift fleet for other and secret shores." Observe the force 
of reparavit, and compare the explanation of Orelli : " Spc novi regm 
condendi, alias sibi parare et assequi stnduit rcgiones," Sec. By lalentcs 
oras are meant coasts lying concealed from the sway of the Romans. 
Plutarch states that Cleopatra formed the design, after the battle of Actium, 
of drawing a fleet of vessels into the Arabian Gulf, across the neck of land 
called at the present day the Isthmus of Suez, and of seeking some remote 
country where she might neither be reduced to slavery nor involved in 
war. The biographer adds, that the first ships transported across were 
burned by the natives of Arabia Petreea, and that Cleopatra subsequently 
abandoned the enterprise, resolving to fortify the avenues of her kingdom 
against the approach of Augustus. The account, however, which Dio 
Cassius gives, differs in some respect from that of Plutarch, since it makes 
the vessels destroyed by the Arabians to have been built on that side of 
the isthmus. Compare Plutarch, Vit. Anton., c. 69, vol. vi., p. 143, cd 
Hittten, and Dio Cassius, 51, 7, vol. i., p. 637, ed. Reimar. 

25-26. 25. Jacentern regiam. " Her palace plunged in affliction."— 
26. Fortis et asperas, &c. "And had courage to handle the exasperated 
serpents." Horace here adopts the common opinion of Cleopatra's deatt 
having been occasioned by the bite of an asp, the animal having been pre- 
viously irritated by the queen with a golden bodkin. There is a great 
deal of doubt, however, on this subject, as may be seen from Plutarch's 
statement. After mentioning the common account, which we have just 
given, the biographer remarks, "It was likewise reported that she car- 
ried about with her certain poison in a hollow bodkin which she wore in 
her hair, yet there was neither any mark of poison on her body, nor was 
there any serpent found in the monument, though the track of a reptile 
was said to have been discovered on the sea-sands opposite the windows 
of her apartment. Others, again, have affirmed that she had two smal. 
punctures on her arm, apparently occasioned by the asp's sting, and ta 

O 



314 EXPLANATORY ^ T OTES» BOOR ., ODE XXXVIII. 

this Caesar obviously gave credit, for her effigy which he carried in 
triumph had an asp on the arm." It is more than probable that the asp 
on the arm of the effigy was a mere ornament, mistaken by the populace 
for a symbolical allusion to the manner of Cleopatra's death. Or we may 
conclude with Wrangham that there would of course be an asp on the 
diadem of the effigy, because it was peculiar to the kings of Egypt. 

29-30. 29. Dclibcraia morte ferocior. " Becoming more fierce by a de 
termined resolution to die." Compare Orelli : "Per mortem dcliberatam 
ferocior facta." Morte is the instrumental ablati* s. — 30. Saevis Liburnis 
Sec. "Because, a haughty woman, she disdained being led away in the 
hostile galleys of the Liburnians, deprived of all her former rank, for the 
purpose of gracing the proud triumph of Augustus." Superbo triumpho 
is here put by a Groecism for ad superbum triumphum. The naves Li- 
bur nee were a kind of light galleys used by the Liburnians, an Illyrian race 
along the coast of the Adriatic, addicted to piracy. To ships of this con- 
struction Augustus was in a great measure indebted for his victory at Ac- 
tium. The vessels of Antony, on the other hand, were remarkable for 
their great size. Compare the tumid description of Florus (iv., 11, 5) : 
" Turribus atque tabulatis allcvata, casiellorum ct urbium specie, non sine 
gemitu maris, ct labore ventorum ferebantur." 



Ode XXXVIII. Written in condemnation, as is generally supposed, 
of the luxury and extravagance which marked the banquets of the day. 
The bard directs his attendant to make the simplest preparations for his 
entertainment. 

1-5. 1. Pcrsicos apparatus. " The festal preparations of the Per 
siaus," i. e., luxurious and costly preparations. — Nexa: philyra coronas 
" Chaplets secured with the rind of the linden." Chaplets, as already re 
marked, were supposed to be of efficacy in checking intoxication. Amonj 
the Romans they were made of ivy, myrtle, &c, interwoven chiefly witl 
violets and roses. If fastened on a strip of bark, especially the inner rind 
of the linden tree, they were called sutilcs. — 3. Mitte sectari. " Give over 
searching." — 4. Moretur. "Loiters beyond its season." — 5. Nihil alia* 
bores sedulus euro. . The order is nihil euro (ut) sedulus allabores. " I am 
not at all desirous that you take earnest pains to add any thing." Wa 
have given euro with Orelli, Dillenburger, and others. Wakefield (Silv. 
Crit., $ 55) proposes curai, joining it in construction with sedulus. Cun- 
ningham, Vaiart, and Doring adopt it. Bentley reads cura, taking cura 
as an imperative in the sense of cave. 



BOOK 11. 



Odr I. C. Asinius Pollio, distinguished as a soldier, a pleader, and 8 
•ragic writer, was engaged in writing a history of the civil war. Tha 
poet earnestly entreats him to persevere, and not to return to the paths 
of tragic composition until he should have completed his promised narra 
tive of Roman affairs. The ode describes in glowing colors the expccta 
tions entertained by the poet of the ability with which Pollio would treat 
so interesting and difficult a subject. 

1-6. 1. Ex Mctcllo consule. "From the consulship of Metellus." The 
narrative of Pollio, consequently, began with the formation of the first 
triumvirate, by Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus, A.U.C. 694, B.C. 59, in the 
consulship of Q,. Caecilius Metellus Celer and L. Afranius. This may 
well be considered as the germ of the civil wars that ensued. The Ro- 
mans marked the year by the names of the consuls, and he who had most 
suffrages, &c, was placed first. The Athenians, on the other hand, des- 
ignated their years by the name of the chief archon, who was hence call- 
ed "kpxoiv 'F,Trd)vv/u,oc. — 2. Bellique causas, &c. "And of the causes, and 
the errors, and the operations of the war." The term vitia has here a 
particular reference to the rash and unwise plans of Pompey and his fol- 
lowers. — 3 Ludumquc Fortunes. "And of the game that Fortune play 
ed." — Gravesque principum amicitias. "And of the fatal confederacies 
of the chiefs." An allusion to the two triumvirates. Of the first we have 
already spoken. The second was composed of Octavianus, Antony, and 
Lepidus. — 5. Nondum cxpiatis. Compare Ode i., 2, 29. — 6. Periculosts 
plenum, Sec. "An undertaking full of danger and of hazard." Opus is 
applied by some, though less correctly, we conceive, to the civil war itself. 
The metaphor of the poet is borrowed from the Roman games of chance*. 

8-12. 8. Cineri. The dative, put by a Graecism for the ablative. — 
9. P nullum severos, &c. "Let the muse of dignified tragedy be absent 
for a while from our theatres," i. e., suspend for a season thy labors in the 
field of tragic composition. The muse of tragedy is Melpomene, who pre- 
sided also over lyric verse. Compare Explanatory Notes, Ode i., 24, 3. 
— 10. Ubi publicas res ordinaris. "When thou hast chronicled our pub- 
lic affairs," i. e., hast completed thy history of our public affairs. The pas- 
sage may also be rendered, " When thou hast settled our public affairs," 
i. e., when, in the order of thy narrative, thou hast brought the history of 
our country down to the present period of tranquillity and repose. The 
former interpretation is decidedly preferable. — 11. Grande munus, Sec. 
" Thou wilt resume thy important task with all the dignity of the Athe- 
nian tragic muse," i. e., thou wilt return to thy labors in the walks of trag 
edy, and rival, as thou hast already done, the best efforts of the dramatic 
poets of Greece. — 12. Cccropio cothurno. Literally, " with the Cecropian 
buskin." Cecropio is equivalent to Attica, and alludes to Cecropa as the 
mythic founder of Athens. The cothurnus was the buskin worn by r'.iw 
tragic actors, and is here taken figuratively for tragedy itself. 



316 EXFLANATORY NOTES. BOOK II. ODE I. 

13-23. 13. Insig?x moestis, &c. "Distinguished source of aid to tht 
60irowful accused." Alluding to his abilities as an advocate. — 14. Con 
sulenti curia. " To the senate asking thy advice." It was the duty of 
the consul or presiding magistrate to ask the opinions of the individual 
6enators (consulere senatum). Here, however, the poet very beautifully 
assigns to the senate itself the office of him who presided over their delib< 
erations, and in making them ask the individual opinion of Pollio, repre- 
sents them as following with implicit confidence his directing and coun- 
selling voice. — 16. Dalmatico triumpho. Pollio triumphed A.U.C. 715, 
B.C. 38, over the Parthini, an Illyrian race, in the vicinity of Epidamnus. 
— 17. Jam nunc minaci, &c. The poet fancies himself listening to the re- 
cital of Pollio's histoiy, and to be hurried on by the animated and graphic 
periods of his friend into the midst of combats, and especially into the 
great Pharsalian conflict. — 19. Fugaces lerrct cquos, See. "Terrifies the 
flying steeds, and spreads alarm over the countenances of their riders." 
The zeugma in tcrrct is worthy of attention. — 21. Audire magnos, &c 
" Already methinks I hear the cry of mighty leaders, stained with no in 
glorious dust." — 23. Et cuncta terrarum, Sec. " And see the whole world 
subdued, except the unyielding soul of Cato." After cuncta understand 
loca. Cato the younger is alluded to, who put an end to his existence at 
Utica. Compare note on Ode i., 12, 35. 

25-40. 25. Juno et deorum, Sec. "Juno, and whosoever of the gods, 
more friendly to the people of Africa, unable to resist the power of the 
Fates, had retired from a land they could not then avenge, in after days 
offered up the descendants of the conquerors as a sacrifice to the shade of 
Jugurtha." The victory at Thapsus, where Caesar triumphed over tha 
remains of Pompey's party in Africa, and after which Cato put an end tc 
his own existence at Utica, is here alluded to in language beautifully po- 
etic. Juno, and the other tutelary deities of Africa, compelled to bend to 
the loftier destinies of the Roman name in the Punic conflicts and in the 
war with Jugurtha, are supposed, in accordance with the popular belief 
Qii such subjects, to have retired from the land which they found them 
selves unable to save. In a later age, however, taking advantage of the 
civil dissensions among the conquerors, they make the battle-field at Thap- 
sus, where Roman met Roman, a vast place of sacrifice, as it were, in 
which thousands were immolated to the manes of Jugurtha and the fallen 
fortunes of the land. — 29. Quis non Latino, Sec. The poet, as an induce- 
ment for Pollio to persevere, enlarges in glowing colors on the lofty and 
extensive nature of the subject which occupies the attention of his friend 
— 31. Auditumque Medis, Sec. " And the sound of the downfall of Italy, 
heard even by the distant nations of the East." Under the term Medis 
there is a special reference to the Parthians, the bitterest foes to the Ro 
man name. — 34. Daunice ccedes. "The blood of Romans." Daunice is 
here put for Italce or Romance. Compare note on Ode i., 22, 13. — 37. Sed 
ne relictis, &c. "But do not, bold muse, abandon sportive themes, and 
resume the task of the Ca^an dirge," i. e., never again boldly presume to 
direct thy feeble efforts toward subjects of so grave and mournful a char- 
acter. The expression Ccece ncenice refers to Simonides, the famous bard 
of Ceos, distinguished as a writer of mournful elegy, and who flourished 
about 605 B.C. — 39. Dionceo sub antro. "Beneath some cave sacred to 
Venus." Dione was the mother of Venus, whence the epithet Dioncem 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK II., C DE II. 31T 

applied to the latter goddess and what concerned her. — 40. Leviore plot 
tro. " Of a lighter strain. ' Compare note on Ode i., 26, 11. 



Oue II. The poet shows that the mere possession of riches can nevei 
bestow real happiness. Those alone are truly happy and truly wise whu 
know how to enjoy, in a becoming manner, the gifts which Fortune may 
bestow, since otherwise present wealth only gives rise to an eager desiro 
for more. 

The ode is addressed to Crispus Sallustius, nephew to the historian, and 
is intended, in fact, as a high encomium on his own wise employment of 
the ample fortune left him by his uncle. Naturally of a retired and philo- 
sophic character, Sallust had remained content with the equestrian rank 
in which he was born, declining all the offers of advancement that were 
made him by Augustus. 

1-12. 1. Nullus argento color. " Silver has no brilliancy." — 2. Inimice 
lamrfcB nisi temperato, &c. "Thou foe to wealth, unless it shine by mod- 
erate use." Lamnce (for lamina;) properly denotes plates of gold or silver, 
e. e., coined money or wealth in general. — 5. Extento aivo. " To a distant 
age." The dative used poetically for in extcntum ccvum. — Proculeius. 
C. Proculeius Varro Muroena, a Roman knight, and the intimate friend of 
Augustus. His sister was the wife of Maecenas. He is here praised for 
having shared his estate with his two brothers, who had lost all their prop- 
erty for siding with Pompey in the civil wars. — 6. Notus infratrcs, &c. 
" Well known for his paternal affection toward his brethren." — 7. Penna 
metuentc solvi. " On an untiring pinion." Literally, "on a pinion fearing 
to be tired or relaxed." The allusion is a figurative one, and refers to a 
pinion guarding, as it were, against being enfeebled. Compai'e the Greek 
ne(j)vXayfj.evn Xvecdai. — 11. Gadibus. Gades, now Cadiz, in Spain. — 
Uterque Pasnus. Alluding to the Carthaginian power, both at home and 
along the coast of Spain. Thus we have the Pceni in Africa, and the Bas- 
tuli Poeni along the lower part of the Mediterranean coast, in the Spanish 
peninsula, and, again, a Carthago at home, and a Carthago nova in Spain. 
— 12. Uni. Understand libi. 

13-23. 13. Crcscit indulgens sibi, &c. " The direful dropsy Increases 
by self-indulgence." Compare the remark of the scholiast : " Est autem 
hydropico proprium tit quanto amplius biberit, tanto amplius sitiat." 
The avaricious man is here compared to one who is suffering under a 
dropsy. In either case there is the same hankering after what only serves 
to aggravate the nature of the disease. — 15. Aquosus languor. The 
dropsy (vdpoip) takes its name from the circumstance of water (vdop) be- 
ing the most visible cause of the distemper, as well as from the pallid hue 
which ovei'spreads the countenance (uip) of the sufferer. It arises, in fact, 
from too lax a tone of the solids, whereby digestion is weakened, and all 
the parts are filled beyond measure. — 17. Cyri solio. By the "throne of 
Cyrus" is here meant the Parthian empire. Compare note on Ode i., 2, 
22. — Phrahaten. Compare note on Ode i., 26, 5. — 18. Dissidens plebi. 
" Dissenting from the ci*owd." — 19. Virtus. " True wisdom "—Popu- 
lumque falsi s, &c. " And teaches the populace to disuse false names (T'V 
things." — 22 Propriamqve laurum. * Ami the never-fading l»«if©l."~ 



318 EXPLANATORY rfu'MCs.— BOOK II., ODE III. 

23. Oculo irretorto. "With a steady gaze," i. e., without an envious 
look. Not regarding them with the sidelong glance of envy, but with the 
steady gaze of calm indifference. 



Ode III. Addressed to Q,. Dellius, and recommending a calm enjoy- 
ment of the pleasures of existence, since death, sooner or later, will bring 
all to an end. The individual to whom the ode is inscribed waa remark- 
able for his fickle and vacillating character; and so often did he change 
sides during the civil contest which took place after the death of Caesar, 
as to receive from Messala the appellation of desultorcm beilorum civili- 
um, ; a pleasant allusion to the Roman desultores, who rode two horses 
joined together, leaping quickly from the one to the other. Compare 
(Seneca (Suasor., p. 7) : " Bellissimam tamen rem Dellius dixit, quern Mes- 
tola Corvinus desultorem beilorum civilium vocat, quia ah Dolabella ad 
Cassium transiturus salutem sibi pactus est, si Dolabellam occidisset ; el 
a Cassio dcinde transivit ad Antonium : novissume ab Antonio transfugit 
ad Casa?-em." Consult, also, Veil. Patcrc., 2, 84, and Dio Cass., 49, 39. 

2-8. 2. Non sccus in bonis, &c. " As well as one restrained from im 
moderate joy in prosperity." — 4. Moriture. " Who at some time or other 
must end thy existence." Dacier well observes that the whole beauty 
and force of this strophe consists in the single word moriture, which is 
not only an epithet, but a reason to confirm the poet's advice. — 5. Dclli. 
The old editors', previous to Lambinus, read Deli; but consult Ruhnlcen, 
ad Veil. Paterc, 2, 84, on the orthography of this name. — 6. In renxoto 
gramine. "In some grassy retreat." — Dies Festos. Days among the 
Romans were distinguished into three general divisions, the Dies Festi, 
Dies Profesti, and Dies Intercisi. The Dies Festi, " Holy days," were 
consecrated to religious purposes ; the Dies Profesti were given to the 
common business of life, and the Dies Intercisi •were half holidays, divided 
between sacred and ordinary occupations. The Dies Fasti, on the other 
hand, were those on which it was lawful {fas) for the praetor to sit in 
judgment. All other days were called Dies Ncfasti, or " Non-court days." 
— 8. Interiore nota Falerni. " With the old Falernian," i. e., the choicest 
wine, which was placed in the farthest part of the vault or crypt, marked 
with its- date and growth. 

9-19. 9. Qua pinus ingens, &c. " Where the tall pine and silver pop 
far love to unite in forming with their branches an hospitable shade." 
The poet is probably describing some beautiful spot in the pleasure- 
grounds of Dellius. The editions before that of Lambinus have Quo, for 
which he first substituted Qua, on the authority of some MSS. Fea and 
others attempt to defend the old reading, but qua is more elegantly used 
in the sense of ubi than quo. — 11. Et obliquo laborat, &c. "And the 
swiftly-moving water strives to run murmuring along in its winding chan- 
nel." The beautiful selection of terms in laborat and trepidare is worthy 
of particular notice. — 13. Nimium brevis roses. " Of the too short-lived 
rose" — 15. Res. "Your opportunities." Compare the explanation of 
Oreili: "Res : iota vita; tux conditio, ac singula? occasiones." — Sororum. 
The Fates. — 17. Cocmptis. " Bought up on all sides." — Domo. The tens 
domus here denotes that part of the villa occupied by the proprietor I'ixn 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK II., ODE VI. 31b 

*d1\, while villa designates the other buildings and appurtenances of the 
estate, designed not only for use, hut also for pleasure. Compare Braun- 
hard, ad Inc. Hence we may render the words et domo villaque as follows : 
" and fro..n thy lordly mansion and estate." — 18. Flavus Tiberis. Com- 
pare note on Ode i., 2, 13. — 19. Exstruclis in altum. " Piled up on high." 

21-28. 21. Divcsne prisco, &c. " It matters not whether thou dwellest 
beneath the light of heaven, blessed with riches and descended from Ina- 
chus of old, or in narrow circumstances and of the lowliest birth, since in 
either event thou art the destined victim of unrelenting Orcus." The ex- 
pression prisco natus ab Inacho is equivalent to antiquissima stirpc ori- 
■undus, Inachus having been, according to the common account, the most 
ancient king of Argos. The term moreris derives elucidation from Cicero, 
de Sen., 23 : " commorandi natura dcversorinm nobis, non habitandi lo- 
cum dedit." — 25. Omnes codcm cogimur. "We are all driven toward the 
same quarter." Alluding to the passage of the shades, under the guidance 
of Mercury, to the other world. — Omnium vcrsalur urna, &c. " The lots of 
all are shaken in the urn, destined sooner or later to come forth, and place 
us in the bark for an eternal exile." The urn here alluded to is that held 
by Necessity in the lower world. Some editions place a comma after 
urna, making it the nominative to versatur ; and urna omnium will then 
signify " the urn containing the destinies of all." But the construction is 
too harsh; and the caesura, which would then be requisite for lengthening 
the final syllable of urna, is of doubtful application for such a purpose — 
28. Cymbte. The dative, by a Graecism, for the ablative cymba. 



Ode VI. The poet expresses a wish to spend the remainder of his days 
\long with his friend Septimius, either amid the groves of Tibur, or the 
lair fields of Tarentum. 

The individual to whom the ode is addressed was a member of the 
equestrian order, and had fought in the same ranks with Horace during 
the civil contest. Hence the language of Porphyrion : " Septimium, equi- 
tem Romanum, amicum et commilitonem stium hac ode alloquitur." From 
die words of Horace (Epist., i., 3, 9-14) he appears to have been also a 
votary of the Muses, and another scholiast remarks of him, " Titius Sep- 
timius lyrica carmina et tragadias scripsit, Augusti tempore : sed libri 
;jus nulli extant." 

1-2. 1. Gades aditure mecum. "Who art ready to go with me to Ga- 
des." We must not imagine that any actual departure, either for Gades 
or the other quarters mentioned in this stanza, was contemplated by the 
poet. He merely means, to go thither if requisite ; and hence the lan- 
guage of the text is to be taken for nothing more than a genera) eulogium 
on the tried friendship of Septimius. As respects Gades, compare Ode ii., 
2, 11. — 2. Et Cantabrum indoctum, &c. "And against the Cantabrian, 
untaught as yet to endure our yoke." The Cantabri were a warlike na- 
tion of Spain, extending over what is at present Biscay and part of Astu- 
rias. Their resistance to the Roman arms was long and stubborn, and 
hence the language of Horace in relation to them, Ode iii., 8, 22 : " Can- 
taber sera domitus catena." The present ode appears to have been writ 
ten previoas to their final subjugation. 



320 EXPLANATORY. NOTES. BOOK II., ODE "VII 

3-11. 3. Barbaras Syrtes. "The barbarian Syrtes." Ai aiding to th» 
two well-known gulfs on the Mediterranean coast of Africa, the Syrtis 
Major, or Gulf of Sidra* and the Syrtis Minor, or Gulf of Cabes. The term 
barbarus refers to the rude and uncivilized tribes in the vicinity. — Maura. 
By synecdoche for Africa unda. — 5. Tibur, Argeo positum colonu. Com- 
pare note on Ode i., 7, 13. — 7. Sit '.nodus lasso, &c. " May it be a limit 
of wandering unto me, wearied out with the fatigues of ocean, land, and 
military service." The genitives maris, viarum, and militia are put by 
a Graecism for ablatives. — 8. Militi&que. The single campaign under 
Brutus, and its disastrous close at Philippi, formed the extent of the poet's 
warlike experience. — 9. Prohibent. "Exclude me." — 10. Dulce pellitts 
ovibus. " Pleasing to the sheep covered with skins." The sheep that 
fed along the banks of the Galsesus, now the Galeso, and the valley of 
Aulon, had a wool so fine that they were covered with skins to protect 
their fleeces from injury. The same expedient was resorted to in the case 
of the Attic sheep. The River Galtesus flowed within five miles of Ta- 
rentum, and fell into the inner harbor. — 11. Laconi Plialanto. Alluding 
to tho story of Phalantus and the Partheniac, who came as a colony from 
Sparta to Tarentum, about 700 B.C. 

13-22. 13. Mihi ridet. " Possesses charms for me." Literally, "looks 
laughingly upon me," "smiles upon me," i. e., pleases me. A similar 
usage prevails in Greek in the case of the verb ye?id(*s- — 14. Ubi non Hy- 
metto, &c. "Where the honey yields not to that of Hymettus, and the 
olive vies with the produce of the verdant Venafrum." — Hy metto. Hy- 
mettus was a mountain in Attica, famed for its honey, which is still in 
high repute among the modern Greeks. It has two summits, one ancient- 
ly called Hymettus, now T rclovouni ; the other, Anydros (or the dry Hy- 
mettus), now Lamprovouni. — 16. Venafro. Venafrum was the last city 
of Campania to the north, and near the River Vulturnus. It was cele 
brated for its olives and oil. The modern name is Venafro. — 17. Tcpidas- 
que brumas. "And mild winters." — 18. Jupiter. Taken for the climate 
of the region, or the sky. — 19. Fertili. " Rich in the gifts of the vintage." 
The common text has ferlilis. Aulon was a ridge and valley in the neigh- 
borhood of Tarentum, and very productive. The modem name is Terra 
di Melone. The term aulon itself is of Greek origin (avXuv), and denotes 
any narrow valley or pass. — Minimum invidet. " Is far from envying," i. e., 
is not inferior to. Literally, "envies least." — 21. Beata colles. "Those 
delightful hills." — 22. Ibi tu calentem, &c. " There shalt thou sprinkle, 
with the tear due to his memory, the warm ashes of the poet, thy friend.' 
— Calentem. Alluding to then being still warm from the funeral pile 



Ode VII. Addressed to Pompeius, a friend of the poet's, who had fought 
on the same side with him at the battle of Philippi. The poet returned 
to Rome, but Pompeius continued in arms, and was only restored to his 
native country when the peace concluded between the triumvirs and 
Sextus Pomp ey enabled the exiles and proscribed of the republican party 
to revisit their homes. The bard indulges in the present effusion <m the 
restoration of his friend. 

Who this friend was is far from being clearly ascertained. Most com- 
mentators make hira to have been Pompeius Grosphus, a Roman kn'-cdifc 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. — llOOK II., ODE VJ1. 321 

«ji<3 freedman of Pompey tlie Great. If tin's opinion be correct, he will 
oe the same with the individual to whom the sixteenth ode of the present 
book is inscribed, and who is also mentioned inEpist. i., 12, 23. Vander 
bourg, however, is in favor of Pompeius Varus. " Les MSS.," observe* 
this editor, "no sont point d' accord sur les noms de cet ami de notra 
poete. J'ai cru long temps avec Sanadon, et MM. "Wetzel et Mitscher 
Jich, devoir le confondre avec le Pompeius Grosphus de l'Ode 16 de ca 
Vtvre, et de l'epitre 12, du liv. 1. Mais jc pense aujourd'hui avec les an 
ciens commentateurs, suivis en cela par Dacier et M. Voss, que Pompeius 
Virus etoient ses nom et surnom veritables." 

1-8. 1. O scope mccum, &c. The order of construction is as follows : 
O Pompei, prime meorum sodalium, scepc deduele mccum in ultimum tern- 
pus, Bruto duce militia, quis redonavit l¥ Quiritem diis patriis Ilaloqug 
ccelo ? — Tempus in ultimum deducte. " Involved in the greatest danger." 
Compare Catullus, lxiv., v. 151 : " supremo in tempore ;" and v. 169 : " ex 
trcnio tempore sava Fors." — 3. Quis te redonavit Quiritem. " Who has re 
stored thee as a Roman citizen 1" i. e., with thy full rights of citizenship. 
The name Quiritem here implies a full return to all the rights and privi- 
leges of citizenship, which had been forfeited by his bearing arms against 
the established authority of the triumvirate. — 6. Cum quo morantcm, &c. 
"Along with whom I have often broken the lingering day with wine." 
Compare note on Ode i., 1, 20. — 8. Malobathro Syrio. " With Syrian 
malobathrum." Pliny (H. N., 12, 26) mentions three kinds of malobathrum, 
the Syrian, Egyptian, and Indian, of which the last was the best. The 
Indian, being conveyed across the deserts of Syria by the caravan-trade 
to the Mediterranean coast, received from the Romans, in common with 
the first-mentioned species, the appellation of " Syrian." Some diversity 
of opinion, however, exists with regard to this production. Pliny describes 
it as follows : " In paludibus gigni tradunt lentis modo, odoratius croco, 
nigricans scabrumquc, qtiodam salis gustu. Minus probatur candidum. 
Cclerrime situm in vetustate sentit. Sapor ejus nardo similis debet esse 
sub lingua. Odor vero in vino svffervefacti antccedit alios." Some have 
supposed it to be the same with the betel or betre, for an account of which 
consult De Maries, Histoire Generale de I'Inde, vol. i., p. 69. Malte-Brun, 
however, thinks that it was probably a compound extract of a number of 
plants with odoriferous leaves, such as the laurel, called in Malabar Fa- 
mala, and the nymphea, called Famara in Sanscrit; the termination ba~ 
thrum being from patra, the Indian word for a leaf. [System of Geog., 
vol. iii., p. 33, Am. ed.) Weston's opinion is different. According to this 
writer, the malobathrum is called in Pei'sian sadedj hindi or sadedj of India 
(Materia Medica Kahirina, p. 148, Forskal., 1775), and the term is com 
posed of two Arabic words, melab-athra or esra, meaning an aromatic pos- 
sessing wealth, or a valuable perfume. 

9-13. 9. Tecum Philippos sensi, &c. Compare " Life of Horace,*' 
p.xviii.of this volume. Philippi was a city of Thrace, to the northeast of 
Amphipolis, and in the immediate vicinity of Mount Pangaeus. It was 
celebrated for the victory gained here by Antony and Octavianus over 
Hrutus and Cassius. Its ruins still retain the name of Filibah. — Relicta 
y„on bene parmula. " My shield being irgloriously abandoned " Consul^ 
1 Life of Horace," p. xviii. — 11 Quum fra<:tavirlv*. * When valcr Itself 

s 



322 EXPLANATOB £ NOTES. BOOK II. ODE VII. 

was overcome." A manly and withal true eulogium on the spirit and 
bravery of the republican forces. The better troops were in reality on the 
side of Brutus and Cassius, although Fortune declared for Octavianus and 
Antony. — 12. Turpe. "Polluted with gore." — Solum teligere me nto. Com- 
pare the Homeric form of expression [II. , ii., 41), trpriveec. kv noviyciLV bdu^ 
\aC,olaro yalav- — 13. Mercurius. An imitation of the imagery of the 
Tliad. As in the battles of Homer heroes are often earned away by pro- 
tecting deities from the dangers of the fight, so, on the present occasion, 
Mercury, who presided over arts and sciences, and especially over the 
music of the lyre, is made to befriend the poet, and to save him from the 
dangers of the conflict. Compare Ode ii., 17, 29, where Mercury is styled 
' custos Mercurialium virorum." 

11-23. 14. Denso acre. "In a thick cloud." Compare the Homeric 
form, ijipt noAAij. — 15. Te rursus xn bellum, &c. " Thee the wave of bat- 
tle, again swallowing up, bore back to the war amid its foaming waters." 
— 17. Obligatam dapem. "Thy votive sacrifice," i. e., due to the fulfill 
ment of thy vow." He had vowed a sacrifice to Jove in case he escaped 
the daugers of the war. — 20. Cadis. The Roman cadus was equivalent 
lo forty-eight sextarii, or twenty-seven English quarts. It was of earthen- 
ware. — 21. Oblivioso Massico. "With oblivious Massic," i. e., care-dis- 
pelling. The Massic was the best growth among the Falernian wines. 
It was produced on the southern declivities of the range of hills in tho 
neighborhood of the ancient Sinuessa. A mountain near the site of Sin- 
uessa is still called Monte Massico. — 22. Ciboria. The ciborium was 
a large species of drinking-cup, shaped like the follicule or pod of the 
Egyptian bean, which is the primitive meaning of the term. It was 
larger below than above. — 23. Conchis. Vases or receptacles for per 
fumes, shaped like shells. The term may here be rendered " shells." — 
U4. Apio. Compare note on Ode i., 36, 16. 

25-27. 25. Qucm Venus, &c. The ancients, at their feasts, appointed a 
person to preside by throwing the dice, whom they called arbiter bibendi 
{avfx-ooLupxv?)' " master of the feast." He directed every thing at pleas 
ure. In playing at games of chance they used three tessera, and four tali. 
The tessera? had six sides, marked I., II., III., IV., V., VI. The tali had 
four sides longwise, for the two ends were not regarded. On one side was 
marked one point {unio, an ace, called Canis), and on the opposite side 
six {Senio,) while on the two other sides were three and four (ternio el 
quaternio). The highest or most fortunate throw was called Venus, and 
determined the direction of the feast. It was, of the tessera, three sixes 
of the tali, when all of them came out different numbers. The worst or 
lowest throw was termed Ca?iis, and was, of the tessera, three aces, and 
of the tali when they were all the same. Compare Reitz, ad Lucian., 
Am., vol. v., p. 568, ed. Bip. ; Sueton., Aug., 71, et Crusius, ad loc, and the 
Dissertation "Z>e Ta-lis," quoted by Gesner, Thes. L. L., and bv Bailey, 
in his edition of Forcdlini, Lex. Tot. Lat.-^26. Non ego sanies, &c. "I 
will revel as wildly as the Thracians." The Edoni or Edones were a 
well known Thracian tribe on the banks of the Stryrnon. Their name is 
often used by the Greek poets to express the whole of the nation of whict 
they formed a part, a custom which Horace here imitates. — 27. Reccpto 
furere amico " To indulge in extravagance on the recovery of a friend ' 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK 11., ODE IX. &2tt 

Ode IX. Addressed to T. Valgius Iiufu,s, inconsolable at the loss of hu 
sou Myites, who had been taken from him by an untimely death. The 
bard counsels his friend to cease from his unavailing sorrow, and to ahii. 
with him the praises of Augustus. 

The individual to whom the ode is inscribed was himself a poet, aud is 
mentioned by Tibullus (iv., 1> 180) in terms of high commendation : " Val- 
gius ; ccterno propior non alter Homero." It is to the illusion of frienu 
■hip, most probably, that we must ascribe this lofty eulogium, since Q.uin- 
tilian makes no mention whatever of the writer in question. Horace 
names him among those by whom he wishes his productions to be ap 
proved. (Sat., I, 10, 82.) 

1-7. 1. Non semper, &c The expressions semper, usque, and menses 
per omnes, iu this and the succeeding stanza, convey a delicate reproof 
of the incessant sorrow iu which the bereaved parent so unavailingly in- 
dulges. — Hispidos in agros. " On the rough fieHs." The epithet hixj/i- 
dus properly refers to the effect produced o,i elk, surface of the ground by 
the action of the descending rains. It approximates here very closely to 
the term squalidus. — 2. Aut mare Caspium, &c. " Nor do varying blasts 
continually disturb the Caspian Sea." According to Malte-Brun, the north 
and south winds, acquiring strength from the elevation of the shores of 
the Caspian, added to the facility of their motion along the surface of the 
water, exercise a powerful influence in varying the level at the opposite 
extremities. Hence the variations have a range of from four to eight feet, 
and powerful currents are generated V)th with the rising and subsiding 
of the winds. (System of Geograpay, vol. ii., p. 313.) — 4. Armeniis in 
oris. '* On the borders of Armenia The allusion is to the northern con- 
fines. Armenia forms a very elevated plain, surrounded on all sides by 
lofty mountains, of which Ararat and Kohi-seiban are crowned with per- 
petual snow. The cold in the high districts of the country is so very in- 
tense as to leave only three months ior the season of vegetation, including 
seed-time and harvest. (Compare Malte-Brun, System of Geography, 
vol. ii., p. 103.) — 7. Qucrccta Gargani. " The oak-groves of Garganus." 
The chain of Mount Garganus, now Monte S. Angclo, runs along a part of 
the coast of Apulia, aud finally terminates in the Promontorium Garga- 
aum, now Punta di Vicsta, foxing a bold projection into the Adriatic. 

9-10. 9. Tu semper urges, c. " And yet thou art ever in mournful 
itrains pursuing thy Mystes, torn from thee by the hand of death." Urges 
i« here used as a more emphatic and impressive term than the common 
woscqueris, and implies a pressing closely upon the footsteps of another 
n eager pursuit. — 10. Nee tibi vespero, &c. " Nor do thy affectionate sor- 
rows cease when Vesper rises, nor when he flees from before the rapidly- 
ascending sun." The phrase Vespero surgente marks the evening period, 
when Vesper (the planet Venv.s) appears to the east of the sun, and im- 
parts its mild radiance after that luminary has set. On the other hand, 
the expression fugicnte solem indicates the morning, in allusion to that 
portion of the year when the same planet appears to the west of the sun, 
and rises before him. The poet, then, means to designate the evening 
and morning, and to convey Jhe idea that the sorrows of Valgius admit of 
no cessation or repose, but continue unremitted throughout the night a* 
well as day. The planet Venus, when it goes before the sun, is called, iu 



J24 EXPLANATORY NOTES. — BOOK II., ODE X. 

strictness, Lucijer, or the morning star; but when it follows the Hun it 
termed Hesperus or Vesper, and by us the evening star. 

13-23. 13. Tcr cevo functus sencx. "The aged warrior who lived thre* 
gsnerations." Alluding to Nestor. Homer makes Nestor to have passed 
through two generations, and to be ruling, at the time of the Trojan war, 
among a third. — 14. Antilochum. Antilochus, son of Nestor, was slain in 
defence of his father by Memnon. {Horn., Od., iv., 188.) — 15. Troilum. 
Tro'ilus, son of Priam, was slain by Achilles. (Virg., sEn., i., 474.) — 16 
Phrygian. Put for Trojancc. — 17. Desinc mollium, Sec. "Cease, thoo, 
these unmanly complaints." Prose Latinity would require, in the place 
of this Graecism, the ablative qucrelis or the infinitive queri. — 18. Nova 
Augusti tropcea. Alluding to the successful operations of Augustus with 
the Armenians and Parthians, and to the repulse of the Geloni, who had 
crossed the Danube, and committed ravages in the Roman territories. — 
20. Rigidum Niphatcn. " The ice-clad Niphates." The ancient geogra 
phers gave the name of Niphates to a range of mountains in Armenia, 
forming part of the great chain of Taurus, and lying to the southeast of 
the Arsissa palus or Lake Van. Their summits are covered with snow 
throughout the whole year, and to this circumstance the name Niphates 
contains an allusion (Ni(f>uT7)c, quasi vifyerudnc, "snowy"). — 21. Medum 
flumen, &c. " And how the Parthian river, added to the list of conquered 
nations, rolls humbler waves." By the Parthian river is meant the Eu- 
phrates. The expression geyitibus additum victis is equivalent merely to 
in populi Romani potestatcm redactum. — 23. Intraque prcescriptum, &c. 
" And how the Geloni roam within the limits prescribed to them, along 
their diminished plains." The Geloni, a Sarmatian race, having crossed 
the Danube and laid waste the confines of the empire in that quarter, 
were attacked and driven across the river by Lentulus, the lieutenant of 
Augustus. Hence the use of the term pnescriptum, in allusion to the 
Danube being interposed as a barrier by their conquerors, and hence, too 
the check given to their inroads, which were generally made by them on 
horseback, is alluded to in the expression exiguis equitare campis. 



Ode X. Addressed to Liciniu* Murena, afterward, by adoption, Teren 
tius Varro Murena, brother of Proculeius Varro Murena, mentioned in the 
second Ode (v. 5) of the present book. Of a restless and turbulent spir- 
it, and constantly forming new schemes of ambition, Licinius was a total 
stranger to the pleasure inseparable from a life of moderation and content. 
It is the object of the poet, therefore, to portray in vivid colors the securi- 
ty and happiness ever attendant upon such a state of existence. 

The salutary advice of the bard proved, however, of no avail. Licinius 
had before this lost his all in the civil contest, and had been relieved by 
the noble generosity of Proculeius. Uninstructed by the experience of 
the past, he now engaged in a conspiracy against Augustus, and was 
banished and afterward put to death, notwithstanding all the interest of 
Proculeius, and Maecenas, who had married his sister Terentia. 

1-21. 1. Rectius. "More consistently with reason." — Neque altum 
semper uigendo. "By neither always pursuing the main ocean," i. e. 
by neithei always launching out boldly into the deep. — 3. Nimium ttr* 



EXPLANATORY NOTES.- - BOOK II., ODE XI. 325 

noulc lit us miquum. u By keeping; too near the perilous shore."— 
5. Auwam quisquis mediocritalem, &.c. The change of meaning in caret 
(which is required, however, more hy the idiom of our own language than 
by that of the Latin) is worthy of notice. The whole passage may bo 
paraphrased as follows: •'Whoever makes cnoice of the golden mean, 
safe from all the ills of poverty [tutus), is not compelled to dwell amid 
(caret) the wretchedness of some miserable abode ; while, on the other 
hand, moderate in his desires (sobrius), he needs not (card) the splendid 
palace, the object of envy." — 9. Scepius. "More frequently," i. c., than 
trees of lower size. Some editions have sa:vius. — 10. Et celsa; graviore 
casu, &c. " And lofty structures fall to the ground with heavier ruin," 
I. e., than humble ones. — 11. Summos montes. " The highest mountains.' 
■—14. Alteram sortem. "A change of condition." — Bene praparalum 
pectus. "A well-regulated breast." — 15. Informcs hiemes. "Gloomy 
winters." — 17. Non si male nunc, &c. " If misfortune attend thee now, 
it will not also be thus hereafter." — 18. Quondam cithara tacentem, &c 
•' Apollo oftentimes arouses with the lyre the silent muse, nor always 
bends his bow." The idea intended to be conveyed is, that as misfortune 
is not to last forever, so neither are the gods unchanging in their anger 
toward man. Apollo stands forth as the representative of Olympus, pro 
pitious when he strikes the lyre, ofl'inded when he bends the bow. — 
19. Suscitat musam. Equivalent, in fact, to edit sonos, pulsa cithara. 
The epithet tacentem refers merely t> an interval of silence on the part 
of the muse, i. e., of anger on the part of the god. — 21. Animosus atqut 
forlis. " Spirited and firm." 



Ode XL Addressed to GLuinctius, an individual of timid character, and 
constantly tormented with the anticipation of future evil to himself and 
his extensive possessions. The poet advises him to banish these gloomy 
thoughts from his mind, and give to hilarity the fleeting hours of a brief 
existence. 

1-19. 1. Quid bellicosus Cantaber, See. Compare note on Ode ii., 6, 2 
— 2. Hadria divisus objecto. " Separated from us by the intervening 
Adriatic." The poet does not mean that the foes here mentioned were 
in possession of the opposite shores of the Adriatic Sea ; such a supposi 
tion would be absurd. He merely intends to quiet the fears of Q.uinctius 
by a general allusion to the obstacles that intervened. — 4. Ncc trepides in 
'xsum, &c. " And be not solicitous about the wants of a life that askg 
but few things for its support." — 5. Fugit retro. For recedit. — 11. Quid 
ezternis minorem, Sec. " Why dost thou disquiet thy mind, unable to take 
in eternal designs V i. e., to extend its vision beyond the bounds of human 
existence. — 14. Sic temere. "Thus at ease "--15. Canos. Equivalent 
to albescentes. "Beginning to grow gray." — 1/. Euius. Bacchus. Com 
pare note en Ode i., 18, 9. — 19. Restinguet ardentes, &c. " Will tempef 
the cups of fiery Falernian with the stream that glides by our side." The 
ancients gene; ally drank their wine diluted with water, on account of it 
strength. 



o2f> .EXPLAxVATORY NOTES. BOOK II., ODE XII, 

Ode XII. Addressed to Maecenas. The poet, having been requested 
by his patron to sing the exploits of Augustus, declines attempting sc 
arduous a theme, and exhorts Maecenas himself to make them the subject 
of an historical narrative. 

1-11. 1. Nulls. " Do not wish." The subjunctive is here employed as 
a softened form of the imperative. — Longa fer<e bella Numarilue. Nu- 
mantia is celebrated in history for offering so long a resistance to the Ro- 
man arms. It was situate near the sources of the River Durius, now the 
Douro, on a rising ground, and defended on three sides by very thick 
woods and steep declivities. One path alone led down into the plain, and 
this was guarded by ditches and palisades. It was taken and destroyed 
by the younger Africauus subsequently to the overthrow of Carthage. — 
2. Siculum mare. The scene of frequent and bloody contests Lolween 
the fleets of Rome and Carthage. — 3. Mollibus cilharce modis. " To the 
soft measures of my lyre." — 5. Savos. "Fierce." — Nimium. "Impelled 
to unrestrained desire," I. e., to lewdness. Alluding to his attempt on the 
person of Hippodamia. Compare Braunhard: " Nimius mero, qui, vino 
largius poto calefactus, ad libidincm proclivior f actus est, uKpar^c yevo- 
ucvoc ETndvfiicJv." — 7. Tclluris Juvenes. "The warrior-sons of earth.'' 
Referring to the giants, Trjyevelc. — 8. Pcriculum contremuit. "In 
trembling alarm apprehended danger." An active intransitive verb with 
the accusative. — 9. Pcdestribus historiis. " In prose narrative." Com- 
pare the Greek 7re£of Xoyoc. — 11. Melius. "With more success," i. e., 
than I can aspire to. — Ducla. "Led in triumph." — Vias. Referring to 
the streets of Rome through which the triumphal procession would pass, 
but in particular to the Via Sacra, which led up to the Capitol. 

13-28. 13. Domini Licymnia^. " Of thy lady Licymnia." By Ll- 
cymnia is here meant Terentia, the young and beautiful wife of Maecenas, 
ind Horace, in speaking of her, employs, out of respect, a fictitious name, 
observing, at the same time, the rule of the ancient poets, namely, that the 
appellation substituted be the same in number and quantity of syllables 
as the one for which it is used ( Tirenltd, Licymnia). The epithet domina 
indicates respect. They who make Licymnia the name of a female friend 
of the poet himself, will find a difficulty to overcome in v. 21, seqq. — 
15. Bene mutuis Jidem amoribus. "Truly faithful to reciprocated love." 
—17. Ferre pedem choris. "To join in the dance." — 18. Joco. "In sport- 
ive mirth." — Dare brachia. Alluding to the movements of the dance, 
when those engaged in it either throw their arms around, or extend their 
hands to one another. — 19. Nitidis. " In fair array." — 21. Num tu, qua 
tenuit, &c. " Canst thou feel inclined to give a single one of the tresses 
of Licymnia for all that the rich Achaemenes ever possessed," &c. Crine 
is put in the ablative as marking the instrument of exchange. — Achaime 
nes. The founder of the Persian monarchy, taken here to denote the op- 
ulence and power of the kings of Persia in general. Achaemenes is sup- 
posed to be identical with Djemschid. — 22. Aut pinguis Phrygian Myg- 
donias opes. " Or the M}-gdonian treasures of fertile Phrygia/ * .»., the 
treasures (rich produce) of Mygdonian Phrygia. The epithet Mygdonian 
is applied to Phrygia, either in allusion to the Mygdones, a Thracian tribe 
who settled in this country, or with reference to one of the ancient xrsa 
archsof the land. The former is probably the more correc.: opinion. 



EXPLANATORY NOTES BOOK II., ODE JLII1. HQTi 

Que XIII, The poet, having narrowly escaped destruction fiom the fau« 
ing a: a tree, indulges in strong and angry invectives against hoth the 
tree and the individual who planted and reared it. The subject naturally 
leads to serious reflections, aud the bard sings of the world of spirits to 
which he had been almost a visitant. The poet alludes to this same acci- 
dent in tne lTTli ode of the present book (v. 28), and also in the 4th ode of 
the third book (v. 27), where he speaks of his celebrating the anniversary 
of his deliverance on the Calends of March, the date of the accident. 

1-11. 1. Me et nefaslo, &c. "O tree, whoever first planted thee, 
planted thee on an unlucky day, ar|d with a sacrilegious hand reared thee 
for the ruin of posterity and the disgrace of the district." Pagus alludes 
to the village district of Mandela, to which Horace's Sabine farm belonged. 
With quicunquc primum understand posuit te. Bentley reads Ilium 6 
for Me et, and places a semicolon after pagi in the fourth line. The pas- 
sage, as altered by him, will then be translated as follows : " For my part, 
I believe that he whoever first planted thee," &c, and then in the fifth 
line, "1 say, I believe that he both made away with the life of his parent," 
c£c. — Ncfasto die. Compare note on Ode ii., 3, 6. — 5. Crcdiderim. "For 
my part, I believe." The perfect subjunctive is here used with the force 
of a present, to express a softened assertion. — 6. Fregisse eermcem. 
"Strangled." Supply loqueo. — Et penetralia, &c. "And sprinkled the 
inmost parts of his dwelling with the blood of a guest slain in the night- 
season." To violate the ties of hospitality was ever deemed one of the 
greatest of crimes. — 8. Me venena Colcha, &c. " He was wont to handle 
Colchian poisons, and to perpeti-ate whatever wickedness is any where 
conceived," &c, i. e., all imaginable wickedness. The zeugma in tracla 
vit is worthy of notice. Observe the force of the aorist in tractavit, as in 
diqating custom or habit. — Venena Colcha. The name and skill of Medea 
gave celebrity, among the poets, to the poisons of Colchis. Colcha for 
Colchica. — 11. Triste lignum. "Unlucky tree." Lignum marks con 
tempt. — Caducum. Equivalent here to " quod prope casurum erat." 

13-18. 13. Quid quisque vitet, &c. "Man is never sufficiently aware 
of the danger that he has every moment to avoid." — 14. Bosporum. Al- 
luding to the Thracian Bosporus, which was considered peculiarly dan- 
gerous by the early mariners on account of the Cyanean rocks at tbe en- 
trance of the Euxine. — 17. Sagittas et celerem fugam Parthi. Compare 
note on Ode i., 19, 11. — 18. Italum robur. "An Italian prison." The 
term robur appears to allude particularly to the well-known prison at 
Rome called Tullianum. It was originally built by Ancus Marcius, and 
afterward enlarged by Servius Tullius, whence that part of it which was 
under ground, and built by him, received the name of Tullianum. Thus 
Varro [L. L., 4) observes : " In hoc, pars quae sub terra Tullianum, ideo 
quod additum a Tullio rege." The full expression is " Tullianum ro- 
bur," from its walls having been originally of oak. In this prison, captive 
monarchs, after having been led through the streets of Rome in triumph^ 
were confined, and either finally beheaded or starved to death. 

20-26. 20. Improvisa leti vis, &c. " The unforeseen attack of death 
has hurried off, and will continue to hurry off the nations of the world." — 
21. Quam pcencfurva, &c. "How near were we to beholding the realm? 



128 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK II., ODE XIII. 

of sable Proserpina." — 22. Jvdicantcm. " Dispensing justice." Plalo, in 
lis Gorgias (p. 521, A.j, re[ resents iEacus as judging the shades froir 
Europe, and Rhadamanthus those from Asia, while Minos sat as supreme 
judge to hear appeals. The case of Horace, therefore, would have fallen 
under the jurisdiction of iEacus. — 23. Sedesque discretas viorum. "The 
separate abodes of the pious," i.e., the abodes of the good separated from 
those of the wicked. The allusion is to the Elysian Fields. — 24. Mollis 
fidibus querentem, <Scc. " Sappho, complaining on her jEolian lyre of the 
damsels of her native island." Sappho, the famous poetess, was born at 
Mytilene, in the island of Lesbos, and as she wrote in the iEolic dialect, 
which was that of her native island, Horace has designated her lyre by 
the epithet of " iEolian." — 26. Et te sonantem plenius aureo, &c. "And 
thee, Alcaeus, sounding forth in deeper strains, with thy golden quill, the 
hardships of ocean, the hardships of exile, the hardships of war." Alcaeus, 
a native of Mytilene, in the island of Lesbos, was contemporary with Sap- 
pho, Pittacus, and Stesichorus {Clinton's Fasti Hellenici, p. 5, 2d ed.), 
and famed as well for his resistance to tyranny and his unsettled life, as 
for his lyric productions. Having aided Pittacus to deliver his country 
from the tyrants which oppressed it, he quarrelled with this friend when 
the people of Mytilene had placed uncontrolled power in the hands erf' the 
latter, and some injurious verses which he composed against Pittacus 
caused himself and his adherents to be driven into exile. An endeavor 
to return by force of arms proved unsuccessful, and Alcaeus fell into the 
power of his former friend, who, forgetting all that had passed, generously 
granted him both life and freedom. In his odes Alcaeus treated of various 
topics. At one time he inveighed against tyrants ; at another, he deplored 
the misfortunes which had attended him, and the pains of exile ; while, 
on other occasions, he celebrated the praises of Bacchus and the goddess 
of love. He wrote in the iEolic dialect. 

29-39. 29. Utrvmque sacro, <5cc. " The disembodied spirits listen with 
admiration to each, as they pour forth strains worthy of being heard in 
sacred silence." At the ancient sacred rites the most profound silence 
was required from all who stood around, both out of respect to the deity 
whom they were worshipping, as also lest some ill-omened expression, 
casually uttered by any one of the crowd, should mar the solemnities of 
the day. Hence the phrase " sacred silence" became eventually equiva- 
lent to, and is here used generally as " the deepest silence." — 30. Sed ma- 
gis pugnas, &c. " But the gathering crowd, pressing with their shoulders 
to hear, drink in with more delight the narrative of conflicts and of tyrants 
driven from their thrones." The phrase " bibit aure" (literally, " drink in 
with the ear") is remarkable for its lyric boldness. — 33. Illis carminibus 
ttupens. " Lost in stupid astonishment at those strains." — 34. Demittit 
,l Hangs down." — Bellua centiccps. Cerberus. Hesiod assigns him only 
fifty heads. (Theog., 312.) Sophocles styles him "Aidov rpiKpavov aicv 
/la/ca. (Track., 1114.) — 37. Quin et Prometheus, &c. "Both Prome 
theus, too, and the father of Pelops, are cheated by the sweet melody into 
a forgetfulness of their sufferings." Decipitur laborum is a Graecism 
By Pclopis parens is meant Tantalus. — 39. Orion. Consult note on Qdz 
ui., 4,71. 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. HOOK If., ODE XV 329 

Ode XIV. Addressed to a rich but avaricious friend, whom anxiety 
for the future debarred from every kind of present pleasure. The poet 
depicts, in strong and earnest language, the shortness of life, the certainty 
of death, and thus strives to inculcate his favorite Epicurean maxim, that 
existence should be enjoyed while it lasts 

1-27. 1. Fugaces labuntur anni. "Fleeting years glide swiftly by.' 
— 3. Instanti. " Rapidly advancing." Pressing on apace. — 5. Non si 
trecenis, Sec. " No, my friend, (it will bring with it no delay), even though 
thou strive to appease the inexorable Pluto with three hundred bulls for 
every day that passes ; Pluto, who confines," &c. After non supply mo- 
ram qfferet. — 7. Ter amplum Geryonen. " Geryon, monster of triple size.' - 
Alluding to the legend of Geryon slain by Hercules. — Tityon. Tityos, 
son of Terra, attempting to offer violence to Latona, was slain by tho 
arrows of Apollo and Diana. — 9. Scilicet omnibus enaviganda. " That 
stream which must be traversed by us all." Observe the force of scilicet, 
which we have expressed by a repetition of the noun unda. — 10. Terra 
muncre. " The bounty of the earth." — Reges. Equivalent here to divites, 
a common usage with Horace. — 12. Coloni. "Tenants." Compare the 
explanation of Orelli : " Qui agrum alienum colunt, vcl mercede, vel pen- 
sionem domino solventes." — 18. Cocytos. One of the fabled rivers of tha 
lower world. — Danai genus infame. Alluding to the story of the Danai- 
d=s. — 19. Damnatus longi laboris. " Condemned to eternal toil." An 
imitation of the Greek construction. Thus KaTayvuoSrig -davdrov. — 23. 
Invisas cupressus. " The odious cypresses." The cypress is here said 
to be the only tree that will accompany its possessor to the grave, in allu 
sion to the custom of placing cypresses around the funeral piles and the 
tombs of the departed. A branch of cypress was also placed at the door 
of the deceased, at least if he was a person of consequence, to prevent tho 
Pontifex Maximus from entering, and thereby being polluted. This tree 
was sacred to Pluto, because, when once cut, it was supposed never to 
grow again. Its dark foliage also renders it peculiarly proper for a fune- 
real tree. — 24. Brevcm dominum. " Their short-lived master." — 25. Dig- 
nior. " More worthy of enjoying them." — 26. Servata centum clavibus. 
'• Guarded beneath a hundred keys." Equivalent merely to diligentis- 
sime servata. — 27. Superbis ponlijicum potiore camis. " Superior to that 
which is quaffed at the costly banquets of the pontiffs." The banquets of 
the pontiffs, and particularly of the Salii, were so splendid as to pass intc 
a proverb. — Some editions read superbum, agreeing with pavimentum, 
and the phrase will then denote the tesselated pavements of antiquity. 
Orelli and others read superbo, agreeing with mero. 



Ode XV. The poet inveighs against the wanton and luxurious expen- 
diture of the age, and contrasts it with the strict frugality of earlier t(-nes. 

1-7. 1. Jam. "Soon." — Regite moles. " Palace-like structures." Al- 
luding to the splendid dwellings or villas of the Roman nobility, scattered 
over Italy. — 3. Lucrino lacu. The Lucrine lake was in the vicinity of 
Baiae, on the Campanian shore. It was, properly speaking, a part of tho 
p.ea shut in by a dike thrown across a narrow inlet. The lake has entire- 
ly disappeared, owing to a subterraneous eraption which took place ; u 



330 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK II., ODE XVl. 

1538, whereby the hill called Monte Nuovo was raised, and the watei 
displaced. This lake was famed for its oysters and other shell-lish. — 
Stagna. "Fish-ponds." Equivalent here to piscince. — Platanusque. 
Calebs, &,c. " And the unwedded plane-tree snail take the place of the 
elms." The plane-tree was merely ornamental, whereas the elme weie 
useful for rearing the vines. Hence the meaning of the poet is, that utility 
shall be made to yield to the mere gratification of the eye. The plane- 
tree was never employed for rearing the vine, and hence is called caelebs, 
whereas the elm was chiefly used for this purpose. — 5. Violaria. " Beds 
of violets." — 6. Myrtus. Nominative plural, fourth declension. — Omnis 
copia narium. " All the riches of the smell," i. e., every fragrant flower. 
Literally, " all the abundance of the nostrils." — 7. Spargent olivctis odorem. 
"Shall scatter their perfume along the olive grounds," i.e., the olive shall 
be made to give place to the violet, the myrtle, and every sweet-scented 
plant. 

9-20. 9. Fervidos ictus. Understand solis. — 10. No?i ila Romuli, &c. 
" Such is not the rule of conduct prescribed by the examples of liomulus 
and the unshorn Cato, and by the simple lives of our fathers." As regards 
the epithet intonsi, which is intended to designate the plain and austere 
manners of Cato, consult note on Ode i., 12, 41. — 13. Privatus Mis, &c. 
" Their private fortunes were small, the public resources extensive." — 
14. Nulla decempedis, &c. "No portico, measured for private individuals 
by rods ten feet in length, received the cool breezes of the North." The 
decempeda was a pole ten feet long, used by the agrimensores in meas 
uring land. The allusion is to a portico so large in size as to be measured 
by rods of these dimensions, as also to the custom, on the part of the Ro- 
mans, of having those portions of their villas that were to be occupied in 
summer facing the north. The apartments intended for winter were turn- 
ed toward the south, or some adjacent point. — 17. Nee fortuitum, &c. 
" Nor did the laws, while they ordered them to adorn their towns at the 
public charge, and the temples of the gods with new stone, permit them 
(in rearing their simple abodes) to reject the turf which chance might have 
thrown in their way." The meaning of the poet is simply this : private 
abodes i» those days were plain and unexpensive: the only ornamental 
structures were such as were erected for the purposes of the state or the 
Vvorship of the gods. — 20. Novo saxo. The epithet novo merely refers to tho 
circumstance of stone being in that early age a new (i. e., unusual) materia/ 
for private abodes, and appropriated solely to edifices of a public nature. 



Ode XVI. All men are anxious for a life of repose, but all do not pur- 
sue the true path for attaining this desirable end. It is to be found neither 
in the possession of riches, noil in the enjoyment of public honors. The 
tontented man is alone successful in the search, and the more so from his 
constantly remembering that perfect happiness is nowhere to be found 
on earth. Such is a faint outline of this beautiful ode, and which proves, 
we trust, how totally unfounded is the criticism cf Lord Kaimes (Elements, 
vol. i., p. 37), with reference to what he is pleased to consider its want of 
connection. 

1 15. l.Otlvm. "For repose." — Impoienti. "Stonny." The commu 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK II., ODE XVI «J3i 

text has inpatculi. We have given impolcn/i with Bentley and others.— - 
1 1'ressus Understand periaUo. The common reading is prensus. — Si 
mul. For s:mul ac. — 3. Condidit Lu.lam. "Has shrouded the moon from 
view" — Certa. "With steady lustre." — 5. Thrace. The Greek nom- 
inative, QpaKT], for Thracia. — 6. Mcdi pharctra decor i. " The Parthians 
adorned with the quiver." Compare note on Ode i., '.* 51. — 7. Grosphe 
non gcmmis, &c. In construing, repeat the term olinm "Repose, O 
Grosphus, not to be purchased by gems, nor by purple, nor by gold." — 
9. Gazce. " The wealth of kings." — Consulates lictor. *' The lictor of the 
consul." E ach consul was attended by twelve lictors. It was one of their 
duties to remove the crowd (turbam submovcrc) and clear the way for the 
magistrates whom they attended. — 11. Curas laqucata circian, &c. "The 
cares that hover around the splendid ceilings of the great." Laqucata 
tccta is here rendered in general language. The phrase properly refers 
to ceilings formed into raised work and hollows by beams cutting each 
other at right angles. The beams and the interstices (lacus) were adorn 
ed with rich carved work and with gilding or paintings. — 13. Vivitur par 
vo bene, &c. " That man lives happily on scanty means, whose paternal 
salt-cellar glitters on his frugal board." In other words, that man is hap- 
py who deviates not from the mode of life pursued by his forefathers, wlTo 
retains their simple household furniture, and whose dwelling is the abode 
not only of frugality, but of cleanliness. Vivitur is taken impersonally 
understand Mi. — 14. Salinum. Among the poor, a shell served for a salt 
cellar ; but all who were raised above poverty had one of silver, which 
descended from father to son and was accompanied by a silver plate or 
patten, which was used, together with the salt-cellar, in the domestic sac- 
rifices. — 15. Cupido sordidus. " Sordid avarice." . 

17-26. 17. Quid brevi fortes, &c. " Why do we, whose strength is of 
short duration, aim at many things ? Why do we change our own for 
lands warming beneath another sun? What exile from his country is an 
exile also from himself?" After mutamus understand nostra (scil. terra), 
the ablative denoting the instrument of exchange ; and as regards the 
meaning of the phrase brevi fortes <zvo, compare the explanation of Braun- 
hard : " Quid nos, qui ad brete tempus Jloremus, valemus, et vivimus, mul 
ta nobis proponimus," &c. — 19. Patrice quis exsul. Some commentators 
regard the expression patriae exsul as pleonastic, and connect patriot with 
the previous clause, placing after it a mark of interrogation, and making 
it an ellipsis for patriae sole. — 20. Se quoque fugit. Referring to the cares 
and anxieties of the mind. — 21. yEratas naves. " The brazen-beaked 
galleys." The ancient ships of war usually had their beaks covered with 
plates of brass. — Vitiosa cura. "Corroding care." — 23. Agente nimbos 
"As it drives onward the tempests." — 25. Laetus in prasens, &c. "Let 
the mind that is contented with its present lot dislike disquieting itself 
about the events of the future." — 26. Lento risu. " With a careless 
smile," i. e., with the calm smile of philosophic indifference. Lentus here 
is passionless, as opposed to violentus. The common reading is Imto. 

30-38. 30. Tithonum minuit. "Wasted away the powers of Titho 
mis." — 32. Hora. "The changing fortune of the hour." (Compare Ruhr* 
ken, ad Veil. Patcrc, ii., 18, p. 127.) — 34. Hinnitum. The last syllaolo 
being cut off before <pta by ectidipsis and synaloopha, ni becomes 'he last 



#32 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK II., ODE XVII. 

syllable of the verse, and may consequently be made short. — 35. Apt<\ 
quadrigis. " Fit for the chariot." The poet merely wishes to expresa 
the generous properties of the animal. The ancients gave the prefereneo 
in respect of swiftness to mares. The term quadrigae properly denotes q 
chariot drawn by four horses or mares. The Romans always yoked the 
animals that drew their race.-chariots abreast. Nero drove a deccmjugis 
at Olympia, but this was an unusual extravagance. — Bis Afro viuriu 
tinctcB. Vestments twice dyed were called dibapha {6L3a<pa). The ob- 
ject of this process was to communicate to the garment what was deemed 
the most valuable purple, resembling the color of clotted blood, and of a 
blackish, shining appearance. The purple of the ancients was obtained 
from the juice of a shell-fish called murex, and found at Tyre, in Asia Mi- 
nor ; in Meninx, an island near the Syrtis Minor; on the Goetulian shore 
of the Atlantic Ocean, in Africa, and at the Tamarian promontory in the 
Peloponnesus. — 37. Parva intra. Alluding to his Sabine farm. — 33. Spir- 
ilum GraicB, &c. "Some slight inspiration of the Grecian mu3e," i. e., 
some little talent for lyric verse. 



Ode XVII. Addressed to Maecenas, languishing under a protracted and 
painful malady, and expecting every moment a termination of his exist- 
ence. The poet seeks to call off the thoughts of his patron and friend 
from so painful a subject, and while he descants in strong and feeling lan- 
guage on the sincerity of his own attachment, and on his resolve to accom- 
pany him to the grave, he seeks, at the same time, to inspire him with 
brighter hopes, and with the prospect of i*ecovery from the hand of disease 

The constitution of Maecenas, naturally weak, had been impaired by 
effeminacy and luxurious living. " He had labored," observes Mr. Dun 
lop, "from his youth under a perpetual fever; and for many years before 
las death he suffered much from watchfulness, which was greatly aggra- 
vated by his domestic chagrins. Maecenas was fond of life and enjoy- 
ment, and of life even without enjoyment. He confesses, in some verses 
preserved by Seneca, that he would wish to live even under every accu- 
mulation of physical calamity. {Seneca, Epist., 101.) Hence he anx 
iously resorted to different remedies for the cure or relief of this distress- 
ing malady. Wine, soft music sounding at a distance, and various other 
contrivances, were tried in vain. At length Antonius Musa, the imperial 
physician, obtained for him some alleviation of his complaint by means of 
distant symphonies and the murmuring of falling water. But all these 
resources at last failed. The nervous and feverish disorder with which 
he was afflicted increased so dreadfully, that for three years before hia 
death he never closed his eyes." {History of Roman Literature, vol. iii., 
p. 42, Lond. ed.) 

Whether this ode was written shortly before his dissolution, or at some 
previous period, can not be ascertained, nor is it a point of much importance 

1-14. 1. Querelis. Alluding to the complaints of Maecenas at the 
dreaded approach of death. Consult Introductory Remarks to this ode. — 
3. Obirc. Understand mortem, or diem supremum. — 5. Mccs partem ani- 
ma. " The one half of my existence." A fond expression of intimate 
friendship. — G. Maturior vis. "Too early a blow," i. e., an untimely 
death. — Quid moror altera, &c. "Why do I, the remaining portion, lin- 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. — BOOK II., ODE XVIII. 333 

per nere behind, neither equally dear to myself, nor surviving entire ?"— 
8. Utramque dtteet ruinam. "Will bring ruin to us each." — 10. Sacra- 
mentutn. A figurative allusion to the oath taken by the Itoman soldiers, 
the terms of which were, that they would be faithful to their commander, 
anil follow wherever he led, were it even to death. — 11. Ulcu7Kjne. 
Equivalent to quandocunque. — 14. Gyas. One of the giants that attempt- 
ed to scale the heavens. He was hurled to Tartarus by the thunderbolts 
of Jove, and there lay prostrate and in fetters. Gocttling reads Tvrjc, in 
Hesiod, Thcog., 149, which would make the Latin form Gycs. We havo 
followed Meinecke and others in giving Gyas. 

17-28. 17. Adspicit. " Presides over my existence." The reference 
is here to judicial astrology, according to which pretended science, the 
stars that appeared above the horizon at the moment of one's birth, as 
well as their particular positions with reference to each other, were sup- 
posed to exercise a decided influence upon, and to regulate the life of the 
individual. — 18. Pars violcntior, &c. " The more dangerous portion of 
the natal hour." — 19. Capricornus. The rising and setting of Capricor- 
nus was usually attended with storms. (Compare Propertius, iv., 1, 107.) 
Hence the epithet aquosus is sometimes applied to this constellation. In 
astrology, Libra was deemed favorable, while the influence of Scorjnus 
and Capricornus was regarded as malign. — 20. Utrumque nostrum, &c. 
" Our respective horoscopes agree in a wonderful manner." The term 
horoscope is applied in astrology to the position of the stars at the moment 
of one's birth. Mitscherlich explains the idea of the poet as follows : "In 
quocunque zodiaci sidere horoscopus mens fuerit inventus, licet diverso a 
tui horoscopi sidere, tamen horoscopus mcus cum tno quam maximc con- 
sentiat necesse est." — 21. Impio Saturno. "From baleful Saturn." — 22 
Refdgens. " Shining in direct opposition." — 26. Latum ter crepuit so- 
num. "Thrice raised the cry of joy." Acclamations raised by the peo- 
ple on account of the safety of Maecenas. Compare note on Ode i., 20, 3. 
— 28. Sustulerat. F 'or sustulis set. The indicative here imparts an air of 
liveliness to the representation, though in the conditional clause the sub- 
junctive is used. (Zumpt, § 519, b.) As regards the allusion of the poet, 
compare Ode ii., 13. 



Ode XVIII. The poet, while he censures the luxury and profusion of 
the age, describes himself &s contented with little, acceptable to many 
friends, and far happier than those who were blessed with the gifts of for- 
tune, but ignorant of the tvue mode of enjoying them. 

1-7. 1. Aureum lacvivar. "Fretted ceiling overlaid with gold." Com 
pare note on Ode ii., 16, 11. — 3. Trabcs Hymettia;. " Beams of Hymettian 
marble." The term trabes here includes the architrave, frieze, cornice, &c 
The marble of Hymettus was held in high estimation by the Romans 
Some editions have Hymeltias, and in the following line rccisce, so that 
Irabes recisa ultima Africa will refer to African mai'ble, and Hymettias 
columnas to Hymettian wood ; but the wood of Hymettus does not appear 
to have been thought valuable by the Romans. — Ultima rccisas Africa 
Alluding to the Numidian mai-ble. The kind most highly pi'izcd had a 
dark surface variegated with spots — G. Attali. Attains the Third, famec' 



334 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK II., ODE XViJI. 

for his immense riches, left the kingdom of Perganius and all his 'aeasurei 
by will to the Roman people ; at least, such was the construction which 
the latter put upon it. (Compai-e Duker, ad Flor., ii., 20.) After his 
death, Aristonicus, a natural son of Eumenes, father of Attalus (Livy, 
xlv., 19; Justin, xxxvi., 4), laid claim to the kingdom, but was defeated 
by the consul Perperna and carried to Rome, where he was put to death 
in prison. It is to him that the poet alludes under the appellation of K<s.res 
igjwtus. — 7. Nee Laconicas mihi, Sac. " Nor do female dependents, of no 
ignoble birth, spin for me the Spartan purple." The purple of Laconia, 
obtained in the vicinity of the Taenarian promontory, was the most highly 
prized. Compare note on Ode ii., 16, 35. By honestce clienlts are meant 
female clients of free birth ; not freed women, but citizens working for 
their patronus. 

9-22. 9. At fdes et ingeni, Sac. "But integrity is mine, and a liberal 
vein of*talent." — 13. Potentcm amicum. Alluding to Maecenas. — 14. Satis 
bcatus, Sac. " Sufficiently happy with my Sabine farm alone." — 15. Tru- 
ditur dies die. The train of thought appears to be as follows: Contented 
with my slender fortune, I am the less solicitous to enlarge it, when I re- 
flect on the short span of human existence. How foolishly then do they 
act, who, when day is chasing day in rapid succession, are led on by their 
eager avarice, or their fondness for display, to form plans on the very brink 
of the grave. — 16. Pergunt interire. " Hasten onward to their wane." — 
17. Tu secanda marmora, Sac. "And yet thou, on the very brink of the 
grave, art bargaining to have marble cut for an abode." Directly opposed 
to locare, in this sense, is the verb redimcre, " to contract to do any thing,' 
whence the term redemtor, " a contractor." — 20. MarisqueBaiis, Sac. B aiae, 
on the Campanian shore, was a favorite residence of the Roman nobility, 
and adorned with beautiful villas. There were numerous warm springs 
also in its vicinity, which were considered to possess salutary properties 
for various disorders. — 21. Summovcre. " To push farther into the deep,'* 
i. e., to erect moles on which to build splendid structures amid the waters. 
--S2. Parum locuples, Sec. "Not rich enough with the shore of the main 
loud," i. e., not satisfied with the limits of the land. 

23-. T. 23. Quid? quod usque, Sac. "What shall I say of this, that 
thou e^on vemovest the neighboring land-marks V i. e., why need I tell 
of thy rer* Qving the land-marks of thy neighbor's possessions ? The allu 
sion is to the rich man's encroaching on the grounds of an inferior. This 
offence was tl -e more heinous, since land-marks anciently were invested 
with a sacred character, as emblems of the god Terminus. — 24. Ultra 
salis. " Leapest wer." The verb salio is here used to express the con- 
temptuous disregard of the powerful man for the rights of his dependents 
Hence salis ultra ma' be freely rendered " contemnest." — 26. Avarus. 
"Prompted by cupidity."- 37. Fcrens. "Bearing, each." — 28. Sordidos. 
"Squalid." In the habiL-uentc of extreme poverty. — 29. Nulla certio? 
tamen, &c. "And yet no home awaits the rich master with greater cer> 
tainty than the destined limit of vapacious Orcus." Fine beautifully marks 
the lastlimit of our earthly career. Some editions have sede instead oijiuc, 
and the use of the latter term in the feminine perder has been made prob 
ably the ground for the change. But Jinis is unec* La the fer^ininc by scno 
of the best writers. — 32 Quid ultra undis. Wh' stri/ec* thou f< 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK II., ODE XIX. 335 

morj ?" Death must overtake thee in the midst of thy course.— j^Equn 
telius. •' The impartial earth." — 34. Regumque pucris. The allusion is 
to the wealthy and powerful. — Salcllcs Orci. Alluding to Charon. — 
35. CaUidum Promethca. Alluding to some fabulous legend respecting 
Prometheus which has not come down to us. — 37. Tantali genus. Pelops, 
At reus, Thyestcs, Agamemnon, Orestes. — 40. Moratus. The common 
text has vocatus, for which we have given the elegant emendation of 
Withofius. Lcvare depends on vocatus. 



Ode XIX. Celebrating, in animated language, the praises of Bacchus, 
and imitated, very probably, from some Greek dithyrambic ode. There 
is nothing, however, in the piece itself to countenance the opinion that it 
was composed for some festival in honor of Bacchus. 

1-20. 1. Carmina doccntem. "Dictating strains," i. e., teaching how 
to celebrate his praises in song. Compare the Greek form of expression, 
diduGKEiv dpupLa. As the strains mentioned in tho text are supposed to 
have reference to the mysteries of the god, the scene is hence laid in re- 
motis rupibus, " amid rocks far distant from the haunts of men." — 4. Acutas. 
'"Attentively listening." Literally, "pricked up to listen." — 5. Evoe ! 
The Greek EvoL The poet now feels himself under the powerful in- 
fluence of the god, and breaks forth into the well-known cry of the Bac- 
chantes when they celebrate the orgies. — Rcccnti mens trcpidat metu, 
Ace. "My mind trembles with recent dread, and, my bosom being filled 
with the inspiration of Bacchus, is agitated with troubled joy." Both 
trepidat and latatur refer to mens, and turbidum is to be construed as 
equivalent to turbide. The arrangement of the whole clause is purpose- 
ly involved, that the words may, by their order, yield a more marked echo 
to the sense. — Gravi metuende thyrso. Bacchus was thought to inspire 
with fury by hurling his thyrsus. — 9.. Fas pcrvicaces, &c. "It is allowed 
me to sing of the stubbornly -raging Bacchantes," i. e., my piety toward 
the god requires that I sing of, Sec. — 10. Vinique foniem, Sec. The poet 
enumerates the gifts bestowed upon man in earlier ages by the miracu- 
lous powers of the god. At his presence all nature rejoices, and, under 
his potent influence, the earth, struck by the thyrsi of the Bacchantes, 
yields wine and milk, while honey flows from the trees. The imagery is 
here decidedly Oriental, and must remind us of that employed in many 
parts of the sacred writings. — 12. Iterarc. " To tell again and again of." 
— 14. Honorcm. Equivalent to omamentum or decus. The allusion is to 
the crown of Ariadne (corona borealis), one of the constellations, consist- 
ing of nine stars. The epithet beata, applied to Ariadne, refers to her 
having been translated to the skies, and made one of the " blessed" im- 
mortals. — Penthei. Alluding to the legend of Pentheus, king of Thebes, 
who was torn in pieces by his own mother and her sisters, and his palace 
overthrown by Bacchus. — 16. Lycurgi. Lycurgus, king of the Edones in 
Thrace, punished for having driven the infant Bacchus from his kingdom. 
— 18. Tu ficcth amnes, &c. " Thou turnest backward tho courses of 
rivers, thou swayest the billows of the Indian Sea." Alluding to the won- 
ders performed by Bacchus in his fabled conquest of India and other re- 
gions of the East. The rivers here meant are the Orontes and Hydaspea 
*-18. Tu separatis- &c " On the lonely mourlain tops, moist with win*. 



8*3$ EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK Ii., ODE XX. 

thou confinest, without harm to them, the locks of the Bacchantes with & 
knot of vipers," i. e., under thy influence, the Bacchantes tie up their locks, 
&c. — 20. Bistonidum. Literally, "of the female Bistones." Here, how- 
ever, equivalent to Bacckarum. 

23-31. 23. Lconis unguibus. Bacchus was fahled to have assumed on 
this occasion the form of a lion. — 25. Quanquam clwreis, &c. "Though 
said to he fitter for dances and festive mi *th." — 26. Non sat idoneus. " Not 
equally well suited." — 27. Sed idem, &c. " Yet, on that occasion, thou, 
the same deity, didst become the arbiter of peace and of war." The poet 
ttieans to convey the idea that the intervention of Bacchus alone put an 
end to the conflict. Had not Bacchus lent his aid, the battle must have 
been longer in its duration, and different perhaps in its issue. — 29. Insons 
"Without offering to harm." Bacchus descended to the shades for the 
purpose of bringing back his mother Semele. — Aurco cornit decorrts. A 
figurative illustration of the power of the god. The horn was the well- 
known emblem of power among the ancients. — 31. Et rcccdentis trilingui, 
&.c. The power of the god triumphs over the fierce guardian of the shades, 
who allows egress to none that have once entered the world of spirits. 



Ode XX. The bard presages his own immortality. Transformed into 
a swan, be will soar away from the abodes of men, nor need the empty 
honors of a tomb. 

1-23. 1. Non usitata, &c. " A bard of twofold form, I shall be borne 
through the liquid air on no common, no feeble pinion." The epithet 
biformis alludes to his transformation from a human being to a swan, 
which is to take place on the approach of death. Then, becoming the 
favored bird of Apollo, he will soar aloft on strong pinions beyond the 
reach of envy and detraction. The common text has ncc tcnui, but we 
have read non tcnui, as more forcible, with Mitscherlich, Doring, and 
others. — 4. Invidiaque major. " And, beyond the reach of envy." — 5. Pau 
perum sanguis parentum. "Though the offspring of humble parents." — 
6. Non ego quern vocas, &c. "I, whom thou salutest, O Maecenas, with 
the title of beloved friend, shall never die." Dilecte is here a quotation, 
and therefore follows vocas as a kind of accusative ; in other words, it is 
taken, as the grammarians express it, materially. The reading of this 
paragraph is much contested. According to that adopted in our text, the 
meaning of the poet is, that the friendship of Maecenas will be one of his 
surest passports to the praises of posterity. — 9. Jam jam residunt, &c. 
" Now, even now, the rough skin is settling on my legs." The transforma- 
tion is already begun : my legs are becoming those of a swan. — 11. Su- 
perna. "Aoove." The neuter of the adjective used adverbially. Quod 
ad superna corporis membra attinet. — Nascunturque leves plumes. " And 
the downy plumage is forming." — Notior. The common text has ocior, 
which appears objectionable in a metrical point of view, since the word, 
as it stands in the common text, presents a solitary instance of a vowel in 
hiatu between the iambic and dactylic paits of the verse. From the na- 
ture, also, and succession of the metrical ictus, the final letter of ' Dmdalco 
is left even without the pretence of ictus to support it as a long syllable- 
Bentley conjectures tutior but this seems too bold a change. — 14. Bospori 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK II., ODE XX. 337 

ConstJt note ..n Ode ii., 13, 14. — 15. Syrtesquc Gtetulas. Consult note on 
Ode i., 22, 4. — Canorus ales. " A bird of melodious note." Consult note 
on Ode i., 6, 2. — 16. Hypcrborcosque campos. "And. the Hyperborean 
fields," t. e., the farthest plains of the north. More literally, " the plains 
beyond the northern blast." — 17. Et qui dissimulat, &c. Alluding to the 
Parthian. The Marsi were regarded as the bravest portion of the Ro- 
man armies, and hence Marsce is here equivalent to Romance. Consult 
note on Ode i., 2, 39. — 18. Dacus. Consult note on Ode i., 35, 9. — 19. Gc- 
loni. Consult note on Ode ii., 9, 23. — Peritus Ibcr. " The learned Span- 
iard." The Spaniards imbibed a literary taste from the Romans, as these 
last had from the Greeks. — 20. Rhodanique potor. "And he who quaffs 
the waters of the Rhone." The native of Gaul. — 22. Turpes. "Unman- 
ly." — 23. Supervacuos. The poet will need no tomb : death will never 
claim him for his own, since he is destined to live forever in the praises 
of posterity. 

P 



BOOK III. 

Ode I The general train of thought in this beautiful Odo is simply at 
follows : True happiness consists not in the possession of power, of publi'j 
honors, or of extensive riches, but in a tranquil and contented mind. 

1-4. i. Odi profanum vulgus, Sec. " I hate the uninitiated crowd, and 
I keep them at a distance." Speaking as the priest of the Muses, and be- 
ing about to disclose their sacred mysteries (in other words, the precepts 
of true wisdom) to the favored few, the poet imitates the form of language 
by which the uninitiated and profane were directed to retire from the 
Jnystic rites of the gods. The rules of a happy life can not be compre- 
hended and may be abused by the crowd. — 2. Favete li?iguis. " Preserve 
a religions silence." Literally, " favor me with your tongues." We have 
nere another form of words, by which silence and attention were enjoin- 
ed on the true worshippers. This was required, not only from a principle 
}f religious respect, but also lest some ill-omened expression might casual- 
ty fall from those who were present, and mar the solemnities of the oc- 
casion. Compare the Greek ev<p7]/j.etT6- — Carmina non prius audita 
" Strains before unheard." There appears to be even here an allusion to 
the language and forms of the mj-steries in which new and important 
truths were promised to be disclosed. — 4. Virginibus puerisque canto. 
The poet supposes himself to be dictating his strains to a chorus of virgins 
and youths. Stripped of its figurative f?arb, the idea intended to be con- 
veyed will be simply this : that the bard wishes his precepts of a happy 
life to be carefully treasured up by the young. 

5-14. 5. Regum timendorum, Sec. The poet now unfolds his subject. 
Kings, he observes, are elevated far above the ordinary ranks of men, but 
Jove is mightier than kings themselves, and can in an instant humble 
their power in the dust. Royalty, therefore, carries with it no peculiar 
claims to the enjoyment of happiness. — Inproprios greges. "Over their 
own flocks." Kings are the shepherds of their people. — 9. Cuncta super- 
cilio moventis. '* Who shakes the universe with his nod." Compare* 
Homer, 11., i., 523. — 9. Est ut viro vir, Sec. "It happens that one man 
arranges his trees at greater distances in the trenches than another," 
i. e , possesses wider domains. The Romans were accustomed to plant 
their vines, olive-trees, Sec, in trenches or small pits. Some editions have 
Esto for Est: "Grant that one man," Sec, or "suppose that." — 10. Hie 
generosior descendat, &c. "That this one descends into the Campus^Iar- 
tius a nobler applicant for office." — 12. Moribus hie meliorque fama, Sec 
Alluding to the novus homo, or man of ignoble birth. — 14. jEqua lege Ne- 
cessitas, Sec " Still, Necessity, by an impartial law, draws forth the lots 
of the high and the lowly; the capacious urn keeps in constant agitation 
the names of all." Necessity is here represented holding her capacious 
urn containing the names of all. She keeps the urn in constant agitation, 
and the lots that come forth from it every instant are the s'gnals of deatl» 
to the individuals -whose names are inscribed on them. The train 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK III., ODE I. 331i 

thought, commencing with the third stanza, is as follows : Neither exten- 
sive possessions, nor elevated birth, nor purity of character, nor crowds 
of dependents, are in themselves sufficient to procure lasting felicity, since 
death sooner or later must close the scene, and bring all our schemes of 
interest and ambition to an end. 

17-Jl. 17. Destrictus ensis. An allusion to the well-known story of 
Damocles. The connection in the train of ideas between this and the pro- 
ceding stanza is as follows : Independently of the stern necessity of death, 
the. wealthy and the powerful are prevented by the cares of riches and 
ambition from attaining to the happiness which they seek. — 18. Non Sicu- 
lee dapes, &c. " The most exquisite viands will create no pleasing relish 
in him, over whose impious neck," &c. The expression Siculce dapes is 
equivalent here to exquisitisstmte cpulae. The luxury of the Sicilians in 
their banquets became proverbial. — 20. Avium citharaque cantus. " The 
melody of birds and of the lyre." — 24. Non Zephyris agitata Tempe 
" She disdains not Tempe, fanned by the breezes of the west." Tempe 
is here put for any beautiful and shady vale. Consult note on Ode i., 7, 4. 
— 25. Dcsiderantem quod satis est, &c. According to the poet, the man 
11 who desires merely what is sufficient for his wants," is free from all the 
cares that bring disquiet to those who are either already wealthy, or are 
eager in the pursuit of gain. His repose is neither disturbed by ship- 
wrecks, nor by losses in agricultural pursuits. — Arcturi. Arcturus is a 
star of the first magnitude, in the constellation of Bootes, near the tail of 
the Great Bear (apKroc, ovpu). Both its rising and setting were accom- 
panied by storms. — 28. Haedi. The singular for the. plural. The Hmdi, 
or kids, are two stars on the arm of Auriga. Their rising is attended by 
stormy weather, as is also their setting. — 30. Mendax. "Which disap- 
points his expectations." Compare Epist., i., 7, 87 : "Spent menlita sta- 
ges." — Arbore. Taken collectively, but still with a particular reference 
to the olive. — Aquas. ''The excessive rains." — 31. Torrentia agros si- 
dera. "The influence of the stars parching the fields." Alluding partic- 
ularly to Sirius, or the dog-star, at the rising of which the trees were apt 
to contract a kind of blight, or blast, termed sideratio, and occasioned by 
the excessive heat of the sun. Compare note on Ode i., 17, 17. 

33-47. 33. Contracta pisces, &c. In order to prove how little the meie 
possession of riches can minister to happiness, the poet now adverts to 
the various expedients practiced by the wealthy for the purpose of ban- 
ishing disquiet from their breasts, and of removing the sated feelings that 
continually oppressed them. They erect the splendid villa amid the wa- 
ters of the ocean, but fear, and the threats of conscience, become also its 
inmates. They journey to foreign climes, but gloomy care accompanies 
them by sea and by land. They array themselves in the costly purple, 
but it only hides an aching heart; nor can the wine of Falernus, or the 
perfumes of the East, bring repose and pleasure to their minds. " Why, 
then," exclaims the bard, " am I to exchange my life of simple happiness 
for the splendid but deceitful pageantry of the rich ?" — 34. Jactis in alturn 
molibus. " By the moles built out into the deep." Consult note on Ode 
ii., 18, 20. — Frequens redemtor cum famulis. "Many a contractor with 
his attendant workmen." Consult note on Ode ii., 18, 18. — 35. Ccementa. 
By eminent a are here meant rough and broken stones, as they come from 



J40 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK III., ODE II. 

the quarry, used for the purpose of filling up, and of no great size.— 3s 
Terras fastidiostis. "Loathing the land," i. e., weary of the land, and 
nence building, as it were, on the sea. Compare Ode ii., 18, 22 : "Panim 
hcuples continente ripa." — 37. Timor et Mince. "Fear and the threats 
of conscience."— 41. Phrygius lapis. Referring to the marble of Synnada, 
in Phrygia, which was held in high estimation by the Romans. It was 
of a white color, variegated with red spots, and is now called paonazzetto 
[t was used by Agrippa for the columns of the Pantheon. — 42. Purpura- 
rum sidere clarior usus. " The use of purple coverings, brighter than any 
star." With purpurarum supply vestium, the reference being to the vcs- 
les stragula, and construe clarior as if agreeing with vestium in case. — 
43. Falerna vitis. Consult note on Ode i , 20, 9. — 14. Achaeme7iiumve c?i- 
ium. " Or Eastern nard." Achamejiium is equivalent literally to Perst- 
cum (i. e., Parthicum). Consult notes on Ode ii., 12, 21, and i., 2, 22. — 
4.5. Invidendis. " Only calculated to excite the envy of others." — Novo 
ritu. " In a new style of magnificence." — 17. Cur valle permutem Sabina. 
" Why am I to exchange my Sabine vale for more burdensome riches ?" 
i. e., for riches that only bring with them a proportionate increase of care 
and trouble. Valle, as marking the instrument of exchange, is put in the 
ablative. 



Ode II. The poet exhorts his luxurious countrymen to restore the strict 
discipline of former days, and train up the young to an acquaintance with 
the manly virtues which once graced the Roman name. 

1-17. 1. Angustam amicd, &c. " Let the Roman youth, robust of 
frame, learn cheerfully to endure, amid severe military exercise, the hard 
privations of a soldier's life." The expression amice pati is somewhat 
analogous to the Greek ayarcqTcJc Qepeiv, to bear a thing kindly, i. e., with 
patience and good will. The common text has amici. — Puer. The Ro- 
man age for military service commenced after sixteen. — 5. Sub divo. 
"In the open air," i. e., in the field. — Trepidis in rebus. "In the midst 
of dangers," i. e., when danger threatens his country. The poet means, 
that, when his country calls, the young soldier is to obey the summons 
with alacrity, and to shrink from no exposure to the elements. — 7. Matrona 
bellantis tyranni. "The consort of some warring monarch." Bellantis 
is here equivalent to cum Populo Romano bellum gerentis. — 8. Et adidta 
virgo. "And his virgin daughter, of nubile years." — 9. Suspiret, ekeu J 
ne rudis agminum, &c. " Heave a sigh, and say, Ah ! let not the prince, 
affianced to our line, unexperienced as he is in arms, provoke," &c. By 
spo?isus regius is here meant a young lover of royal origin, betrothed to 
the daughter. — 13. Dulce et decorum, &c. Connect the train of ideas as 
follows : Bravely, then, let the Roman warrior contend against the foe, 
remembering that "it is sweet and glorious to die for one's country."-- 
17. Virtus repulses nescia, &c. The Roman youth must not, however, 
confine his attention to martial prowess alone. He must also seek after 
time virtue, and the firm precepts of true philosophy. "When he has suc- 
ceeded in this, his will be a moral magistracy, that lies not in the gift of 
the crowd, and in aiming at which he wih never experience a disgraceful 
repulse. His will be a feeling af moral worth, which, as it depends not 
on the breath of popular favor, ca^ ueither be giver nor taken away by tht» 



EXPLANATORY NCTE3. — BOOK III., ODE III. 84i 

flcfce multitude. — Secures A figurative allusion to Ibe axes and fasces 
of the lictors, the emblems of office 

21-31. 21. Virtus recludens, &c. The poet mentions another incite 
ment to the possession of true virtue, the immortality which it confers.— 
22. Neguta via. "By a way denied to others," i. e., by means peculiarly 
her own. — 23. Coetusque vulgares, dec. "And, soaring on rapid pinion, 
spurns the vulgar herd and the cloudy atmosphere of earth." As regards 
the force of the epithet udam here, compare the explanation of Orelli : 
" Crasso aire obsitam, ac propterea minime dignam in qua virtus more- 
tur." — 25. Est et Jidcli, <5cc. Imitated from Simonides : Ioti kqX atyu<, 
o,klv6vvov yepae. This was a favorite apophthegm of Augustus. [Plut., 
Apopii., t. ii., p. 2(?7, Fr.) Thus far the allusion to virtue has been general 
in its nature. It now assumes a more special character. Let the Roman 
youth learn in particular the sure reward attendant on good faith, and the 
certain punJahment that follows its violation. — 26. Qui Cereris sacrum, 
&c. Thoso who divulged the mysteries were punished with death, and 
their property was confiscated. — 29. Phaselon. The phaselus (tyuori'koc) 
was a vessel rather long and narrow, apparently so called from its resem- 
blance to the shape of a jyhaselus, or kidney-bean. It was chiefly used 
by the Egyptians, and was of various sizes, from a mere boat to a vessel 
adapted for a long voyage. It was built for speed, to which more atten- 
tion seems to have been paid '.Kan to its strength, whence the epithet/m 
gilem here applied to it by Ho'. ace. — 30. Incesto addidit integrum. "In 
volves the innocent with tho guilty." — 31. Raro Antecedentem scelestum,. 
Sec. " Rarely does puniuhm^nt, though lame of foot, fail to overtake the 
kicked man moving ot.fce'j/e her," i. e., justice, though often slow, is sure 



Ode III. The cd' f p'Ms with the praises of justice and perseverin t 
firmness. Their r^cy.^ipense is immortality. Of the truth of this remark 
splendid example*! aie cited, and, among others, mention being made of 
Romulus, the poet dwells on the circumstances which, to the eye of ima- 
gination, attended his apotheosis. The gods are assembled in solemn 
conclave to decide upon his admission to the skies. Juno, most hostile 
befoi-e to the line of ./Eneas, aow declares her assent. Satisfied with past 
triumphs, she allows the fouader of the Eternal City to participate in the 
joys of Olympus. The lofty destinies of Rome are also shadowed forth, 
and the conquest of nations is promised to her arms. But the condition 
which accompanies this expression of her will is sternly mentioned. The 
city of Troy must never rise from its ashes. Should the descendants of 
Romulus rebuild the detested city, the vengeance of the goddess will 
again be exerted for its downfall. 

It is a conjecture of Faber's (Epist., ii., 43) that Horace wishes, in th 
present ode, to dissuade Augustus from executing a plan he had at this 
time in view, of transferring the seat of empire from Rome to Ilium, and 
of rebuilding the city of Priam. Suetonius ( Vit. Iul.) speaks of a similar 
project in the time of Caesar. Zosimus also states that, in a later age, 
Constantine actually commenced building a new capital in the plain of 
Troy, but was soor. induced by the superior situation of Byzantium to 
vibandon his project. (Zos., ii., 30.) 



342 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK III., OLE III. 

1-22. 1. Justum el tenacem, Sec. "Not the wild fury of his fellow-citl 
zens ordering evil measures to be pursued, nor the look of the threaten 
ing tyrant, nor the southern blast, the stormy ruler of the restless Adriatic, 
uor the mighty hand of Jove wielding his thunderbolts, sbakes from his 
settled purpose the man who is just and firm in his resolve." In this no 
ble stanza, that firmness alone is praised which rests on the basis of in- 
tegrity and justice. — 2. Prava jubentium. Equivalent, in fact, to " iniquas 
leges ferenlium." Tbe people wei*e sziUjubcre leges, because the formula 
by which they were called upon to vote ran thus : Vclilis,jubealis Qui 
rites ? [Braunhard, ad loc.) — 7. Si fractus illabatitr orbis, &c. " If the 
■hattered heavens descend upon him, the ruins-will strike him remaining 
a stranger to fear.'' — 9. Hue arte. "By this rule of conduct," i. c., by in 
tegrity and firmness of purpose. — Vagus Hercules. "The roaming Her 
cules." — 12. Purpurco ore. Referring either to the dark-red color of the 
nectar, or to the Roman custom of adorning on solemn occasions, such as 
triumphs, Sec, the faces of the gods with vermilion.- — 13. Hac merenlcm. 
" For this deserving immortality." — 14. Vexere. " Bore thee to the skies." 
Bacchus is represented by the ancient fabulists as returning in triumph 
from the conquest of India and the East in a chariot drawn by tigers. Ho 
is now described as having ascended in this same way to the skies by a 
singular species of apotheosis. — 1C. Mar Lis equis, &c. Observe the ele- 
gant variety of diction in the phrases arccs alligiL igneas, quos inter Au- 
gustus rccumbens, vexere tigrcs, and Acheronla fugit, all expressive of 
the same idea, the attaining of immortality. According to the legend, 
Mars carried off his son to heaven on the nones of Quinctilis, and during a 
thunder-storm. Compare Ovid, Fad., ii., 495; Mel., xiv., 816. — 17. Gra- 
tum clocula, &c. " After Juno had uttered what was pleasing to the gods 
deliberating in council." — 18. Ilion, Ilion, &c. An abrupt but beautiful 
commencement, intended to portray the exulting feelings of the triumph- 
ant Juno. The order of construction is as follows : Judex fatalis incestus- 
qnc, et mulier peregrina, verliL in pulvcrem Ilion, Ilion, damnalum mihi 
casteeque Minerva, cum populo el fraudulento duce, ex quo Laomedon des- 
tituit deos pacta mercede. — 19. Fatalis incestusque judex, Sec. "A judge, 
the fated author of his country's ruin, and impure in his desires, and a fe 
male from a foreign land." Alluding to Paris and Helen, and the legend 
of the apple of discord. — 21. Ex quo. "From the time that," i. e., evei 
since. Supply tempore. — Destituit deos, Sec. "Defrauded the gods of 
their stipulated reward." Alluding to the fable of Laomedon's having 
refused to Apollo and Neptune their promised recompense for building 
the walls of Troy. — 22. Mihi castaque damnalum Minervcz. " Consigned 
for punishment to me and the spotless Minerva." Condemned by the 
gods, and given over to these two deities for punishment. The idea is 
borrowed from the Roman law by which an insolvent debtor was deliver 
ed over iuto the power of his creditors 

25-48. 25. SplendeL. " Displays his gaudy person." It is simplest to 
make Lac&na adullercc the genitive, depending on kospes. Some, how- 
ever, regard it as the dative, and, joining it with splendel, translate, " Dis- 
plays his gaudy person to the Spartan adulteress." — 29. Nostris duclun t 
seditionibus. "Protracted by our dissensions." — 31. Invisum nepoLem 
Romulus, grandson to Juno through his father Mars. — Troia sacerdo* 
Ilia — 34. Discere "To learn to know." The common text has ducere 






EXPLANATORY NOTES.--BOOK III., ODE IV 343 

-*to quaff'." — 37. Dum longus inter, &c. " Provided a long tri ct of >cean 
rage between Ilium and Rome." Provided Rome be separated from the 
plain of Troy by a wide expanse of intervening waters, and the Romans 
rebuild not the city of then forefathers. Consult Introductory Remarks 
— 38. Exrules. The Romans are here meant, in accordance with the pop 
alar belief that they were the descendants of^Eneas and the Trojans, and 
exiles, consequently, from the land of Troy, the abode of their forefathers. 
— 39. Qualibet in parte. "In whatever (other) quarter it may please 
them to dwell." — 40. Busto insultet. "Trample upon the tomb." — 42. 
Catulos celent. " Conceal therein their young." Catulus is properly the 
young of the dog, and is then applied generally to the young of any ani- 
mal. — 43. Fulgens. "In all its splendor." — 44. Dare jura. "To givo 
laws." — 45. Horrenda. " An object of dread." — 46. Medius liquor. " The 
intervening waters." — 48. Arva. Understand ^Egypti. 

49-70. 49. Aurum irrepertum sperncre fort/or. "More resolute in de- 
spising, the gold as yet unexplored in the mine," i. e., the gold of the mine. 
Observe the Graecism in spernere fortior. Compare, as regards the idea 
intended to be conveyed, the explanation of Orelli : " Nulla prorsus cu- 
piditate accendi ad anri venas investigandas." — 51. Quam cogere, &c 
Than in bending it to human purposes, with a right hand plundering 
every thing of a sacred character." The expression omne sacrum rapi- 
ente dextra is only another definition for boundless cupidity, which re- 
spects not even the most sacred objects. Among these oljectn gold ie 
enumerated, and with singular felicity. It should be held sarred by man i 
it should be allowed to repose untouched in the mine, considering th< 
dreadful evils that invariably accompany its use. — 53. Quicunque mundo 
&.c. "Whatever limit bounds the world." More literally, "whateve 
limit has placed itself in front for the world," i. e., in that particular quar 
ter. (Compare Orelli, ad loc.) — 54. Visere gestiens, Sec. "Eagerly de 
siring to visit that quarter, where the fires of the sun rag<3 with uncon 
trolled fury, and that, where mists and rains exercise conrinual sway.' 
We have endeavored to express the zeugma in debacclititur, without 
losing sight, at the same time, of the peculiar force and beauty of the term 
The allusion is to the torrid and frigid zones. Supply the ellipsis in the 
text as follows : visere earn partem qua parte, &c. — Hac Ufe. " On this 
condition." — Nimium pii. " Too piously affectionate (toward their parent 
city)." The pious affection here alluded to is that which, according to 
ancient ideas, was due from a colony to its parent city. — 61. Alite lugubri, 
"Under evil auspices." — 62. Fortuna. "The evil fortune." — 65. Murus 
aeneus. "A brazen wall," i. e., the strongest of ramparts. — 66. Auctori 
Phabo. As in the case of the former city. Auctore is here equivalent to 
conditore. — 70. Desine pervicax, &c. " Cease, bcld one, to relate the dis- 
courses of the gods, and to degrade lofty themes by lowly measures.' 



Ode IV. The object of the poet, in this ode, is to celebrate the praises 
of Augustus for his fostering patronage of letters. The piece opens with 
an invocation to the Muse. To this succeeds an enumeration of the bene 
fits conferred on the bard, from his earliest years, by the deities of Helj 
eon, under whose prttecting influence, no evil, he asserts, can ever ap 
proach him The name of Augustus is then introduced If the tumble 



344 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK III., ODE IV. 

poet is defended from barm by tbe daughters of Mnemosyne, much mora 
vrill the exalted Caesar experience their favoring aid ; and he will also give 
to the world an illustrious example of the beneficial effects resulting irona 
power when controlled and regulated by wisdom and moderation. 

1-20. 1. Die longvm mclos. "Give utterance to a long melodious 
Btraiu." — Regina. A general term of honor, unless we refer it to Hesiod, 
Theog., 79, where Calliope is described as npocfepeoTuTn diraaiuv 
(Movauuv). — 3. Voce acuta. "With clear and tuneful accents." — 4. Fid- 
ibus citharaque. "Forjidibus cithara. " On the strings of Apollo's lyre." 
— 5. Auditis ? " Do you hear her 1" The poet fancies that the Muse, 
having heard his invocation, has descended from the skies, and is pouring 
forth a melodious strain. Hence the question, put to those who are sup- 
posed to be standing around, whether they also hear the accents of the 
goddess. Fea, one of the modern commentators on Horace, gives on con- 
jecture Audiris ? in the sense of " Are you heard by me 1" " Do you an- 
swer my invocation?" — Amabilis insania. "A fond phrensy." — 7. Amana 
quos et, &c. A beautiful zeugma. " Through which the pleasing waters 
glide and refreshing breezes blow." — 9. Fabulosa. •* Celebrated in fa- 
ble." — Vulture. Mons Vultur, now Monte Voltorc, was situate to the 
south of Venusia, and was, in fact, a mountain ridge, separating Apulia 
from Lucania. As it belonged, therefore, partly to one of these countries, 
and partly to the other, Horace might well use the expression Altricis 
extra limen Apulia, when speaking of the Lucanian side of the mountain. 
—Apulo. Observe that the initial vowel is long in this word, but short 
in Apulia in the next line. Some, therefore, read here Appulo ; but for 
this there is no need, since the Latin poets not unfrequently vary the 
quantity of proper or foreign names. Thus we have Prldmus and Prid- 
tnides ; Sicdnus and Sicania ; ltdlus and Italia ; Bdtdvus and Balden*. 
— 10. Altricis Apulia. " Of my native Apulia." — 11. Ludo fatigatumque 
somno. "Wearied with play and oppressed with sleep." — 13. Mirum 
quod foret, &c. "Which might well be a source of wonder," &c. — 
14. Celsa nidum Acherordia. "The nest of the lofty Acherontia." 
Acherontia, now Acerenza, was situated on a hill difficult of access, south 
of Forentum, in Apulia. Its lofty situation gains for it from the poet the 
beautiful epithet of nidus. — 15. Saltusque Bantinos. Bantia, a town of 
Apulia, lay to the southeast of Venusia. — 16. Forenti. Forentum, now 
Forenza, lay about eight miles south of Venusia, and on the other side 
of Mount Vultur. The epithet humilis, " lowly," has reference to its it- 
nation near the base of the mountain. — 20. Non sine dis animosus. " De- 
riving courage from the manifest protection of the gods." The deities 
\ ere alluded to are the Muses. 

21-36. 21. Vester, Camana. "Under your proteotion, ye Muses." — 
lit arduos iollor Sabinos. " J. climb unto the lofty Sabines," i. e., the 
lofty country of the Sabines. The allusion is to his farm in the mount- 
ainous Sabine territory. — 23. Praneste. Praeneste, now Palastrina, was 
situate about twenty-three miles from Rome, in a southeast direction 
Tbe epithet frigidum, in the'text, alludes to the coolness of its tempera- 
ture. — Tibur supinum. "The sloping Tibur." This place was situated 
on the slope of a hill. Consult note on Ode i., 7, 13. — 24. Liquida Baia. . 
"Baite with its waters "' Consult note on Ode ii., 18, 20.— 26 Philippu 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK III., ODE IV 345 

tvrsa aeiet retro. "The army routed at Philippi.' Consult "Life ol 
Horace," p-xviii, and note on Ode ii., 7, 9. — 27. Dcvota arbor. "The ae 
domed tree." Consult Ode ii., 13. — 28. Palinurus. A promontory on lha 
roast of Lucania, now Capo di Palinuro. Tradition ascribed the name 
to Palinurus, the pilot of iEneas. {Virgil, JEn., vi., 380.) It was noted 
for shipwrecks. — 29. Utcunque. Put for quandocunquc. — 30. Bosporum. 
Consult note on Ode ii, 13, 14. — 32. Littoris Assyrii. The epithet Assyrii 
is heie equivalent to Syrii. The name Syria itself, which has been 
transmitted to us by the Greeks, is a corruption or abridgment of Assyria, 
and was first adopted by the Ionians who frequented these coasts after 
the Assyrians of Nineveh had made this country a part of their empire. 
The allusion in the text appears to be to the more inland deserts, the 
Syria Palmy rente soliludines of Pliny, II. N., v., 24. — 33. Britannos hos- 
pilibusferos. Acron, in his scholia on this ode, informs us that the Britons 
were said to sacrifice strangers. St. Jerome informs us that they were 
cannibals. {Adv. Jovin., ii., 201.) — 34. Concanum. The Concani were 
Cantabrian tribe in Spain. As a proof of their ferocity, the poet mentions- 
their drinking the blood of horses intermixed with their liquor. — 35. Ge 
lonos. Consult note on Ode ii., 9, 23. — 36. Scylhicum amnem. The 
Tanais, or Don. 

37-04. 37. Casarcm altum. "The exalted Caesar." — 38. Fessas co- 
hortes abdidit oppidis. Alluding to the military colonies plauted by Au- 
gustus, at the close of the civil wars. Some editions have reddidit for 
abdidit, which will then refer merely to the disbanding of his forces. — 
40. Pierio antro. A figurative allusion to the charms of literary leisure. 
Pieria was a region of Macedonia directly north of Thessaly, and fabled 
to have been the first seat of the Muses, who are hence called Pierides. 
— 11. Vos lene consilium, &c. "You, ye benign deities, both inspire 
Coesar with peaceful counsels, and rejoice in having done so." A com 
plimentary allu.sion to the mild and liberal policy of Augustus, and his pa 
tronage of letters and the arts. In reading metrically consilium ct must 
be pronounced consil-yet. — 44. Fulmine sustulcrit corusco. " Swept away 
with his gleaming thunderbolt." — 50. Fidens brachiis. " Proudly trusting 
in their might." Proudly relying on the strength of their arms. — 51. Fratrcs. 
Otus and Ephialtes. The allusion is now to the giants, who attempted 
to scale the heavens. — 52. Pelion. Mount Pelion, a range in Thessaly 
along a portion of the eastern coast, and to the south of Ossa. — Olympo. 
Olympus, on the coast of northern Thessaly, separated from Ossa by the 
vale of Tempe. — 53. Scd quid Typhdeus, &c. Observe that Typhoeus is a 
trisyllable, in Greek Tv<p(oevc. The mightiest of the giants are here 
enumerated. The Titans and giants are frequently confounded by the 
ancient writers. — 58. Hinc avidus stelit, &c. " In this quarter stood Vul 
can, burning for the fight ; in that, Juno, with all a matron's dignity." 
In illustration of avidus here, compare the Homeric TiiTiaiofievoc Tto^tfioLO. 
The term matrona, analogous here to norvia, and intended to designate 
the majesty and dignity of the queen of heaven, conveyed a much strong- 
er idea to a Roman than to a modern ear. — Gi. Rore puro Castalits. " In 
the limpid waters of Castalia." The Castalian fount, on Parnassus, was 
sacred to Apollo and the Muses. — 63. Lycia dumeta. "The thickets of 
r jyeia." Lycia was one of the principal seats of the worship of the sun- 
e;od.- -Nati'dem silram. "His natal wDod," on Mount Cynthus, in the 



346 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK III., ODE V. 

island of Dalos. — 64. Delius et Patareus Apollo. "Apollo, god of Delos 
and of Patara." Literally. "the Delian andPatarean Apolb." The city 
of Patara, in Lycia, was situate on the southern coast, below the mouth 
of the Xanthus. It was celebrated for an oracle of Apollo, and that deity 
was said to reside here during six months of the year, and during the re 
maining six at Delos. (Virg., ^En., iv., 143. Serv., ad loc.) 

65-79. 65. Vis consih expers, &.c. "Force devoid of judgment sinks 
under its own weight,'' i. c, the efforts of brute force, without wisdom, 
m\3 of no avail. — 66. Tempera tarn. " When under its control," i. e., when 
regulated by judgment. Understand consilio. — Provekunt in majus. "In- 
crease." — Animo moventes. "Meditating in mind." — 69. Gyas. Gyas, 
Cottus, and Briareus, sons of'Coclus and Terra, were hurled by their father 
to Tartarus. Jupiter, however, brought them b»^,k to the light of day, and 
was aided by them in overthrowing the Titans. Such is the mythological 
narrative of Hesiod. [Thcog., 617, scqq.) Horace evidently confounds 
this cosmogonical fablo with one of later date. The Centimani ('E/ca 
Toyxeipee) are of a much earlier creation than the rebellious giants, and 
right on the side of the gods ; whereas, in the present passage, Horace 
seems to identify one of their number with these very giants. — 71. Orion 
The well-known hunter and giant of early fable. — 73. Injecta monstris. 
A Graecism for se injectam esse dolct, &c. "Earth grieves at being cast 
upon the monsters of her own production." An allusion to the overthrow 
und punishment of the giants. (Trjyevelc.) Enceladus was buried under 
Sicily, Polybotes under Nisyrus, torn off by Neptune from the isle of Cos, 
Otus under Crete, <Scc. (Apollod., i., 6, 2.) — Partus. The Titans are now 
meant, who were also the sons of Terra, and whom Jupiter hurled to Tar 
tarus. — 75. Nee peredit impositam, &c. " Nor has the rapid fire ever eaten 
through ./Etna placed upon (Enceladus)," i. e., eaten through the mass of 
the mountain so as to reduce this to ashes, and free him from the superin- 
cumbent load. More freely, "nor is Enceladus lightened of his load." 
Pindar (Pylh., i., 31) and iEschylus (Prom. V., 373) place Typhoeus under 
this mountain. — 77. Tityi. Tityos was slain by Apollo and Diana for at- 
tempting violence to Latona. — 78. Ales. The vulture. — Nequitia addi- 
tus custos. "Added as the constant punisber of his guilt." Literally, 
1 added as a keeper to his guilt," nequitice being properly the dative. 
— 79. Amatorem Piritkoum. " The amorous Pirithous," i. e., who sought 
to gain Proserpina to his love. Pirithous, accompanied by Theseus, de- 
scended to Hades for the purpose of carrying off Proserpina. He was 
seized by Pluto, and bound to a rock with "countless fetters" (trecentis 
catenis). His punishment, however, is given differently by other writers. 



Ode V. According to Dio Cassius (liv., 8), when Phraates, the Parthian 
monarch, sent ambassadors to treat for the recovery of his son, then a 
hostage in the hands of the Romans, Augustus demanded the restoratioi 
of the standards taken from Crassus and Antony. Phraates at first re- 
fused, but the fear of a war with the Roman emperor compelled him at 
length to acquiesce. The ode therefore opens with a complimentary al- 
lusion to the power of Augustus, and the glory he has acquired by thus 
wresting the Roman standards from the hands of the Parthians. The 
bard then dwells for a time upon the disgraceful defeat of Crassus. afU» 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BO'JK III., ODE V. '6'k'i 

which the noble example of Regulus is introduced, and a tacit eoinparisor 
is then made during the rest of tl.e piece hetween the high-toned priuoi 
pies of the virtuous lloman and the strict discipline of Augustus. 

1-3. 1. Casio tonantcm, Sec. "We believe from his thundering that 
Jove reigns in the skies." — 2. Prccscns divus, Sec. Having stated the 
common grounds on which the belief of Jupiter's divinity is founded, name- 
ly, his thundering in the skies, the poet now proceeds, in accordance with 
the flattery of the age, to name Augustus as a " deity upon earth" (prase/is 
divus), assigning, as a proof of this, his triumph over tin* nations of tne 
farthest east and west, especially his having wrested from the Parthians, 
by the mere terror of his name, the standards so disgracefully lost by Craa 
bus and Antony. — 3. Adjeclis Britannis, Sec. "The Britons and the for- 
midable Parthians being added to his sway." According to Strabo, some 
of the princes of Britain sent embassies and presents to Augustus, and 
placed a large portion of the island under his control. It was not, how- 
ever, reduced to a Roman province until the time of Claudius. What 
Horace adds respecting the Parthians is adorned with the exaggeration 
of poetry. This nation was not, in fact, added by Augustus to the empire 
of Rome ; they only surrendered, through dread of the Roman power, the 
standards taken from Crassus and Antony. 

5-12. 5. Milesne Crassi, &c. "Has the soldier of Crassus lived, a de- 
graded husband, with a barbarian spouse?" An allusion to the soldiers 
of Crassus made captives by the Parthians, and who, to save their lives, 
had intermarried with females of that nation. Hence the peculiar force 
of Wtit, which is well explained by one of the scholiasts : " uxores a vie 
toribus acccperant, ut vitam mererenlur." To constitute a lawful mar- 
riage among the Romans, it was required that both the contracting parties 
be citizens and free. There was no legitimate marriage between slaves, 
nor was a Roman citizen permitted to marry a slave, a barbarian, or a 
foreigner generally. Such a connection was called connubium, not matri- 
monium. — 7. Proh curia, inversique mores ! "Ah! senate of my coun- 
try, and degenerate principles of the day !" The poet mourns over the 
want of spirit on the part of the senate, in allowing the disgraceful defeat 
of Crassus to remain so long unavenged, and over the stain fixed on the 
martial character of Rome by this connection of her captive soldiery with 
their bai'barian conquerors. Such a view of the subject carries with it a 
tacit but flattering eulogium on the successful operations of Augustus. — 
8. Consenuit. Nearly thirty years had elapsed since the defeat of Cras- 
sus, B.C. 53. — 9. Sub rege Medo. " Beneath a Parthian king." — Maisus 
et Apulus. The Marsians and Apulians, the bravest portion of the Ro- 
man armies, are here taken to denote the Roman soldiers generally. On 
the quantity of Apulus, consult note on Ode iv., 9, of the present book.-- 
10. Aneiliorum. The ancilia were " the sacred shields" carried round in 
procession by the Salii or priests of Mars. — Et nominis et toga. " And 
of the name and attire of a Roman." The toga was the distinguishing 
part of the Roman dress, and the badge of a citizen. — 11. JEtcrnaqut 
Vesta. Alluding to the sacred fire kept constantly burning by the vestal 
virgins in the temple of the goddess.— 12. Tnr.olumi Jove et urbe Roma. 
"The Capitol of the Roman city being safe," i. e., tnough me Roman power 
remains still superior to its foes. Jove is h^re put for Jo^e Crpitohno. 
eouivalent. in fact, to Capi'olio. 



348 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK II., ODE V. 

13-38. 13. Hoc caverat, <5cc. The example of Regulus is now oitert, 
who foresaw the evil effects that would result to his country if the Roman 
soldier was allowed to place his hopes of safety any where but in arms. 
Hence the vanquished commander recommends to his countrymen not tc 
accept the terms offered by the Carthaginians, and, by receiving back the 
Roman captives, establish a precedent pregnant with ruin to a future 
age. The soldier must either conquer or die ; he must not expect that, 
by becoming a captive, he will have a chance of being ransomed and thus 
restored to his country. — 14. Dissentientis conditionibus, &c. "Dissent- 
ing from the foul terms proposed by Carthage, and a precedent pregnant 
with ruin to a future age." Alluding to the terms of accommodation, of 
which he himself was the bearer, and which he advised his countrymen 
to reject. The Carthaginians wished peace and a mutual ransoming of 
prisoners. — 17. Si non pcrircat, &c. " If the captive youth were not to 
perish uulamented." The common reading is periret, where the arsis 
lengthens the final syllable of periret. — 20. Militibus. " From our sol- 
diery." — 23. Portasque non clusas, &c. " And the gates of the foe stand 
ing open, and the fields once ravaged by our soldiery now cultivated by 
their hands." Regulus, previous to his overthrow, had spread terror to the 
very gates of Carthage. But now her gates lie open in complete security 
— 25. Auro repensus, &c. Strong and bitter irony. " The soldier, after be- 
ing ransomed by gold, will no doubt return a braver man !" — 28. Medicaid 
fuco. "When once stained by the dye." — 29. Vera virtus. "True valor." 
— 30. Dcterioribus. Understand animis. " In minds which have become 
degraded by cowardice." — 35. Iners. "With a coward's spirit." — Ti- 
muitque mortem, &c. "And has feared death from that veiy quarter 
whence, with far more propriety, he might have obtained an exemption 
from servitude." He should have trusted to his arms ; they would have 
saved him from captivity. Vitam is here equivalent to salutem. There 
must be no stop after mortem. The common text has a period after mor 
tern, and reads Hie in place of Hinc, in the next line. — 33. Pacem et duello 
miscuit. " He has confounded peace, too, with war." He has surrender- 
ed with his arms in his hands, and has sought peace in the heat of action 
from his foe by a tame submission. Observe the old form duello for bello 

40-56. 40. Probrosis altior Italics minis. "Rendered more glorious 
by the disgraceful downfall of Italy." — 42. Ut capitis minor. " As one no 
longer a freeman." Among the Romans, any loss of liberty or of the 
rights of a citizen was called Deminutio capitis. — 45. Donee labantes, 
*c. "Until, as an adviser, he confirmed the wavering minds of the fa- 
thers by counsel never given on any previous occasion," i. e., until he set- 
tled the wavering minds of the senators by becoming the author of advice 
before unheard. Regulus advised the Romans strenuously to prosecute 
the war, and leave him to his fate. — 49. Atqui sciebat, &c. There is con- 
siderable doubt respecting the story of the sufferings of Regulus. — 52. 
Rediti'.s. The plural here beautifully ma'ks his frequent attempts to re- 
tun?, and the endeavors of bis relatives and friends to oppose his design. 
Abstract nouns are frequently used in the plural in Latin, where our own 
idiom does not allow of it, to denote a repetition of the same act, or the 
existence of the same quality in different, subjects. — 53. honga negotia. 
1 The tedious concerns."- -55. Vcnafranos in agros Consult note on Ode 
a. fc. lfi — 56. LacedcEmonium Tarcntum. Consult note on Ode ii , *>, 11 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK III., OLE VL 349 

Ode VI. Addressed to the corrupt and dissolute Romans of his age, 
anil ascribing the national calamities which had befallen them to the an 
ger o» the gods at their abandonment of public and private virtue. To 
heighten the picture of present corruption, a view is taken of the simple 
manners which marked the earlier days of Rome. 

Although no mention is made of Augustus in this piece, yet it would 
seem to have been written at the time when that emperor was actively 
engaged in restraining the tide of public and private corruption ; when, 
as Suetonius informs us ( Vit. Aug., 30), he was rebuilding the sacred edi- 
fices which had either been destroyed by fire or suffered to fall to ruin, 
while by the Lex Julia, "De adulteriis," and the Lex Papia-Poppoea, 
" De maritandis ordinibus," he was striving to reform the moral condition 
of his people. Hence it may be conjectured that the poet wishes to cele 
brate, in the present ode, the civic virtues of the monarch. 

1—11. 1. Pelicta majorum, &c. "Though guiltless of them, thou shalt 
atone, O Roman, for the crimes of thy fathers." The crimes here alluded 
to have referenpe principally to the excesses of the civil wars. The 
offences of the parents are visited on their children. — 3. ^Edes. "The 
shrines." Equivalent here to delnbra. — 4. Fceda t nigro, &c. The statues 
of the gods in the te»nples were apt to contract impurities from the smoke 
of the altars, ttc. H*>nce the custom of annually washing them in running 
water or the neares* sea, a rite which, according to the poet, had been 
long interrupted by Mie neglect of the Romans. — 5. Imperas. "Thou 
boldest the reins of empire." — 6. Hinc omne principium, &c. " From 
them derive the. commencement of every undertaking, to them ascribe its 
issue." In metrical reading, pronounce principium hue, in this line, as if 
written princip-yuc- -8. Hespcrice. Put for Italics. Consult note on Od • 
»., 36, 4. — 9. Monceses et Pacori manus. Alluding to two Parthian com- 
manders who had p> -wed victorious over the Romans. Monoeses, more 
commonly known by \\\q name of Surena, is the same that defeated Cras- 
8us. Pa;orus was t u e son of Orodes, the Parthian monarch, and defeated 
Didius iSaxa, the lieutenant of Marc Antony. — 10. Non auspicatos contu- 
dit impetus. "Hav« crushed our inauspicious efforts." — 11. Et adjecisse 
prcedvm, &c. "And proudly smile in having added the spoils of Romans 
to tb«sir military onu. ments of scanty size before." By torques are meant, 
among the Roman writers, golden chains, which went round the neck, 
beatowed as military rewards. These, till now, had been the only onia* 
ment or prize of tlv? Parthian soldier. The meaning is, in fact, a figurative 
one. The Parthi^ns, a nation of inferior military fame before *this, now 
exult in their victories over Romans. 

13-45. 13. Oceupatam seditionibus. " Embroiled in civil dissensions." 
According to the poet, the weakness consequent on disunion had almost 
given the capital over into the hands of its foes. — 14. Dacus et yEthiops. 
An allusion to the approaching conflict between Augustus and Antony. 
By the term ^Etkiops are meant the Egyptians generally. As regards 
the Dacians, Dio Cassius (51, 22) states that they had sent ambassadors 
to Augustus, but, not obtaining what they wished, had thereupon inclined 
to the side of Antony. According to Suetonius ( Vit. Aug., 21), their incur- 
sions were checked by Augustus, and tlree of their leaders slain. — 17 
Nupt.ias inqninavere "Have polluted the purity of the nuptial compact' 



350 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK III., ODE VIII. 

Compare the account given by HeLneccius of the Lex Julia, " De adulu 
no," and the remarks of the same writer relative to the laws against thia 
offence prior to the time of Augustus. [Antiq. Rom., lib. i, tit. 18, $ 51 
*>d. Haubold, p. 782.) Consult, also, Suetonius, Vit. Aug., 34. — 20. In pa- 
triam populumque. The term patriam contains an allusion to public ca- 
lamities, while populum, on the other hand, refers to such as are of a pri 
vate nature, the loss of property, of rank, of character, &c. — 21. His parent- 
thus. " From parents such as these." — 23. Cecidit. . " Smote." — 25. Rxis- 
ticorum militum. The best portion of the Roman troops were obtained 
from the rustic tribes, as being most inured to toil. — 26. Sabellis legioni- 
bus. The simple manners of earlier times remained longest in force 
among the Sabines and the tribes descended from them. — 30. Etjuga de- 
meret, &c. Compare the Greek terms fiovTivaie and (3ov7iv~6c. — 32. Agens 
"Bringing on." Restoring. — 33. Damnosa dies. " Wasting timij." Dies 
is most commonly masculine when used to denote a particular day, and 
feminine when it is spoken of the duration of time. 



Odl VIII. Horace had invited Maecenas to attend a festal ce^bration 
on the Calends of March,. As the Matronalia took place on this same day, 
the poet naturally anticipates the surprise of his friend on the occasion. 
" Wonderest thou, Maecenas, what I, an unmarried man, have to do with 
a day kept sacred by the matrons of Rome 1 On this very day my life was 
endangered by the falling of a tree, and its annual return always brings 
with it feelings of grateful recollection for my providential deliverance." 

1-10. 1. Martiis coelebs, &c. " Maecenas, skilled in the lore of either 
tongue, dost thou wonder what I, an unmarried man, intend to do on the 
Calends of March, what these flowers mean, and this censer," &c, i. e., 
skilled in Greek and Roman antiquities, especially those relating tc 
sacred rites. — 7. Libero. In a previous ode (ii., 17, 27) the bard attributes 
his preservation to Faunus, but now Bacchus is named as the author ot 
his deliverance. There is a peculiar propriety in this. Bacchus is not 
only the protector of poets, but also, in a special sense, one of the gods of 
the country and of gardens, since to him are ascribed the discovery and 
culture of the vine and of apples. (Theocr., ii., 120. Warton, ad loc. 
Athenaus, iii., 23.) — Diesfestus. Consult note on Ode ii., 3, 6. — 10. Cor- 
ticem adstrictum, &c. " Shall remove the cork, secured with pitch, from 
the jar which began to drink in the smoke in the consulship of Tullus.' - 
Amphora, the dative, is put by a Graecism for ab amphora. When the 
wine-vessels were filled, and the disturbance of the liquor had subsided, 
the covers or stoppers were secured with plaster, or a coating of pitcr? 
mixed with the ashes of the vine, so as to exclude all communication 
with the external air. After this, the wines were mellowed by the ap- 
plication of smoke, which was prevented, by the ample coating of pitch 
or plaster on the wine-vessel, from penetrating so far as to vitiate the 
genuine taste of the liquor. Previously, however, to depositing the am- 
phorae in the wine-vault or apotheca, it was usual to put upon them a 
label or ma/k indicative of the vintages, and of the names of the consuls 
in authority at the time, in order that, when tl ey were taken out, their 
age and growth might be easily recognized. If by the consulship of Tul- 
lus. mentioned in the text, be meant that of L. Volratnis Tu'lus. who hsd 



EXPLANATORY NO'IES. BOOK III., ODE IX. 35l 

M. jErailius Lepidus for his colleague, A U.C. 688, and if the present ode, 
as would appear from verse 17, seqq., was composed A U.C. 734. the wine 
offered by Horace to his friend must have been more than forty -six years 
old. 

13-25. 13. Saimc Maecenas, ice. " Drink, dear Maecenas, a hundred 
eups in honor of the preservation of thy friend." A cup drained to the 
health or in honor of any individual, was styled, in the Latin idiom, his 
cup {ejus poculum) ; hence the language of the text, cyathos amid. The 
meaning of the passage is not, as some think, " do thou drink at thy home, 
I being about to drink at mine ;" but it is actually an invitation on the 
part of the bard. — Cyathos centum. Referring merely to a large number. 
■ — 15. Perfer in Ivccm. "Prolong till daylight." — 17. MUte civiles, <fcc. 
" Dismiss those cares, which, as a statesman, thou feelest for the welfare 
of Rome." An allusion to the office of Prcefcctus urbis, which Ma3cenas 
held during the absence of Augustus in Egypt. — 18. Daci Cotisonis agmen. 
The inroads of the Dacians, under their king Cotiso, were checked by 
Lentulus, the lieutenant of Augustus. (Suet., Vit. Aug., 21. Flor., iv., 
12, 18.) Compare, as regards Dacia itself, the note on Ode i., 35, 9. — 
19. Medus infestus sibi. "The Parthians, turning their hostilities against 
themselves, are at variance in destructive conflicts." Consult note on 
Ode i., 26, 3. Orelli joins sibi luctuosis. Dillenburger explains the clause 
by infestus sibi, sibi luctuosis, making it an example of the construction 
U7r6 kolvov. The construction, however, which we have adopted, is in 
every point of view preferable. — 22. Sera domitus catena. " Subdued 
after long-protracted contest." The Cantabrians were reduced to subjec- 
tion by Agrippa the same year in which this ode was composed (A.U.C. 
734), after having resisted the power of: the Romans, in various ways, for 
more than two hundred years. Consult note on Ode ii., 6, 2. — 23. Jam 
Scythce laxo, &c. " The Scythians now think of retiring from our frontiers, 
with bow unbent." By the Scythians are here meant the barbarous 
tribes in the vicinity of the Danube, but more particularly the Geloni, 
whose inroads had been checked by Lentulus. Consult note on Ode ii., 
9, 23. — 25. Negligent nc qua, &c. " Refraining, amid social retirement, 
from overweening solicitude, lest the people any where feel the pressure 
*>f evil, seize with joy the gifts of the present moment, and bid adieu for a 
time to grave pursuits." The common text has a comma after laborct, 
and in the 26th line gives Parce privatus nimium cavere. The term neg- 
ligens will then be joined in construction with parce, and negligens parce 
will then be equivalent to parce alone, " Since thou art a private person 
be not too solicitous lest," &c. The epithet privatus, as applied by the 
poet to*Mfficenas, is then to be explained by a reference to the Roman 
usage, which designated all individuals, except the emperor, as privati. 
The whole reading, however, is decidedly bad. According to the lection 
adopted in our text, negligens cavere is a Grascism for negligens cavendi 



Ode IX. A beautiful Amoebean ode, representing the reconciliation ol 
cwo lovers. The celebrated modern scholar Scaliger regaided thi? ode, 
uni the third of the fourth book, as the two most beautiful lyric prc/dii* 
r'o-is of Ho"ice. {Seal., Poet.. 6.) 



J52 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK III., ODE XI. 

2-24. 2. Potior. •' More favored." — 3. Dabat. " Was accustomed tu 
throw." — 4. Persaruii vigui, &c. " I lived happier than the monarch of 
the Persians," i. e., I was happier than the inchest and most powerful of 
kings. — 6. Alia. " For another." — 7. Multi nominis. " Of distinguished 
fame," — 8. Ilia. The mother of Romulus and Remus. — 10. Dulces docta 
modos, &.c. "Skilled in sweet measures, and mistress of the iyre." — 
12. Animce superstili. "Her surviving soul." — 13. Torrct face mutua. 
" Burns with the torch of mutual love." — 14. Thurini Ornyti. " Of the 
Thurian Ornytus." Thurii was a city of Lucania, on the coast of the Si- 
nus Tarentinus, erected by an Athenian colony, near the site of Sybaris, 
which had been destroyed by the forces of Crotona. — 17. Prisca Venvs, 
" Our old affection." — 18. Diductos. "Us, long parted." — 21. Sidereput* 
clirior. " Brighter in beauty than any star." — 22. Levior cortice. " Light 
©r than cork." Alluding to his inconstant and fickle disposition. — Im- 
probo. " Stormy." — 24. Tecum vivere amem, &c. " Yet with thee I shall 
love to live, with thee I shall cheerfully die." Supply tamen, as required 
by quamquam which precedes. 



Ode XI. Addressed to Lyde, an obdurate fair one. Horace invokes 
Mercury, the god of music and of rhetoric, to aid him in subduing he? 
aversion. 

1-22. 1. Te magistro. "Under thy instruction." — 2. Amphion. Am 
phion, son of Jupiter and Antiope, was fabled to have built the walls of 
Thebes by the music of his lyre, the stones moving of themselves into 
their destined places. Eustathius, however, ascribes this to Amphion 
conjointly with his brother Zethus. — 3. Testudo. " O shell." Consult 
note on Ode i., 10, 6. — Resonare seplem, &c. " Skilled in sending forth 
sweet music with thy seven strings." Callida resonare by a Graecism 
for callida in resonando. — 5. Nee loquax olim, &c. " Once, neither vocal 
nor gifted with the power to please, now acceptable both to the tables of 
the rich aud the temples of the gods." — 9. Tu potes tigres, Sec. An allu 
sion to the legend of Orpheus. — Comites. "As thy companions," i. e., in 
thy train. — 12. Blandienti. " Soothing his anger by the sweetness of thy 
notes." — 16. Aulce. " Of Pluto's hall." Orpheus descends with his lyre 
to the shades, for the purpose of regaining his Eurydice. — 13. Furiale ca- 
put. " His every head, like those of the Furies." — 14. yEstuet. "Rolls 
forth its hot volumes." — 15. Teter. "Deadly," "pestilential." — Sanies. 
"Poisonous matter." — 18. Stetit urna paulum, &c. "The vase of each 
stood for a moment dry," i. e., the Danaides ceased for a moment from 
(heir toil. — 22. Et inane lympha, &c. "And the vessel empty *f water, 
from its escaping through the bottom." Dolium is here taken as a gen 
t ral term for the vessel, or receptacle, which the daughters of Danaus 
were condemned to fill, and the bottom of which, being perforated with 
tiumer.'us holes, allowed the water constantly to escape. 

26-48. 26. Nam quid potuere majus, &c. "For, what greater crime 
could they commit?" Understand scelus. — 29. Una de multis. Alluding 
to Hypermnestra, who spared her husband Lynceus.- -Face nuptiali dig 
na. At the ancient marriages, the bride was escorted from her father^ a 
hnrtsc to that of her husband amid the light of torches. — 30 Pcrjurun Jvi) 






EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK IIL, ODE XII. 353 

,w partntem, &c. •' Proved gloriously false to her perjured parent." The 
Danaldes were bound by an oath, which their parent had imposed, to de- 
stroy their husbands on the night of their nuptials. Hypermnestra alone 
broke that -engagement, and saved the life of Lynceus. The epither per- 
iurum, as npplied to Danaus, alludes to his violation of good faith toward 
his sons-in-law. — 31. Virgo. Consult Heyne. ad Apollod., ii., 1, 5. — Unde. 
" From a quarter whence," i. e., from one from whom. — 35. Socerum et 
^celestas, &c. " Escape by secret flight from thy father-in-law and my 
wicked sisters." Fallc is here equivalent to the Greek \dOt- — 37. Nacta. 
"Having got into their power." — 39. Ncque intra claustra tenebo. "Nor 
will I keep thee here in confinement," i. e., nor will I keep thee confined 
in this thy nuptial chamber until others come and slay thee. — 43. Me pater 
sa:vis, &c. Hypermnestra was imprisoned by her father, but afterward, 
on a reconciliation taking place, was reunited to Lynceus. — 47. Mcmorcm 
qucrr.Iam. "A mournful epitaph, recording the story of our fate." 



Ode XII. The bard laments the unhappy fate of Neobule, whose affec- 
tion for the young Hebrus had exposed her to the angry chidings of an 
offended relative. 

1-10. 1. Miserarum est. "It is the part of unhappy maidens," i. e., 
unhappy are the maidens who, &c. — Dare ludum. " To indulge in." Lit- 
erally, " to give play to." — 2. Lav$re. The old stem-conjugation, and the 
earlier form for lavdre. — Aut exanimari, &c. " Or else to be half dead 
witn alarm, dreading the lashes of an uncle's tongue," i. e., or, in case 
they do indulge the tender passion, and do seek to lead a life of hilarity, 
to be constantly disquieted by the dread of some morose uncle who chances 
to be the guardian of their persons. The severity of paternal uncles was 
proverbial. Compare Erasmus, Chil., p. 463, ed. Stcph., " Nesis patrutis 
mihi," and Ernesti, Clav. Cic, s. v. Patruus. — 4. Operos&que Minerva 
studium. "And all inclination for the labors of Minerva." Literally, 
" all affection for the industrious Minerva." — 5. Liparei. " Of Lipara." 
Lipara, now Lipari, the largest of the Insulae iEoliae, or Vulcanise, off the 
coasts of'Italy and Sicily. — 6. Unctos hurneros. The ancients anointed 
themselves previously to their engaging in gymnastic exercises, and 
bathed after these were ended. The arrangement of the common text is 
consequently erroneous, in placing the line beginning with Simul unctos 
after segni pede victus. — 7. Bellerophonte. Alluding to the fable of Bel- 
lerophon and Pegasus. In Bellerophonte the last syllable is lengthened 
from the Greek, Bt'Xlepo^ovT'n. — 8. Catus jaculari. A Graecism for catns 
jaculandi. — 10. Celer arcto latitantem, &c. "Active in surprising the 
boar that lurks amid the deep thicket." Celer excipere for celer in ex- 
npiendo or ad excipiendum. 



Ode XIII. A sacrifice is promised to the fountain of Bandusii and an 
immortalizing of it in verse. 

1-15. 1. Ofons Bandusice. The common text has Blandusice, but the 
true form of the name is Bandusia, as given in many MSS. Fea cites 
also an ecclesiastical r cord in its favor '.Privileg. Paschalis II anm 



354 EXPLANATORY N VIES —BOOK ill., ODE XIV. 

!103, ap. Ughell. Ital. Sacr., torn. 7, col. 30, ed. Veil., 1721), in the follow 
nig words : " In Bandusino funte apud Venusiam," and, a little after, 
"cum aliis ecclesiis de castello Bandusii." From this it would appeal 
that the true Bandusian fount was near Venusia, in Apulia; and it has 
been conjectured that the poet named another fountain, on his Sabine 
farm, and which he here addresses, after the one near Venusia, which he 
had known in early boyhood. — 2. Dulci digne mero, &c. Tbe nymph of 
the fountain is to be propitiated by a libation, and by garlands hung around 
the brink. — Splendidior vitro. " Clearer than glass." — 3. Donaberis. 
" Thou shalt be gifted," i. e., in sacrifice. — 6. Frustra. Sc. eetas eum Ve- 
neri et pradiis dcstinat. — Nam gclidos injiciet, &c. The altars on which 
sacrifices were offered to fountains, were placed in their immediate vicini- 
ty, and constructed of turf. — 9. Te fiagrantis atrox, &c. "Thee the 
fierce season of the blazing dog-star does not affect." Literally, "knows 
not how to affect." Consult note on Ode i., 17, 7. — 13. Fies nobilium tu 
quoqucfonlium. "Thou too shalt become one of the famous fountains.' 
By the nobilcs fontes are meant Castalia, Hippocrene, Dirce, Arethusa 
&c. The construction fies nobilium fontium is imitated from the Greek 
— 14. Me diccnte. "While I tell of," i. c., while I celebrate in song. — 
15. Loquaces lymphce tuce. "Thy prattling waters." 



Ode XIV. On the expected return of Augustus from his expedition 
against the Cantabri. The poet proclaims a festal day in honor of so 
joyous an event, and while the consort and the sister of Augustus, accom 
panied by the Roman females, are directed to go forth and meet their 
prince, he himself proposes to celebrate the day at his own abode with 
wine and festivity. 

What made the return of the emperor peculiarly gratifying to the Ro 
man people was the circumstance of his having been attacked by sick 
ness during his absence, and confined for a time at the city of Tarraco. 

1-6. 1. Herculis ritu, «Scc. "Augustus, O Romans, who so lately was 
said, after the manner of Hercules, to have sought for the laurel to be 
purchased only with the risk of death, now," &c. The conqueSts of Au 
gustus over remote nations are here compared with the labors of the fa- 
bled Hercules, and as the latter, after the overthrow of Geryon, returned 
in triumph from Spain to Italy, so Augustus now comes from the same 
distant quarter victorious over his barbarian foes. The expression morte 
venalem petiisse laurum refers simply to the exposure of life in the achiev 
ing of victory. Compare the remark of Acron : " Mortis contemtu laus 
victories quceritur et triumphi." — 5. Unico gaudens mulier marito, &c. 
" Let the consort who exults in a peerless husband, go forth to offer sacri- 
fices to the just deities of heaven." The allusion is to Livia, the consort 
of Augustus. As regards the passage itself, two things are deserving of 
attention : the first is the use of unico, in the sense of praestantissimo, on 
which point consult Heinsius, ad Or id, Met., iii., 454 ; the second is the 
meaning we must assign to operata, which is here taken by a poetic id- 
iom for ut operelur. On the latter subject compare Tibullus, v., 1, 9, ed 
Heyne; Virgil, Geo'rg., i., 335, ed. Heyne, and the comments of Mitscher- 
lich and D5ring on the present passage. — 6. Justis divis. The gees are 
Left', stvled "just" from their granting to Augustus the success which hie 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK III . ODE XVI. 353 

valor deserved. This, of course, is mere flattery. Augustus was nevet 
leniarkable either tor personal bravery or military talents. 

7-28. 7. Soror clari ducts. Octavia, the sister of Augustus. — Decora 
supplice vilta. " Adorued with the suppliant fillet," i. c, bearing, as be- 
comes them, the suppliant fillet. According to the scholiast on Sophocles 
{CEd. T., 3), petitioners among the Greeks usually carried boughs wrap- 
ped around with fillets of wool. Sometimes the hands were covered with 
these fillets, not only among the Greeks, but also among the Romans. — 
9. Virginum. " Of the young married females," whose husbands were 
returning in safety from the war. (Compare, as regards this usage of 
Virgo, Ode ii., 8, 23; Virg., Eel., vi., 47; Ov. t Her., i., 115.) — Nupcr. 
Referring to the recent termination of the Cantabrian conflict. — 10. Vos, 
O pucri, &c. " Do you, ye boys, and yet unmarried damsels, refrain from 
ill-omened words." Virum is here the genitive plural, contracted foi 
virorum. Some editions read experts, and make virum the accusative. 
by which lection pucllce jam virum expertee is made to refer to those but 
lately married. — 14. Tumultum. The term properly denotes a war in 
Italy or an invasion by the Gauls. It is here, however, taken for any dan- 
gerous war either at home or in the vicinity of Italy. — 17. Pete unguentum 
tt coronas. Consult note on Ode i., 17, 27. — 18. Et cadum Marsi, &c 
" And a cask that remembers the Marsi an war," i. e., a cask containing old 
wine made during the period of the Marsian or Social war. This war pre- 
vailed from B.C. 91 to B.C. 88, and if the present ode was written B.C. 23, 
as is generally supposed, the contents of the cask must have been from sixty- 
five to sixty-eight years old. — 19. Spartacum si qua, &c. " If a vessel of 
it has been able in any way to escape the roving Spartacus." With qua 
understand ratione. Qua for aliqua, in the nominative, violates the metre. 
Spartacus, a Thracian gladiator, who headed the gladiators and slaves in 
the Servile war r B.C. 73-71. Four consular armies were successively 
defeated by this daring adventurer. He was at last met and completely 
routed by the praetor Crassus. He "roved" from Campania to Mutina, 
and thence into lower Italy, until he was defeated by Crassus nearPetilia 
in Lucania. — 21. Argutat. "The tuneful," *. e., the sweet-singing. -- 
22. Myrrheum. " Perfumed with myrrh." Some commentators errone 
ously refer this epithet to the dark color of the hair. — 27. Hoc. Alluding 
to the conduct of the porter. — Fcrrem. For tulissem. — 28. Consule Planco 
Plancus was consul with M. iEmilius Lepidus, B.C. 41, A.U.C. 712, at 
which period Horace was about twenty-three years of age. 



Ode XVI. This piece turns on the poet's favorite topic, that happiness 
consists not in abundant possessions, but in a contented mind. 

1-19. 1. Inclusam DanaBn. The story of Danae and Acrisius is well 
known. — Turris aBnea. Apollodorus merely mentions a brazen cham 
ber, constructed under ground, in which Danae was immured (ii., 4, 1) 
Later writers make this a tower, and some represent Danae as having 
been confined in a building of this description when about to become a 
mother. (Hcyne, ad Apollod., I.e.) — 3. Tristes. "Strict." Equivalent 
to sever a. — Munierant. "Would certainly have secured." Observe tha 
peculiar force of the indicative, tak'ng the place cf the ordinary viuniis. 



65G EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOR HI., ODE XVi. 

vent. [ZuTipt, § 5\8 , b.) — 4. Adulteris. For amatoribus. Compare Orelk 
H Etiam ds iis dicitur qui virginum castitati insidiantur." — 5. Acrisium 
Acrisius was father of Danae, and king of Argos in the Peloponnesus. — 
6. Custodem pavidum. Alluding to his d/ead of the fulfillment of the ora 
«le. — 7. Fore enirn, &c. Understand sciebant. — 8. Convcrso in prelium. 
" Changed into gold." By the term pretium in the sense of aurum, the 
poet hints at the true solution of the fahle, the bribery of the guards. — 
9. Ire amat. " Loves to make its way." Amat is here equivalent to the 
Greek <pi?^et, and much stronger than the Latin solet. — 10. Saxa. "The 
strongest barriers." — 11. Auguris Argivi. Amphiaraus is meant. Poly- 
nices bribed Eriphyle with the golden collar of Harmonia to persuade 
Amphiaraus her husband to accompany him in the expedition of Adrastus 
against Thebes, although the prophet was well aware that no one of the 
leaders but Adrastus would return alive. Amphiaraus was swallowed up 
by an opening of the earth; and, on hearing of his father's death, his son 
Alcmason, in obedience to his parent's injunction, slew his mother Eri- 
phyle. The necklace proved also the cause of destruction to Alcmaeon at 
a later day. — 12. Ob lucrum. "From a thirst for gold." — 14. Vir Macedo 
Philip, father of Alexander. Compare the expression of Demosthenes, 
Matteduv uvfjp. How much this monarch effected by bribery is known to 
all. — 15. Munera navium, &c. Horace is thought to allude here to Meno 
dorus, or Mcnas, who was noted for frequently changing sides in the war 
between Sextus Pompeius and the triumvirs. Compare JEpode, iv., 17. 
— 16. Sa:vos. " Rough." Some, however, make scevos here equivalent 
to fortes. — 17. Crescentem sequitur, &.c. The connection in the train of 
ideas is this : And yet, powerful as gold is in triumphing over difficulties, 
and in accomplishing what, perhaps, no other human power could effect, 
still it must be carefully shunned by those who wish to lead a happy life, 
for " care ever follows after increasing riches as well as the craving desire 
for more extensive possessions." — 19. Late conspicuum, &c. " To raise 
the far conspicuous head," i. e., to seek after the splendor and honors 
which wealth bestows on its votaries, and to make these the source of 
vainglorious boasting. 

22-43. 22. Plura. For tanto plura. — Nil cupientium, Sec. The rich 
and the contented are here made to occupy two opposite encampments. — 
23. Xudus. " Naked," i. e., divested of every desire for more than fortune 
has bestowed. Compare the explanation of Braunhard: "Pauper, et in 
paupertate sua sibi placens." — 24. Linquere gestio. " I take delight in 
abandoning." — 25. Contemtae dominus, &c. "More conspicuous as the 
possessor of a fortune contemned by the great." — 30. Segelis certaf.de* 
me<B. " A sure reliance on my crop," i. c, the certainty of a good crop.-' 
SI. Fulgentem imperio, &c. "Yield a pleasure unknown to him who is 
distinguished for his wide domains in fertile Africa." Literally, "escapes 
the observation of him who," &c. Fallit is here used for the Greek "kav- 
duvet. As regards the expression fertilis Africa?, consult note on Ode i., 
1, 10. — 32. Sorte beatior. " Happier in lot am I." Understand sum. The 
common text places a period after beatior, and a comma after fallit, a 
harsh and inelegant reading even if it be correct Latin. — 33 Oulabrce, 
ucc. An allusion to the honey of Tarentum. Consult note on Ode ii., 6, 
14. — 34. Nee L&strygonia Bacchus, &c. " Nor the wine ripens for me in 
a Laestrygonian jar." An allusion to the Fonnian wine. Formitc was 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK III., ODE XVII. 357 

regarded by the ancients as Laving been the abode and capital of the La? 
etrygones. Compare note on Ode i., 20, 11. — 35. Gallicis pascuis. The 
pastures of Cisalpine Gaul are meant. — 37. Importuna tamen, &c. "Yet 
the pinching of contracted means is far away." Consult note on Ode i., 
l'J, 43. — 39. Contracto melius, &c. " I shall extend more wisely my hum- 
ble income by contracting ray desires, than if I were to join the realm of 
Alyattes to the Mygdonian plains," i. c, than if Lydia and Phrygia were 
mine. Alyattes was King of Lydia and father of Croesus, who was so 
famed for his riches. As regards the epithet " Mygdonian" applied to 
Phrygia, consult note on Ode ii., 12, 22. — 43. Bene est. Understand ci. 
" Happy is the man on whom the deity has bestowed with a sparing hand 
what is sufficient for his wants." 



Ode XVII. The bard, warned by the crow of to-morrow's storm, ex 
horts his friend L. iElius Lamia to devote the day, when it shall arrive, to 
joyous banquets. 

The individual to whom this ode is addressed had signalized himself in 
the war with the Cantabri as one of the lieutenants of Augustus. Hia 
family claimed descent from Lamus, son of Neptune, and the most an- 
cient monarch of the Lacstrygones, a people alluded to in the preceding 
ode (v. 34). 

1-16. 1. Vetmsto nobilis, &c. " Nobly descended from ancient Lamus." 
— 2. Priores hinc Lamias denominatos. " That thy earlier ancestors of 
the Lam inn line were named from him." We have included all from line 
2 to 6 within brackets, as savoring strongly of interpolation, from its awk- 
ward position. It is thrown entirely out by Sanadon. — 3. Et nepotum, 
&c. " And since the whole race of their descendants, mentioned in re- 
cording annals, derive their origin from him as the founder of their house.*' 
The Fasti were public registers or chronicles, under the care of the Pon- 
tifex Maximus and his college, in which were marked, from year to year, 
what days were fasti and what ncfasti. In the Fasti were also recorded 
the names of the magistrates, particularly of the consuls, an account of 
the triumphs that were celebrated, &c. Hence the splendor of the La- 
mian line in being often mentioned in the annals of Rome. — 6. Formia- 
rum. Consult note on Ode iii., 16, 34. — 7. Et innantcm, Sec. "And the 
Liris, where it flows into the sea through the territory of Minturnae." The 
poet wishes to convey the idea that Lamus ruled, not only over Formia?, 
but also over the Minturnian territory. In expressing this, allusion is 
made to the nymph Marica, who had a grove and temple near Minturnae, 
and the words Marica litora are used as a designation for the region 
around the city itself. Minturna3 was a place of great antiquity, on the 
banks of the Liris, and only three or four miles from its mouth. The 
country around abounded with marshes. The nymph Marica was fabled 
by some to have been the mother of Latinus, and by others thought to 
have been Circe. — 9. Late tyrannus. " A monarch of extensive sway." 
Tyrannus is used here in the earlier sense of the Greek rvpavvog. — 12. 
Aqua augur comix. Compare Ovid, Am., ii., 6, 34 : " Pluvict graculus 
augur aquce." — 13. Annosa. Hesiod [Fragm., 50) assigns to the crow, 
for the duration of its existence, nine ages 3>f men. — Dum polis. " Whilft 
you can," i. c, while the weather will a'uow you, and the wood is stiU 



358 EXPLANATORY NOTEiJ. BOOK III., ODE XIX.. 

dry. Supply es. — 14. Cras genium mere, *;c. "On the morrow, tKon 
shalt honor thy genius with wine." According to the popular belief of 
antiquity, every individual had a genius (daljuov), or tutelary spirit, which 
was supposed to take care of the person during the whole of life. — 16. 
Operum solutis. "Released from their labors." A Graecism for ab open, 
solutis. 



Ode XVIII. The poet invokes the presence of Faunus, and seeks to 
propitiate the favor of the god toward his fields and flocks. He then de- 
scribes the rustic hilarity of the day, made sacred, at the commencement 
of winter, to this rural divinity. Faunus had two festivals {Faunalia) : 
one on the Nones (5th) of December, after all the produce of the year had 
been stored away, and when the god was invoked to protect it, and tc 
give health and fecundity to the flocks and herds ; and another in the be 
ginning of the spring, when the same deity was propitiated by sacrifices, 
that he might preservd and foster the grain committed to the earth. This 
second celebration took place on the Ides (13th) of February. 

1-15. 1. Fauno. Consult note on Ode i., 17, 2. — 2. Lenis incedas 
'■ Maycst thou move benignant." — Abcasque pa?-vis, &c. "And mayest 
thou depart propitious to the little nurslings of my farm," i. e., lambs, kids, 
?alves, &c. The poet invokes the favor of the god on these, as being more 
exposed to the casualties of disease. — 5. Pleno anno. "At the close of 
every year."- Literally, "when the year is full." — 7. Vetus arU. On 
which sacrifices have been made to Faunus for many a year. A pleasing 
memorial of the piety of the bard. — 10. Nona Decembres. Consult Intro- 
ductory Remarks. — 11. Festus in pratis, &c. "The village, celebrating 
thy festal da}*, enjoys a respite from toil in the grassy meads, along with 
the idle ox." — 13. Inter audaces, <5cc. Alluding to the security enjoyed by 
the flocks, under the protecting care of the god. — 14. Spargit agrestes, 
Jcc. As in Italy the trees do not shed their leaves until December, the 
poet converts this into a species of natural phenomenon in honor of Fau- 
nus, as if the trees, touched by his divinity, poured down their leaves to 
cover his path. It was customary among the ancients to scatter leaves 
and flowers on the ground in honor of distinguished personages. Compare 
Virgil, Eclog., v., 40: " Spargite humum foliis." — 15. Gaudet invisam 
<fcc. An allusion to the rustic dances which always formed part of tha 
celebration. 



Ode XIX. A party of friends, among whom was Horace, intended to 
relebrate, by a feast of contribution (epavoc), the recent appointment of 
Murena to the office of augur. Telephus, one of the number, was con 
spicuous for his literary labors, and had been for some time occupied in 
composing a history of Greece. At a meeting of these friends, held, as a 
matter of course, in order to make arrangements for the approaching ban 
quet, it may be supposed that Telephus, wholly engrossed with his pur 
auits, had introduced some topic of an historical nature, much to the an- 
noyance of the bard. The latter, therefore, breaks out, as it were, with 
an exhortation to his companion to abandon matters so foreign to the sub 
ject under discussion, and attend to things of more immediate importance 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK 111., ODE XIX. 359' 

Piesently, fancying himself already in the midst of the feast, he issues his 
edicts as* symposiarch, and regulates the number of cups to be drunk in 
honor of the Moon, of Night, and of the augur Murena. Then, as if impa- 
tient of delay, he bids the music begin, and orders the roses to be scatter- 
ed. The ode terminates with a gay allusion to Telephus. 

1-1 1. 1. Inacho. Consult note on Ode ii., 3, 21. — 2. Codrus. The last 
of the Athenian kings, who sacrificed his life when the Dorians invaded 
A.ttica. If we believe the received chronology, Inachus founded the king- 
dom of Argos about 1856 B.C., and Codrus was slain about 1070 B.C. The 
interval, therefore, will be 786 years. — 3. Genus ^Eaci. The iEacidae, or 
descendants of jEacus, were Peleus, Telamon, Achilles, Teucer, Ajax, &e. 
— 5. Chium cadum. " A cask of Chian wine." The Chian is described 
by some ancient writers as a thick, luscious wine, and that which grew 
on the craggy heights of Ariusium, extending three hundred stadia along 
the coast, is extolled by Strabo as the best of the Greek wines. — 6. Mer- 
cemur. "We may buy." — Quis aquam temperet ignibus. Alluding to 
the hot drinks so customary among the Romans. Orelli, Braunhard, Dil- 
lenburger, and others, make the allusion to be to the preparing of warm 
baths, the party being a pic-nic one, and one individual furnishing the 
wine, another house-room and warm baths before supper. The arrange- 
ment, however, of quis aquam temperet ignibus before quo prccbente do- 
mum, and not after this clause, seems to militate against this mode of ex- 
plaining. — 7. Quota. Supply hora. — 8. Pelignis car earn frig oribus. " I 
may free myself from Pelignian colds," i. e., may fence myself against the 
cold, as piercing as that felt in the country of the Peligni. The territory 
of the Peligni was small and mountainous, and was separated from that 
of the Marsi, on the west, by the Apennines. It was noted for the cold- 
ness of its climate. — 9. Da luna propere novoc, &c. " Boy, give me quick- 
ly a cup in honor of the new moon." Understand poculum, and consult 
note on Ode iii., 8, 13. — 10. Auguris Murena. This was the brother of 
Terentia, the wife of Maecenas. — 11. Tribus aut novem, &c. "Let our 
goblets be mixed with three or with nine cups, according to the temper- 
aments of those who drink." In order to understand this passage, we 
must bear in mind that the poculum was the goblet out of which each 
guest drank, while the cyathus was a small measure used for diluting the 
wine with water, or for mixing the two in certain proportions. Twelve 
of these cyathi went to the sextarius. Horace, as symposiarch, or master 
of the feast, issues his edict, which is well expressed by the imperative 
form miscentor, and prescribes the proportions in which the wine and wa- 
ter are to be mixed on the present occasion. For the hard drinkers, 
therefore, among whom he classes the poets, of the twelve cyathi that 
compose the sextarius, nine will be of wine and three of water ; while 
for the more temperate, for those who are friends to the Graces, the pro 
portion, on the contrary, will be nine cyathi of water to three of wino 
In the numbers here given there is more or less allusion to the mystic no 
tions of the day, as both three and nine were held sacred. 

13-27. 13. Micsas imparcs. "The Muses, uneven in number." — 14. At- 
ionitus vales. "The enraptured bard." — 18. BerecyrAice. Ccnsult note 
an Ode i., 30, 5. The Berecyntian or Phrygian flute was of a crooked 
form, whence it is sometimes called cornu. — 21. I'arcentes dcxterat 



3t>0 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK III., ODE XXI. 

'Sparing bauds," i. e., not liberal witb tbe wine, flowers, perfumes, &o 
— 24. Vicina. " Our fair young neighbor." — Non habilis. " 111 suited." 
i. e., in point of years. — 25. Spissa te nitidum coma, &c. The connection 
is as follows : Tbe old and morose Lycus fails, as may well be expected, 
in securing the affections of her to whom he is united. But thee, Tele- 
phus, in the bloom of manhood, thy Rhode loves, because her years are 
matched with thine. — 26. Puro. "Bright." — 27. Tempestiva. "Of nu- 
bile years." 



Ode XXI. M. Valerius Messala Corvinus having promised to sup with 
>he poet, the latter, full of joy at the expected meeting, addresses an am 
phora of old wine, which is to honor the occasion with its contents. To 
the praise of this choice liquor succeed encomiums on wine in general. 
The ode is thought to have been written A.TJ.C. 723, B.C. 31, when Cor- 
vinus was in his first consulship. 

1-11. 1. O nata mecum, &c. " O jar, whose contents were brought 
into existence with me during the consulship of Manlius." Nata, though 
joined in grammatical construction with testa, is to be construed as an 
epithet for the contents of the ve3sel. Manlius Torquatus was consul 
A.U.C. 689, B.C. 65, and Messala entered on his first consulate A.U.C. 
723 ; the wine, therefore, of which Horace speaks, must have been thirty 
four years old. — 4. Sen facilem, pia, somnum. " Or, with kindly feelings, 
gentle sleep." The epithet pia must not be taken in immediate construe 
tion with testa. — 5. Quocunque nomine. Equivalent to in quemcunque 
Jinem, "for whatever end." — 6. Movcri digna bono die. "Worthy of be- 
ing moved on a festal day," i. e., of being moved from thy place on a day 
like this, devoted to festivity. — 7. Descende. The wine is to come down 
from the korreum, or u7To6t}K7]. Consult note on Ode in., 28, 7. — 8. Lan- 
guidiora. "Mellowed by age." — 9. Quanquam Socraticis madet ser- 
monibus. " Though he is well-steeped in lore of the Socratic school," 
i. e., has drunk deep of the streams of philosophy. The term madet con- 
tains a figurative allusion to the subject of the ode. — 10. Sermonibus. 
The method of instruction pursued by Socrates assumed the form of famil- 
iar conversation. The expression Socraticis sermonibus, however, refers 
more particularly to the tenets of the Academy, that school having been 
founded by Plato, one of the pupils of Socrates. — Horridus. " Sternly." 
— 11. Narratur et prisci Catonis, &c. "Even the austere old Cato is re- 
lated to have often warmed under the influence of wine." As regards the 
idiomatic expression Catonis virtus, consult note on Ode i., 3, 36. The 
reference is to the elder Cato, not to Cato of Utica, and the poet speaks 
merely of the enlivening effects of a cheerful glass, of which old Cato is said 
to have been fond. 

13-23. 13. Tu lene tormentum, &c. " Thou frequently appliest gentle 
riolence to a rugged temper," i. e., thou canst subdue, by thy gentle vio- 
ence, dispositions cast in the most rugged mould. — 14. Snpientium. " Of 
ehe guarded and prudent." — 15. Jocoso Lyoeo. " By the aid of sportive 
Bacchus." — 18. Et addis cornua pauperi. "And addest confidence to 
him of humble means." Pauper implies a want, not of the necessaries, 
but of the comforts of life. The expression cornua addis ;"s one of a pro 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK HI., ODE XXIII. 3GJ 

rerbial character, the horn being symbolical of confidence and power 
Consult note on Ode ii., 19, 29. — 19. Post te. "After tasting of thee."— 
20. Apices. " Tiaras." A particular allusion to the costume of Parthia 
and the East. — Militum. " Of foes in hostile array." — 21. Lazta. "Pro- 
pitious." — 22. Segues nodum solvere. " Slow to loosen the bond of union." 
A Graeoism for segnes ad solvcndum nodum. The mention of the Graces 
alludes here to the propriety and decorum that are to prevail throughout 
the banquet. — 23. Vivoeque luccrna:. " And the living lights." — Producen*. 
"Shall prolong." The expression te produccnt is equivalent, in fact, to 
convivium produccnt. 



Ode XXI LI. The bard addresses Phidyle, a resident in the country, 
whom the humble nature of her offerings to the gods had filled with deep 
solicitude. He bids Lier be of good cheer, assuring her that the value of 
every sacrifice depends on the feelings by which it is dictated, and that 
one of the simplest and lowliest kind, if offered by a sincere and pious 
heart, is more acceptable to heaven than the most costly oblations. 

1-20. 1. Supinas mamts. " Thy suppliant hands." Literally, "thy 
hands with the palms turned upward." This was the ordinary gesture 
of those who offered up prayers to the celestial deities. — 2. Nascenleluna. 
'' At the new moon," i. e., at the beginning of every month. The allusion 
Is to the old mode of computing by lunar months. — 3. Placaris. Tbe final 
syllable of this tense is common : here it is long. (Consult A nlhon's hat 
Pros., p. 94, nolc.) — Et ho ma fruge. "And with a portion of this year's 
produce." — 5. Africum. Consult note on Ode i., 1, 15. Some commenta- 
tors make the wind here mentioned identical with the modern Sirocco. — 
6. Stcrilem robiginem. "The blasting mildew." — 7. Dulces ahtmni, 
"The sweet nurslings of my farm." Compare Ode iii., 18, 3. — 8. Pomi 
fcro grave tempus anno. "The sickly season in the fruit-yielding period 
of the year," i. c, in the autumn. As regards the poetic usage by which 
annus is frequently taken in the sense of a part, not of the whole year, 
compare Virgil, Eclog., iii., 57 ; Hor., Epod., ii., 39 ; Stativs, Sylv., i., S 
6, &c. — 9. Nam quce nivali, &c. The construction is a3 follows : Nam 
victima, diis devota, quae pascilitr nivali Algido, inter qi/crcus el ilices, 
aut crescit in Albanis herbis, lingct cervice secures ponlificnm. The idea 
involved from the 9th to the 16th verse is this : The more costly victims 
shall fall for the public welfare; thou hast need of but few and simple of- 
ferings to propitiate for thee the favor of the gods. — Algido. Consult note 
on Ode i., 21, G. — 11. Albanis in hcrbis. "Amid Alban pastures." Al- 
luding to the pastures around Mons Albanus and the ancient site of Alba 
Longa. — 13. Cervice. " With the blood that streams from its wounded 
neck." — Te nihil attinet, &c. " It is unnecessary for thee, if thou crown thy 
little Lares with rosemary and the brittle myrtle, to seek to propitiate 
their favor with the abundant slaughter of victims." The Lares stood in 
the atrium or hall of the dwelling. On festivals they were crowned with 
garlands, and sacrifices were offered to them. Consult note on Ode i., 7, 
ll. : — 16. Fragili. The epithet fragilis here means, in fact, "whose little 
(italics are easily broken." — 17. Jmmunis. "Without a gift." Equiva- 
lent to liber a muncrc, the reference being to one who needs no gift to 
offer >UGee his life and conduct are unstained by guilt Hence arises t.ho 



3f)2 UXPLAflTATOflY BOTES. — BOOK III., ODE XXIV. 

more general meaning of " innocent.'' [Orelli, ad loc.) — 18. Non su.ntuota 
blandior kostia, &c. "Not rendered more acceptable by a costly sacri- 
fice, it is wont to appease," &c, i. e., it appeases tbe gods as effectually 
as if a costly sacrifice were offered. — 20. Farre pio et salic?ite mica. 
J With the pious cake and the crackling salt." Alluding to the salted 
cake (mola salsa), composed of bran or meal mixed with salt, which wai 
sprinkled on the head of tbe victim. 



Cde XXIV. The bard inveighs bitterly againtt the luxury and licen- 
tiousness of the age, and against the unprincipled cupidity by which they 
were constantly accompanied. A contrast is drawn between the pure 
and simple manners of barbarian nations and the unbridled corruption of 
nis countrymen, and Augustus is implored to save the empire by inter 
posing a ban-ier to the inundation of vice. 

1-15. 1. Infactis opnlcnlior, &c. The construction is as follows . 
* Licet, opulent ior intactis thesauris Arabum et divilis Indice, occupes 
»mne Tyrrk-enum et Apulicum mare tuis caementis, tamen si dira Neces- 
sitasjigit, &c. " Though, wealthier than the yet unrifled treasures of the 
Arabians and of rich India, thou coverest with thy structures all the Tus- 
can and Apulian Seas, still, if cruel Destiny once fixes her spikes of ada- 
mant in thy towering pinnacles, thou wilt not free thy breast from fear 
thou wilt not extricate thy life from the snares of death." The epithet 
intactus, applied to the treasures of the East, refers to their being as yet 
free from the grasp of Roman power. — 3. Camcntis. The term ccemenia 
literally means " stones for filling up." Here, however, it refers to the 
structures reared on these artificial foundations. — 4. Tyrrhcnum omne, 
Sec. The Tyrrhenian denotes the lower, the Apulian the upper or Adriatic 
Sea. — 6. Summit verticibus. We have given here the explanation of 
Orelli, which seems the most reasonable: " Du?n homo ille locuples as- 
eiduc moles jacit, ddc.<que exslruit, necopinato supervenit ~El/j.ap{iev7] 
{'AvdyK?]), clavo-qne suos, quibus nihil resisterc potest, in cedium culminc 
figit, domino vrfuti acclamaus .• Hucusque nee ultra: adest jam tibi ter 
minus fatalis .'" Bentley, however, takes vcrlicibus to denote the heads 
of spikes, so that summis verlicibus will mean, according to him, "up to 
the very head," and the idea intended to be conveyed by the poet will be 
'sic clavos figit necessitas summis verticibus, ut nulla vi evelli possint." 
— 9. Campestres melius Scythes, &c. " A happier life lead the Scythians, 
that roam along the plains, whose wagons drag, according to the custom 
of the race, their wandering abodes." An allusion to the Scythian mods 
of living in wagons, along the steppes [campi) of Tartary. — 10. Rite. " Ac 
cording to the custom of the race." Compare the explanation of Doring: 
w utfert eorum mos et vita ratio?' — 11. Rigidi Getce. "The hardy Getoe." 
The Getae originally occupied the tract of country which had the Danube 
to the north, the range of Haemus to the south, the Euxine to the east, 
and the Crobyzian Thracians to the west. It was within these limits that 
Herodotus knew them. Afterward, however, being dislodged, probably 
by the Macedonian arms, they crossed the Danube, and pursued their 
N"omadic mode of life in the steppes between the Danube and the Tyras, 
or Dniester. — 12. Immetata jugera. "Unmeasured acres," i. e., unmark 
cd bv boundaries-. Alladins; to the land beinq: in common. The term in. 



BXl*LANATOtt\ Nurr , — BOOK 111., (>J)E XXIV. J>(33 

metata is what the grammarians term a uvrai; "k v .y6pevov t since it occu.s 
only in this passage of Horace. — Liberas frugts ei Cere rem. "A Harvest 
free to all." Cerer e m is here merely explanatory o£Jruge$. — 14. Nee cwt- 
tura placet, Sec. "Nor does a culture banger than an annual one please 
them." Alluding to their annual change of abode. Compare Caesar's ac 
fxunt of the Germans, B. G., vi., 22. — 15. Lhj'ii nei 'umqne laboribus, &c. 
" and a successor, upon equal terms, relieves him who has ended his la 
h^rs of a year." 

17-40. 17. lllic matre carentibu*, Sec. "There the wife, a stranger t« 
guilt, treats kindly the children of a previous marriage, deprived of a 
jaother's care," i. e., is kind to her motherless step-children. — 19. Dotata 
zenjux. "The dowered spouse." — 20. Nitido adullcro. "The gaudy 
adulterer." — 21. Dos est magna parentium, Sec. A noble sentence, but 
requiring, in order to be clearly understood, a translation bordering upon 
paraphrase. "With them, a rich dowry consists in the virtue instilled 
by parental instruction, and in chastity, shrinking from the addresses of 
another, while it firmly adheres to the marriage compact, as well as in 
the conviction that to violate this compact is an offence against the laws 
of heaven, or that the punishment due to its commission is instant death " 
— 27. Pater Urbium subscribi statuis. " To be inscribed on the pedestals 
of statues as the Father of his country." An allusion to Augustus, and to 
the title of Pater Patrice, conferred on him by the public voice. — 28. In 
domitam licentiam. " Our hitherto ungovernable licentiousness." — 
30. Clams postgcnitis. "Illustrious for this to after ages." — Quateuus 
"Since." — 31. Virlutem incolumem. "Merit, while it remains with us.' 
i. e., illustrious men, while alive. — 32. Invidi. Compare the remark of 
the scholiast, " Verc enim per invidiam Jit, ut boni viri, cum amissi sint, 
desiderentur." — 34. Culpa. "Crime." — 35. Sine moribus. "Without 
public morals to enforce them." — 36. Si nequefffrvidis, &c. An allusion 
to the ton-id zone. Consult note on Ode i., 22, 22. — 38. Nee Borc&Jlmt* 
mum latus. "Nor the region bordering on the North." — 40. Horrida cal 
lidi, &c. "If, the skillful mariners triumph over the stormy seas? If 
narrow circumstances, now esteemed a great disgrace, bid us," &c. 

45-58. 45. Vel nos in Capitolium, &c. The idea intended to be con 
veyed is this : If we sincerely repent of the luxury and vice that have tai 
nished the Roman name, if we desire another and a better state of things 
let us either cany our superfluous wealth to the Capitol and consecrate it 
to the gods, or let us cast it as a thing accursed into the nearest sea. The 
words in Capitolium are thought by some to contain a flattering allusion 
\o a remarkable act on the part of Augustus, in dedicating a large amount 
of treasure to the Capitoline Jove, exceeding 16,000 pounds' weight of 
gold, besides pearls and precious stones. (Suet., Aug., 30.) — 46. Faven- 
tmm. "Of our applauding fellow-citizens." — 47. In mare prozimum. 
Things accursed were wont to be thrown into the sea, or the nearest run- 
ning water. — 49. Materiem. "The germs." — 51. Eradcnda. "Are to bo 
eradicated." — 52. Tenercz nimis. " Enervated by indulgence." — 54. Nei 
cit cquo, rudis, Sec. "The free-born youth, trained up in ignorance Oi 
<nanly accomplishments, knows not how to retain his seat on the slee I, 
and fears to hunt." Among the Iioman3, those who were born of parents 
that had always beer r rp.p were styled ingoivi. — 57. Gr,rco trocho. The 



rlbl EXPLANATOB VT NOTES. BOOK III., ODE XXV. 

troc/ius {rpoxog) was a circle of brass or iron, set round with rings, and 
with which young men and boys used to amuse themselves. It was bor- 
rowed from the Greeks, and resembled the modern hoop. — 58. Seu malts 
"Or, if thou prefer." — Vetita legibus alea. All games of chance were 
forbidden among the Romans except at the celebration of the Saturnalia 
These laws, however, were not strictly observed. 

59-62. 59. Perjura patris fides. "His perjured and faithless parent.' 
-60. Consortem socium, ct hospitem. "His partner and guest-customer." 
Consortem socium is equivalent to sortis socium, sors being the capita, 
which each brings in. By hospitem is meant a guest, and, at the same 
time, customer. — 61. Indignoqae pecuniam, &c. "And hastens to amass 
wealth for an heir unworthy of enjoying it." — 62. Scilicet improbce crescuni 
divitia, &c. " Riches, dishonestly acquired, increase, it is true, yet some- 
thing or other is ever wanting to what seems an imperfect fortune in tht 
eyes of its possessor." 



Ode XXV. A beautiful ditlvyrambic ode in honor of Augustus. Tho 
bard, full of poetic enthusiasm, fancies himself borne along amid wood* 
and wilds, to celebrate, in some distant cave, the praises of the monarch 
Then, like another Bacchanalian, he awakes from the trance-like feelings 
into which he had been thrown, and gazes with wonder upon the scenes 
that lie before him. An invocation to Bacchus succeeds, and allusion is 
again made to the strains in which the praises of Augustus are to be 
poured forth to the world. 

1—19. 1. Tui plenum. "Full of thee," i. e., of thy inspiration. — Qua 
ncmora. Supply the preposition from the clause which follows. — 3. Velox 
menle nc-a. " Moving #w iftly under the influence of an altered mind." 
Nova refers to the change wrought by the inspiration of the god. Quibut 
antris, &c The construction is as follows: "In quibus antris audia? 
meditans inscrere, 5cc. — 5. Meditans inserere. " Essaying taenroll." Med 
itans refers to exercise and practice, on the part of the bard, before a full 
and perfect effort is publicly made. — 6. Consilio Jovis. Alluding to the 
twelve Dii Conscnles or Majorcs. — 7. Dicam insigne, &c. " I will send 
forth a lofty strain, new, as yet unuttered by other lips." The pleonastic 
curn of expression in " recent, adhuc indicium ore alio," accords with the 
wild and irregular nature of the whole piece. — 8. Non sccus injugis, &c. 
"So the Bacchanal, awaking from sleep, stands lost in stupid astonish- 
ment on the mountain tops, beholding in the distance the Hebrus, and 
Thrace white with snow, and Rhodope traversed by barbarian foot." Tho 
poet, recovering from the strong influence of the god, and surveying with 
alarm the arduous nature of the theme to which he has dared to approach, 
compares himself to the Bacchant, whom the stern power of the deity 
that she serves has driven onward, in blind career, through many a strange 
and distant region. Awakening from the deep slumber into which ex 
hausted nature had at length been compelled to sink, she finds herself, 
when returning recollection comes to her aid, on the remote mountain 
tops, far from her native scenes, and gazes in silent worder on the pros 
pect before her : the dark Hebrus, the snow-clad fields of Thrace, and tho 
chain of Rhodope rearing its summits to the skies. Few passages can t* 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK III., ODE XXVII. 363 

•vtea from any ancieit or modern wi iter containing more of the true spirit 
or poetry. — 10. Hcbrum. The modern name of the Hebrua is the Maritza 
—12. Rhodopen. lthodope, now Despoto-Dagli, a Thracian chain, lying 
along the northeastern herders of Macedonia.--^ viihi devio, &c. " How 
it delights me, as I wander far from the haunts of men." — 13. Vacuvtn 
nemus. "The lone.y grove." — 11 O Naiadum potcus, &c. "O god o! 
the Naiads and of the Bacchantes, powerful enough to tear up," &c. — 
19. O Leucee. "O god of the wine-press." The epithet Lencciis comes 
from the Greek Awvaioq, which is itself a derivative from \rjvoc, " a wine- 
press." Mirscherlich well explains the concluding idea of this ode, which 
lias couched under the figurative language employed by the bard: "Ad 
argumentum carminis ; si postrema transferas, erit : Pmjcclissimce qui- 
dem audacicB est, Auguslitm celebrate ; scd aleajacta csto." 



Om; XX VII. Addressed to Galatea, whom the poet seeks to dissuade 
from the voyage which she intended to make during the stormy season 
of the year. The train of ideas is as follows : "I will not seek to deter 
thee from the journey on which thou art about to enter, by recounting evil 
omens ; I will rather pray to the gods that no danger may come nigh 
thee, and that thou mayest set out under the most favorable auspices. 
Yet, Galatea, though the auguries forbid not thy departure, think, I en- 
treat, of the many perils which at this particular season are brooding over 
the deep. Beware lest the mild aspect of the deceitful sides lead thee 
astray, and lest, like Europa, thou become the victim of thy own impru 
deuce." The poet then dwells upon the story of Europa, and with this 
the ode terminates. 

1-13. 1. Impios parrcc, &c. "May the ill-omened cry of the noisy 
screech-owl accompany the wicked on their way." The leading idea in 
the first three stanzas is as follows : Let evil omens accompany the wick- 
ed alone, and may those that attend the departure of her for whose safety 
[ am solicitous, be favorahle and happy ones. — 2. Agro Lanuvino. Lanu- 
vium was situate to the right of the Appian Way, on a hill commanding 
an extensive prospect toward Antium and the sea. As the Appian Way 
was the direct route to the port of Brundisium, the animal mentioned in 
the text would cross the path of those who travelled in that direction. — 
5. Rumpat et serpens, &c. " Let a serpent also interrupt the journey just 
begun, if, darting like an arrow athwart the way, it has terrified the 
horses." Mannus means properly a small horse or nag, and is thought to 
be a term of Gallic origin. The reference is here to draught horses, or 
those harnessed to the chariot. — 7. Ego cui timebo, &c. The construction 
is as follows : Providus auspex, suscitabo prece illi, cui ego timebo, osci- 
nem corvum ab ortu solis, antequam avis divina imminentum imbrium 
repetat stantes paludes. " A provident augur, I will call forth by prayer, 
on account of her for whose safety I feel anxious, the croaking raven from 
the eastern heavens, before the bird that p*esages approaching rains shall 
revisit the standing pools." Among the Romans, birds that gave oraena 
by their notes were called Oscines, and those from whose flight auguries 
were drawn received the appellation of Pr&pelei. Hence oscinem means 
nere, more literally, "giving omens by its cry." The cry of the raven, 
when heard from the east was deemed favorable. — 10. Iwbrii.m iivina 



8GB LXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK III., CDE XXVII. 

acts imn'.inetiiu n The crow is here meant. — 13. Sis licet j'clix. "JJayeat 
thcu be happy." The train of ideas is as follows : I oppose not thy wishes^ 
Gals^ea. It is permuted thee, as far as depends on me, or on the omens 
which I am raking, to be happy wherever it may please thee to dwell.— 
15. Laws picus. "A wood-pecker on the left." When the Romans 
made omens on the left unlucky, as in the present instance, they spoke 
m accordance with the Grecian castom. The Grecian augurs, when they 
made observations, kept their faces toward the north; hence they had the 
east or lucky quarter of the heavens on their right hand, and the west on 
their left. On the contrary, the Homans, making observations with theii 
faces to the south, had the east upon their left hand, and the west upon 
their right. Both sinister and hvvus, therefore, have, when we speak 
Konano more, the meaning of lucky fortunate, &c, and the opposite im 
port when we speak Grccco more. 

17-39. 17. Quanlo trepidet tumullu, &c. "With what a loud and 
stormy noise the setting Orion hastens to his rest," i. e., what tempests 
are prepariug to burst forth, now that Orion sets. Consult note on Ode i., 
28, 21. — 19. Novi. Alluding to his own personal experience. He knows 
the dangers of the Adriatic because he has seen them. — Et quid albus 
peccet lapyx. "And how deceitful the serene Iapyx is." As regards 
the epithet albus, compare Ode i., 7, 15 ; and, with regard to the term 
lapyx, consult note on Ode i., 3, 4. — 21. Ccecos motus. " The dark com- 
motions." — 24. Verbere. "Beneath the lashing of the surge." Under 
6tand Jluctuum. — 25. Sic. "With the same rashness.'' — Europe. The 
Greek form for Eurcpa. — 26. At scalentem belluis, &c. " But, though bold 
before, she now grew pale at the deep teeming with monsters, and at the 
fraud and danger that every where met the view." The term fraudes, 
in this passage, denotes properly danger resulting to an individual from 
fraud and artifice on the part of another, a meaning which we L^e en- 
deavored to express. — 28. Palluit. This verb here obtains a transitive 
force, because an action is implied, though not described in it. — Audax. 
Alluding to her rashness, at the outset, in trusting herself to the back uf 
the bull. — 39. Debitai Nymphis. " Due to the nymphs," in fulfillment of 
a vow. — 31 Node sublustri. " Amid the feebly-illumined night." The 
stars alone appealing in the heavens. — 33. Centum potentem urbibus. 
Compare Homer, //., ii., 649 : Kp?]77]V inaTo/xiro/iiv. — 34. Pater, O relic- 
turn, &c. "Father! O title abandoned by thy daughter, and filial affec- 
tion, triumphed over by frantic folly !" Nomen is in apposition with pater, 
andjilia is the dative for the ablative. (Orelli, ad loc.) — 38. Vigilans. 
" In my waking senses." — 39. An vitio carentem, &c. " Or, does some 
delusive image, which a dream, escaping from the ivory gate, brings with 
it, mock me, still free from the stain of guilt 1" In the Odyssey (xix., 562, 
seqq.), mention is made of two gates through which dreams issue, the one 
of horn, the other of ivory : the visions of the night that pass through the 
former are true ; through the latter, false. To this poetic imagery Hoi ace 
here alludes. 

47-75. 47. Modo. " But a moment ago." — 48. Monstri. A mere ex- 
Dression of resentment, and not referring, as some commentators have sup- 
posed, to the circumstance of Jove's having been concealed under the 
form of tlie animal, sincf; Euvona could not as vet be at all aware of this 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK III-) ODE XXV1I1. 307 

—49. Impudent liqui, <5ce. "Shamelessly have I abandoned o lather's 
root'; siiaiiH'lessly do 1 delay the death that I deserve." — 54. Tenera 
prceda. The dative, by a Gnrcism, for the ablative. — Succus. "The 
• tide of life." — 55. iSpeciosa. "While still in the bloom of early years.' 
and hence a more inviting prey. So nuda in the 52d line. — 57. Vilis 
Europe. She fancies she hears her father upbraiding her, and the addres* 
of the angry parent is continued to the word pellex in the CGth line. — Pater 
urgct abtens. A pleasing oxymoron. The father of Europa appears aa 
if pi-esetfc to her disordered mind, though in reality far away, and angrily 
urges her to atone for her dishonor by a voluntary and immediate death. 
M Thy father, though far away, angrily urging thee, seems to exclaim.' 
The student will raark the zeugma in urgct, which is here equivalent 
to acritcr insistens clamat. — 59. Zona bene te sccuia. "With the girdle 
that has luckily accompanied thee." — 61. Acuta Icto. " Sharp with death,' 
i. c, on whose sharp projections death may easily be found. — 62. Te pro 
cellat crede veloci. " Consign thyself to the rapid blast," i. e., plunge head 
long down. — 67. Remisso arcu. As indicative of having accomplished his 
object. — 69. Ubi lusit satis. " When she had sufficiently indulged her 
mirth." — 70. Irarum calidjxque rixce. The genitive, by a Grajcism, for 
the ablative. — 71. Quum tibi invisus, &c. Venus here alludes to the in 
tended appearance of Jove in his proper form. — 73. Uxor invicti Jovis 
&c. "Thou knowest not, it seems, that thou art the bride of resistless 
Jove." The nominative, with the infinitive, by a Groecism, the reference 
being to the same person that forms the subject of the verb. — 75. Sectus 
orbis. " A division of the globe." Literally, " the globe being divided." 



Ode XXVIII. The poet, intending to celebrate the Neptunalia, or festi- 
val of Neptune, bids Lyde bring the choice Caecuban and join him in song. 
The female to whom the piece is addressed is thought to have been the 
same with the one mentioned in the eleventh ode of this book, and it is 
supposed, by most commentators, that the entertainment took place under 
her roof. We are inclined, however, to adopt the opinion, that the day 
was celebrated in the poet's abode, and that Lyde was now the superin- 
tendent of his household. 

1-KJ. 1. Fes to die Ncptuni. The Neptunalia, or festival of Neptune, 
took place on the fifth day before the Kalends of August (28th July). — 

2. Rcconditum. "Stored far away in the wine-room." Alluding to old 
wine laid up in the farther part of the crypt. Compare Ode ii., 3, 8. — 

3. Lyde strenua. " My active Lyde." Some commentators, by a chango 
of punctuation, refer strenva, in an adverbial sense, to prome. — 4. Muni- 
twque adhibe, Sec. " And do violence to thy guarded wisdom," i. e., bid 
farewsli, fcr this once, to moderation in wine. Tho poet, by a pleasing 
figure, bids her storm the camp of sobriety, and drive away its accustomed 
defenders. — 5. Inclinare scntis, &c. " Thou seest that the noontide is in- 
clining toward the west," i. e., that the day begins to decline. — 7. Parcis 
deripere horreo, &c. " Dost thou delay to hurry down from the wine-room 
the lingering amphora of the consul Bibulus'/" i. e., which contains wine 
made, as the mark declares, in the consulship of Bibulus (A.U.C. G95, B.C 
59). The wine, therefore, would be, according to Orelli, about thirty-five 
■years nil. The epithet ccszanlcm beautifully expresses the impatience 



Cltlft EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK III., ODE XXIX. 

oi; the f uet himself. — The lighter wines, or such as lasted only from en* 
vintage to another, were kept in cellars ; but the stronger and more dura- 
ble kinds were transferred to another apartment, which the Greeks calleL 
uttoO?jktj, or niduv, and the poet, on the present occasion, horreum. With, 
the Romans it was generally placed above the fumarium, or drying. 
kiln, in order that the vessels might be exposed to such a degree of smoke 
as was calculated to bring the wines to an early maturity. — 9. Inviccn. 
'• In alternate strain." The poet is to chant the praises of Neptune, a' » 
Lyde those of the Nereids. — 10. Virides. Alluding to the color o#the sea 
— 12. Cynthia. Diana. An epithet derived from Mount Gynthus in De 
los, her native island. — 13. Summo carmine, &c. "At the conclusion oi 
the 6train, we will sing together of the goddess who," &.c. The allusion 
is to Venus. — Gnidon. Consult note on Ode i., 30, 1. — 14. Fulgcnlcs Cyc- 
ladas. " The Cyclades, conspicuous from afar." Consult note on Ode i. 
14, '20. — Paphou. Consult note on Ode i., 30, 1. — 15. Junctis oloribus 
"With her yoked swans." In her car drawn by swans. — 16. Dicv.hu 
incrita, &c. " Night, too, shall be celebrated, in a hymn due to her praise." 
The term namia is beautifully selected here, though much of its peculiar 
meaning is lost in a translation. As the naenia, or funeral dirge, marked 
the close of existence, so here the expression is applied to the hymn thai 
ends the banquet, and whose low and plaintive numbers invite to repose 



Ode XXIX. One of the most beautiful lyric productions of all antiqui- 
ty. The bard invites his patron to spend a few days beneath his humble 
roof, far from splendor and affluence, and from the noise and confusion of 
a crowded capital. He bids him dismiss, for a season, that anxiety for 
the public welfare in which he was but too prone to indulge, and tells him 
to enjoy the blessings of the present hour, and leave the events of the fu 
ture to the wisdom of the gods. That man, according to the poet, is alone 
truly happy, who can say, as each evening closes around him, that he has 
enjoyed in a becoming manner the good things which the day has be- 
stowed ; nor can even Jove himself deprive him of this satisfaction. The 
surest aid against the mutability of fortune is conscious integrity, and he 
who possesses this need not tremble at the tempest that dissipates the 
wealth of the trader. 

1-19. 1. Tyrrhenaregum progenies. "Descendant of Etrurian rulers/' 
Consult note on Ode i., 1, 1. — Tibi. "In reserve for thee." — 2. Non ante 
verso. " Never as yet turned to be emptied of any part of its contents," 
i e., as yet unbroached. The allusion is to the simplest mode practiced 
among the Romans for drawing off the contents of a wine vessel, by inclin 
ing it to one side, and thus pouring out the liquor. — 4. Balanus. "Per 
fume." The name balanus, or myrobalanum, was given by the ancients 
to a species of nut, from which a valuable unguent or perfume was ex 
tracted. — 5. Eripe te mora. "Snatch thyself from delay," i. e., from every 
thing in the city that may seek to detain thee there — from all the engross- 
ing cares of public life. — G. Ui semper-vdum. We have followed here the 
very neat emendation of Ilardinge, which has received the commenda- 
tions of many eminent English scholars. The common text has ne sem- 
per udum, which involves an absurdity. How could Maecenas, at Rome, 
Contemplate Tibur, which was twelve or sixteen miles oi)' 7 — Tibur 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. HOOK III., ODL XXIX. ^(i'.» 

Consult note on Ode i., 7, 13. — sEsulce dcchcc solum. "The sloping sor 
of jEsula." This town is supposed to have stood in the vicinity of Tihui. 
and from the language of the poet must have been situate on the slope ot 
a hill. — 8. Telegoni juga parricidce. Alluding to the ridge of hills on 
which Tusculum was situated. This city is said to have been founded 
by Telegonus, son of Ulysses and Circe, who came hither after having 
killed his father without knowing him. — 9. Fastidiosam. "Productive 
only of disgust." The poet entreats his patron to leave for a season thai 
" abundance," which, when uninterrupted, is productive only of disgust. — 
iO. Molem propinquam, &c. Alluding to the magnificent villa of Maece 
oas, on the Esquiline Hill, to which a tower adjoined remarkable for its 
height. — 11. Beatce Romce. "Of opulent Rome." — 13. Vices. "Change." 
— 14. Parvo sub lare. "Beneath the humble roof." — 15. Sine aulceis ct 
ostro. " Without hangings, and without the purple covering of the couch." 
Literally, " without hangings and purple." The aulcca, or hangings, were 
suspended from the cielings and side-walls of the banqueting rooms. — 16. 
Sollicitam explicuere f ronton. " Are wont to smooth the anxious brow," 
*'. e., to remove or unfold the wrinkles of care. Explicuere has here the 
force of an aorist, and is equivalent to cxplicare solcnt. — 17. Clams An- 
dromedce pater. Cepheus ; the name of a constellation near the tail of the 
Little Bear. It rose on the 9th of July, and is here taken by the poet to 
mark the arrival of the summer heats. — Occultum ostendit igncm. Equiv- 
alent to oritur. — 18. Procyon. A constellation rising just before the dog- 
»tar. Hence its name UpoKVUV (npo, ante, and kvuv, canis), and its Latin 
appellation of antecanis. — 19. Stella vesani Leonis. A star on the breast 
of Leo, rising on the 24th of July. The sun enters into Leo on the 20th 
of the same month. 

22-64. 22. Horridi dumeta Silvani. "The thickets of the rough Sil- 
ranus." The'epithet horridus refers to his crown of reeds and the rough 
pine-branch which he carries in his hands. This deity had the care of 
proves and fields. — 24. Ripa taciturna. A beautiful allusion to the still- 
ness of the atmosphere. — 25. Tu civitalem quis deceat status, &c. "Thou, 
in the mean time, art anxiously considering what condition of affairs may 
he most advantageous to the state." Alluding to his office of Prarfcctus 
Urbis. — 27. Seres. The name by which the inhabitants of China were 
known to the Romans. — Regnata Bactra Cyro. " Bactra, ruled over by 
an Eastern king." Bactra, the capital of Bactriana, is here put for the 
whole Parthian empire. — 28. Tanaisque discors. "And the Tanais, whose 
banks are the seat of discord." Alluding to the dissensions among the 
Parthians. Consult note on Ode iii., 8, 19. — 29. Prudens futuri, Sec. "A 
wise deity shrouds in gloomy night the events of the future, and smiles if 
a mortal is solicitous beyond the law of his being." — 32. Quod adest me- 
mento, Sec. " Remember to make a proper use of the present hour." — 
33. Cetera. "The future." Referring to those things that are not un- 
der our control, but are subject to the caprice of fortune or the power of 
destiny. The mingled good and evil which the future has in store, and 
the vicissitudes of life generally, are compared to the course of a stream, 
at one time troubled, at another calm and tranquil. — 41. IUe polens sui t 
&c. "That man will live master of himself." — 42. In diem. "Each 
day." — 43. Vixi. "I have lived," i. e., I have enjoyed, as they should bo 
vmjoyed, the blessings of existence. — 44. Occupato A zeugma operates 



370 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK III., ODE XXX. 

in this ~erb : in the first clause it has the meaning of "to shroud," in tha 
second "to illumine." — 46. Quodcunque retro est. "Whatever is gone 
by." — 47. Diffinget infeciumque reddet. "Will he change and undo." — 
49. Sesvo lata negotio, &c. "Exulting in her cruel employment, and per- 
sisting in playing her haughty game." — 53. Manenicm. " While sho re- 
•nains." — 54. Resigno qua dedit. "I resign what she once bestowed. 
Resignj is here used in the sense of rescribo, and the latter is a term bor 
rowed from the Roman law. When an individual borrowed a sum of 
money, the amount received and the borrower's name were written in 
the banker's boohs ; and when the money was repaid, another entry wai 
made. Hence scribere nummo-;, "to borrow ;" rcscribcre, "to pay back.' 
— Mea virlute me inrolvo. The wise man wraps himself up in the mantle 
of his own integrity, and bids defiance to the storms and changes of for- 
tune.— .77. Non est maim. "It is not for me." It is no employment oi 
mint*. — .79. Et votis p/ic'sci. "And to strive to bargain by my vows." — 
B2. Turn. "At such a time as this." — 64. Aura geminusque Poll a. t, 
" A favoring breeze, and the twin brothers Castor and Pollux." Consult 
'.<. Uj on Ode i., 3, 2. 



Oi>e XXX. The poet's presage of immortality. It is generally su P 
posed that Horace intended this as a concluding piece for his odes, and 
with this opinion the account given by Suetonius appears to harmonize, 
since we are informed by this writer, in his life of the poet, that the fourth 
book of odes was added, after a long interval of time, to the first three 
books, by order of Augustus. 

1-16. 1. Exegi monimentum, ice. "I have reared a memorial of my- 
self more enduring than brass." Compare the beautiful lines of Ovid, at 
the conclusion of the Metamorphoses : "Jamque opus exegi quod nee Jo vis 
ira, nee ignes," &c. — 2. Regalique situ, &c. "And loftier than the rega) 
structure of the pyramids." — 3. Imbcr cdax. " The corroding shower.' -- 
4. Innumerabilis annorum series, &c. "The countless series of years, 
and the flight of ages." — 7. Libit inam. Libitina, at Rome, was worship 
ped as the goddess that presided over funerals. When Horace*say8 
that he will escape Libitina, he means the oblivion o» ..ne grave. Libitina 
and Venus were regarded as one and the same deity, so that we have 
here, as elsewhere, a union of the power that creates with that which 
destroys. — Usque riccns. "Ever fresh," i. e., ever blooming with the 
fresh graces of youth. — 8. Dum Capitolium, &c. On the ides of every 
month, according to Varro, solemn sacrifices were offered up in the Capi- 
tol. Hence the meaning of the poet is, that so long as this shall be done, 
so iong will bis fame continue. To a Roman the Capitol seemed destined 
for eternity. — 10. Dicar. To be joined in construction with princeps dc- 
duxisse. "I shall be celebrated as the first that brought down," &c. — 
Aufidus. A very rapid stream in Apulia, now the Ofanto. — 11. Et qua 
pauper aqua, &c. "And where Daunus, scantily supplied with water, 
ruled over a rustic population." The allusion is still to Apulia (the epi 
thet being merely transferred from the country to the early monarch of the 
same), and the expression pauper aquas refers to the summer heats of that 
country. - Consult note on Ode i., 22, 13. — 12. Regnavit pojrulorvm. Ar 
imitation of the Greek idiom, qp^e 7ua/> m% — Ex hnmili pnten" '« J, he 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. — COOK III., ODE XXX. 371 

tjme powerful from a lowly degree." Alluding to the humble origin and 
(Subsequent advancement of the bard. — 13. sEolium carmen. A general 
allusion to the lyric poets of Greece, but containing, at the same time, a 
more particular reference to AlcSBUI and Sappho, both writers ir the 
iEolie dialect. — 14. Deduxisse. A figure borrowed from the leading down 
of streams to irrigate the adjacent lields. The stream of lyric verse is 
drawn down by Horace from the heights of Grecian poesy to irrigate and 
refresh the humbler literature of Rome. — 15. Dcljthlca lauro. "With 
he Delphic bay," i e with the bay of Apollo. — 10*. Voiens. " Pro pi. 
txr.\H]y " 



OOK IV. 



' .sue II. ftio $y<*q.mbri, Usipetes, and Tenctheri, who dwelt bjyond 
b»^ Rhine, having uiade frequent inroads into the Roman territory, Au 
gu^tus proceeded against them, and, by the mere terror of his name, com- 
pelled them to sue hi peace. (Dio Cassiu.*, 54, 20, vol. i., p. 750, ed. Rei 
mar.) Horace is therefore requested by lulus Antonius, the same year 
In which this event took place ( A.U.C. 738), to celebrate in Pindaric strain 
the successful expedition of the emperor and his expected return to the 
capital. The poet, however, declines the task, and alleges want of talent 
as an excuse ; hut the very language in which this plea is conveyed 
shows how well qualified he was to execute the undertaking from which 
lie shrinks. 

lulus Antonius was the younger son of Marc Antony and Fulvia, and 
was brought up by his stepmother Octavia at Home, and after his father's 
death (B.C. 30) received great marks of favor from Augustus, through Oc- 
tavia's influence. Augustus married him to Marcella, the daughter of Oc- 
tavia by her first husband C. Marcellus, conferred upon him the praetor- 
ship in B.C. 13, and the consulship in B.C. 10. In consequence, however, 
cf his adulterous intercourse with Julia, the daughter of Augustus, he was 
condemned to death by the emperor in B.C. 2, but seems to have antici- 
pated his execution by a soluntary death. He was also accused of aim 
iag at the empire. 

1-11. 1. yEmulari. "To rival." — 2. lule. To be pronounced as * 
dissyllable, yu-lc. Consult Remarks on Sapphic Verse, p. Ixviii.— Ceratis 
ope Dtedalea. " Secured with wax by Daedalean art." An allusion to the 
well-known fable of Daedalus and Icarus. — 3. Vitreo daturus, &c. "Des- 
tined to give a name to the sparkling deep." Vitreo is here rendered by 
some "azure," but incorrectly; the idea is borrowed from the sparkling 
of glass. — 5. Monte. "From some mountain." — 6. Notas ripas. "Its ac- 
customed banks." — 7. Fa-vet immcnsusque, &c. " Pindar foams, and ^lls 
•on unconfined with a mighty depth of expression." {Osborne, ad lo\. v 
The epithet immensus refers to the rich exuberance, and prof undo ore to 
the sublimity of the bard. — 9 Donandus. " Deserving of being gifted." 
— 10. Seu per audaces, &c. Horace here proceeds to enumerate the sev- 
eral departments of lyric verse, in all of which Pindar stands pre-eminent. 
These are, 1. Dithyrambics ; 2. Pceans, or hymns and encomiastic effu- 
sions ; 3. Epinicia (eirtviKLa), or songs of victory, composed in honor of 
the conquerors at the public games ; 4. Epicedia. (EirLnqdeia), or funeral 
songs. Time has made fearful ravages in these celebrated productions : 
all that remain to us, with the exception of a few fragments, are forty-five 
of the kinviKia q,a[xa~a. — 10. Nova verba. " Strange forms of expression, 
i. c, new and daring forms of style. Compare the explanation of Mitscb 
erlich : " Compositione, junctura, signijicatu demque innovata, cum novo 
orationis habitu atque structura," and also that of Doring : "Nova sen* 
tcntiarum lumina, novo effictas grandisonorum verborum formulas.'' 
Horace alludes to the peculiar licence enjoyed by dithyrambic poets, acrt 



EXPLANATORY NOTES BOOK IV., ODE II. 373 

more especially by Pindar, of forming novel compounds, introducing novel 
arrangements in the structure of their sentences, and of attaching to terms 
a boldness of meaning that almost amounts to a change of signification. 
tieuee the epithet "daring" (audaces) applied to this species of poetry. 
Oithyrambics were originally odes in praise of Bacchus, and their very 
Character shows their Oriental origin. — 11. Numeris lege solutis. "In 
unshackled numbers." Alluding to the privilege enjoyed by dithyrambic 
poets, of passing rapidly and at pleasure from one measure to another 

13-32. 13. Sen dcos, regesve, &c. Alluding to the Paeans. The reges, 
deorum sanguinem, are the heroes of earlier times; and the reference to 
the centaurs and the chimajra calls up the recollection of Theseus, Piri- 
thous, and Bcllerojdion. — 17. Sivc quos Elea, &c. Alluding to the Epi 
nicia. — Elea palma. " The Elean palm," i. c, the palm won at the Olym- 
pic games, on the banks of the Alpheus, in Elis. Consult note on Ode 
i., 1, 3. — 18. Caslestes. "Elevated, in feeling, to the skies." — Equumve. 
Not only the conquerors at the games, but their horses also, were cele- 
brated in song and honored with statues. — 19. Centum potiore signis. 
»' Superior to a hundred statues." Alluding to one of his lyric effusions. 
— Ftcbili. "Weeping." Taken in an active sense. The allusion is now 
to the Epicedia, or funeral dirges. — Juvenemve. Strict Latinity requires 
that the enclitic be joined to the first word of a clause, unless that be a 
monosyllabic preposition. The present is the only instance in which Hor- 
ace deviates from the rule. — 22. Et vires animumqtie, &c. "And extols 
his strength, and courage, and unblemished morals to the stars, and res- 
cues him from the oblivion of the grave." Literally, "envies dark Orcus 
the possession of him." — 25. Multa Dircceum. "A swelling gale raises 
on high the Dirca?an swan." An allusion to the strong poetic flight of 
Pindar, who, as a native of Thebes in Bccotia, is here styled "Dircaean," 
from the fountain of Dirce situate near that city, and celebrated in the 
legend of Cadmus. — 27. Ego apis Matina:, &c. " I, after the nature and 
habit of a Matinian bee." Consult note on Ode i., 28, 3. — 29. Per laborem 
plurimum. " With assiduous toil." — 31. Tiburis. Alluding to his villa 
at Tibur. — 32. Fingo. The metaphor is well kept up by this verb, which 
has peculiar reference to the labors of the bee. 

33-59. 33. Majore poeta plectro. " Thou, Antonius, a poet of loftier 
strain." Antonius distinguished himself by an epic poem in twelve books, 
entitled Diomcdeis. — 34. Quandoque. For quandocunque. — 35. Per sar 
brum clivum. "Along the sacred ascent." Alluding to the Via Sacra, 
the street leading up to the Capitol, and by which triumphal processions 
were conducted to that temple. — 36. Fronde. Alluding to the laurel 
crown worn by commanders when they triumphed. — Sygambros. The 
Sygambri inhabited at first the southern side of the Lupia or Lippe. 
They were afterward, during this same reign, removed by the Romans 
into Gaul, and had lands assigned them along the Rhine. Horace here 
alludes to them before this change of settlement took place. — 39. In 
aurum priscum. " To their early gold," i. e., to the happiness of the 
Golden Age. — 43. Forumque litibus orbum. "And the forum free from 
ltigation." The courts of justice were closed at Rome not merely in 
^ases of public mourning, but also of public rejoicing. This cessation of 
business was called Jnstitium — 45. Turn. /.Hading to th<? exported 



374 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK V., ODE III. 

triumphal entiy of Ancrnstus. No triumph, however, took place, aa the. 
emperor avoided one by coming privately into the city. — Mets vocis bona 
cars accedet. " A large portion of my voice shall join the general cry " 
— 46. O sol pulcher. " glorious day." — 49. Tuque dam procedis, &c, 
•' And while thou art moving along in the train of the victor, we will often 
raise the shout of triumph ; the whole state will raise the shout of 
triumph." The address is to Antonius, who will form part of the tri- 
umphal procession, while the poet will mingle in with, and help to swell 
the acclamations of the crowd. With civitas omnis understand dicet.— 
53. Te. Understand solvent, " shall free thee from thy vow." Alluding 
to the fulfillment of vows offered up for the safe return of Augustus. — 
55. Largis lierbis. " Amid abundant pastures." — 56. In mea vota. "For 
the fulfillment of my vows." — 57. Curvatos ignes. " The bending fires 
of the moon when she brings back her third rising," i. e., the crescent of 
the moon when she is three days old. The comparison is between the 
crescent and the horns of the young animal. — 59. Qua notam duxit, &c. 
" Snow-white to the view where it bears a mark ; as to the rest of its 
body, of a dun color." The animal is of a dun color, and bears a conspi 
cuous snow-white mark, probably on his forehead. — Niveus videri. A 
Grajcisin, the infinitive for the latter supine. 



Ode III. The bard addresses Melpomene, as the patroness of lyric 
verse. To her he ascribes his poetic inspiration, to her the honours which 
he enjoys among his countrymen ; and to her he now pays the debt of 
gratitude in this beautiful ode. 

1-24. 1. Quem tu, Melpomene, &c. " Him on whom thou, Melpomene, 
may est have looked with a favoring eye, at the hour of his nativity."— 
3. Labor Isthmius. " The Isthmian contest." The Isthmian, celebrated 
at the Isthmus of Corinth, in honor of Neptune, are here put for any games. 
— 4. Clarabit pugilcm. "Shall render illustrious as a pugilist." — 5. Curru 
Achaico. "In a Grecian chariot." An allusion to victory in the chariot 
race. The whole of lower Greece was at this time called Achaia by the 
Romans, so that the allusion here is to the Grecian games in general. 
— 6. Resbcllica. " Some warlike exploit." — Dcliisfoliis. "With the De- 
lian leaves," i. e., with the bay, which was sacred to Apollo, whose natal 
place was the Isle of Delos. — 8. Quod regum tumidas, Ice. "For hav- 
ing crushed the haughty threats of kings." — 10. Prcejluunt. For prcelcr 
fiuunt. "Flow by." The common text has perjluunt, "flow through." 
The reference is to the waters of the Anio. Consult, as regards Tibur 
and the Anio, the note on Ode i., 7, 13. — 12. Fingent sEolio, &c. Tho 
'"dea meant to be conveyed is this, that the beautiful scenery arounij 
Tibur, and the peaceful leisure there enjoyed, will enable the poet to cul- 
tivate his lyric powers with so much success as, under the favoring in 
fluence of the Muse, to elicit the admiration both of the present and com- 
ing age. As regards the expression ^Eolto carmine, consult note on Ode 
iii., 30, 13. — 13. Romce, principis urbium, Sec. "The offspring of Rome, 
queen of cities." By the "offspring of Rome" are meant the Romans 
lb. tin selves. — 17 O tcstudinis aurece, Sec. "O Muse, that rulest the 
sweet melody of the golden shell." Consult notes on Odes iii. 4, 40, and 
i. 10, 6i— 20. Gycni annum. " The melody of the dying swan." Consul! 



KXTLANATOHtf NOTES.- — BOOR i\ ., pDK :v 375 

noic on Ode i., G, 2. — 22. Quoa mvtutror. "That I am pointed out.'— 

23. Romano: Jidicen lynz. "As the minstrel of the Roman lyre."- 

24. Quod sp/ro. " That I feel poetie inspiration." 



\J\je IV The Rati and Vindelici having made frequent inroads into 
the Romas territory, Augustus resolved to inflict a signal chastisement ok 
these barbarous tribes. For this purpose, Drusus Nero, then only twenty 
three years of age, a son of Tiberius Nero and Livia, and a step-son con 
■eqnently of the emperor, was sent against them with an army. The ex 
pedition proved eminently successful. The young prince, in the very fin<t 
battle, defeated the Rasti at the Tridentine Alps, and afterward, in con 
junction with his brother Tiberius, whom Augustus had added to the wan 
met with the same good fortune against the Vindelici, united with the 
remnant of the Racti and with others of their allies. (Compare Dio Cas- 
sius, liv., 22 ; Veil. Patcrc, ii., 95.) Horace, being ordered by Augustus 
'.Sueton., Vit. Horat.) to celebrate these two victories in song, composed 
the present ode in honor of Drusus, and the fourteenth of this same book 
in praise of Tiberius. The piece we are now considering consists of three 
divisions. In the first, the valor of Drusus is the theme, and he is com- 
pared by the poet to a young eagle and lion. In the second, Augustus is 
extolled for his paternal care of the two princes, and for the correct cul- 
ture bestowed upon them. In the third, the praises of the Claudian line 
are sung, and mention is made of C. Claudius Nero, the conqueror of Has- 
drubal, after the victory achieved by whom, over the brother of Hannibal 
Fortune again smiled propitious on the arms of Rome. 

1-21. 1. Qualem ministrum, &c. The order of construction is as fol- 
lows : Qualem olim juventas ct pair ins vigor propulit nido inscium labo- 
rum alitem ministrum fulminis, cui Jupiter, rex dcorum, permisit regnum 
in vagas aves, expertus (eum) Jidelem in jlavo Ganymede, vernique venti, 
nimbis jam remotis, docuere paventom insolitos nisus ; mox vividus im 
petus, &c, (talem) Vindelici videre Drusum gerenlem bella sub Ra:tis 
Alpibus. " As at first, the fire of youth and hereditary vigor have im 
pelled from the nest, still ignorant of toils, the bird, the thunder-bearer, to 
whom Jove, the king of gods, has assigned dominion over the wandering 
fowls of the air, having found him faithful in the case of the golden-haired 
Ganymede, and the winds of spring, the storms of winter being now re- 
moved, have taught him, still timorous, unusual darings ; presently a fierce 
impulse, &c, such did the Vindelici behold Drusus waging war at the 
foot of the Ra3tian Alps." — Alitem. Alluding to the eagle. The ancients 
Relieved that this bird was never injured by lightning, and they therefore 
made it the thunder-bearer of Jove. — Vernique. The eagle hatches her 
eggs toward the end of April. — 12. Amot dapis atque pugnce. "A desire 
for food and fight." — 14. Fulvas matris ab uberc, <5cc. "A lion just wean- 
ed from the dug of its tawny dam." — 16. Dente novo pcritura. "Doomed 
to perish by its early fang." — 17. Roe'ds Alpibus. The Roetian Alps ex 
tended from the St. Gothard, whose numerous peaks bore the name of 
Adula, to Mount Brenner in the Tyrol. — 18. Vindelici. The country of 
the Vindelici extended from the Lacus Brigantinus (Lake of Constance] 
to the Danube, while the lower part of the CEnus, or Inn, separated it 
from Noricura. — Quibus vin.t nnde deductns &c. "To whom £*wn wVia« 



«*76 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK [\\, ODE IV, 

source the custom he derived, which, through every age, arms their right 
hands against the foe with an Amazonian battle-axe, I have omitted to 
inquire." The awkward and prosaic turn of the whole clause, from qui but 
li omnia, has very justly caused it to be suspected as an interpolation 
we have therefore placed the whole within brackets. — 20. Amazonia s» 
curi. The Amazonian battle-axe was a double one, and, besides its 
adges, it had a sharp projection, like a spike, on the top. — 81. Obarmet 
The verb obarmo means "to arm against another." 

34-33. 24. Consiliis juvenis revictie. "Subdued, in their turn, by the 
skillful operations of a youthful warrior." Consult Introductory Remarks. 
ES. Sensrre, quid mens, &c. "Felt what a mind, what a disposition, duly 
nartured beneath an auspicious roof — what the paternal affection of Au- 
gustus -toward the young Neros could effect." The Vindelici at lirst be- 
held Drasol waL'iii'.r war on the ELaeti, now they themselves were destined 
to fee 1 the prowess both of Drusus and Tiberius, and to experience the 
force l f those talents which had been so happily nurtured beneath the 
roof of Augustus. — 29. Fortes creantur fortibus. The epithet forlis ap- 
pears to be used here in allusion to the meaning of the term Nero, which 
was of Sabino origin, and signified "courage," "firmness of soul." — 30. 
I', it rum virtus. "The spirit of their sires." — 33. Doctrina sed vim, Sec. 
The poet, after conceding to the young Neros the possession of hereditary 
virtues and abilities, insists upon the necessity of proper culture to guide 
those powers into the path of usefulness, and hence the fostering care of 
Augustus is made indirectly the theme of praise. The whole stanza may 
be translated as follows : " But it is education that improves the powers 
implanted in us by nature, and it is good culture that strengthens the 
heart : whenever moral principles are wanting, vices degrade the fair en- 
dowments of nature." It is evident from this passage that Horace was 
familiar with the true notion of education, as a moral training directed to 
the formation of character, and not merely the communication of knowl- 
edge. [Osborne, ad toe.) 

37-61. 37. Quid debetu, O Roma, Xeronibus, &c. We now enter on 
the third division of the poem, the praise of the Claudian line, and the 
poet carries us back to the days of the second Punic war, and to the vic- 
tory achieved by C. Claudius Nero over the brother of Hannibal. — 38. Me- 
tanrum flumen. The term Metanrum is here taken as an adjective. The 
IfetaanUi now Metro, a river of Umbria, emptying into the Adriatic, was 
rendered memorable by the victory gained over Hasdrubal by the consuls 
C. Claudius Nero and M. Livius Salinator. The chief merit of the victory 
was due to Claudius Nere, for his bold and decisive movement in march 
j.ng to join Livius. Had the intended junction taken place between Has- 
drubal and his brother Hannibal, the consequences would have been most 
disastrous for Homo. — 39. Pulcher Me dies. "That glorious day." Pul- 
cher may also be joined in construction with Latio, "rising fair on Latium." 
According to the first mode of interpretation, however, Latio is an abla 
live, tenebris fugatis Latio, "when darkness was dispelled from Latium.' 
— 41. Adorea. Used here in the sense of Victoria. It properly means a 
distribution of corn to an army, after gaining a victory. — 42. Dims per 
urbes, &c. ' From the time that the dire son of Afric sped his waj 
through the Italian rili#»« as the flame does through the pine*, or thi< 



BXfLANATORY NOTES. — BOOK IV.. ODE V. ST3 

southeast wind over the Sicilian waters." By dtrus Aj'cr Haui.ibal u 
meant. — 45. Laboribus. Equivalent here to praliis. — 17 Twnultu. Con- 
sult note on Ode iii., 14, 14. — IS. Deo* habucrc rectos. "Had their gods 
■gain erect." Alluding to a general renewing of sacred rites, which had 
been interrupted by the disasters of war. — 50. Cervi. "Like stags."-- 
51. Quos opimus fallere, ice. "Whom to elude by flight is a glorious 
triumph." The expression fallere ct etf'itgcrc may be compared with the 
Greek idiom \a0ov~aq (ftevyeiv, of which it is probably an imitation. — 
f>3. Qitte crcmato fortis, ice. " Which bravely bore from Ilium, reduced 
to ashes." — 57. Torino. "Shorn of its branches." — 58. Nigra; feracif ran- 
dis, ice. M On Algidus, abounding with thick foliage." Consult note on 
Ode i., 21, 6. — 62. Vinci dolentcm. "Apprehensive of being overcome." 
— 63. Colchi. Alluding to the dragon that guarded the golden fleece. — 
64. Echioniceve Thebce. "Or Echionian Thebes." Echion was one of 
the number of those that sprang from the teeth of tho dragon when sown 
by Cadmus, and one of the live that survived the conflict. Having aided 
Cadmus in building Thebes, he received from that princo his daughter 
Agaue. 

65-74. 65. Pulclirior evenit. "It comes forth more glorious than be 
fore." Orelli adopts exiet, given by Meinecke from Valart, as more in ac 
cordance with the futures proruct and gcret, which follow. But there is 
no good classical authority for such a form. We meet with it only in 
Tertullian (adv. Jud., 13), and so redies in Apuleius [Met., p. 419). In Ti- 
bullus (i., 4, 27) we must change transiet to transiit. — 66. Integrum. 
"Hitherto firm in strength." — 68. Conjitgibvs loqvenda. "To bo made a 
theme of lamentation by widowed wives." Literally, "to be talked of by 
wives." Some prefer conjugibns as a dative. The meaning will then 
be, " to be related by the victors to their wives," i. e., after they have re- 
turned from the war. — 70. Occidit, occidit, <kc. "Fallen, fallen is all our 
hope." — 73. Nil Claudia non perjicient manus. "There is nothing now 
which the prowess of the Claudian line will not effect," i. e., Rome may 
now hope for every thing from the prowess of the Claudii. We can not 
but admire the singular felicity that marks the concluding stanza of this 
beautiful ode. The future glories of the Claudian house are predicted by 
the bitterest enemy of Rome, and our attention is thus recalled to the 
young Neros, and the martial exploits which had already distinguished 
their career. — 74. Qitas ct benigno numine, &c. "Since Jove defends 
them by his benign protection, and sagacity and prudence conduct them 
safely through the dangeri of war." 



Ode V. Addressed to Augustus, long absent from his capital, and in- 
voking his return. 

1-24. 1. Divis orte bonis. " Sprung from propitious deities/' Allud- 
ing to the divine origin of the Julian line, for Augustus had been adopted 
by Julius Caesar, and this latter traced his descent from Venus through 
lulus and iEneas. — 2. Abe?, jam nimium diu. "Already too long art thou 
absent from us." Augustus remained absent from bis capital for the space 
of nearly three years, being occupied with settling the affairs of Gaul (from 
A 17. C. 738 to 74 1).— ">. Ijuccn r.ddc hue. ice. " Auspi ^ious pnr ce, restora 



378 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK IV., ODE V 

die light of thy presence to thy country." — 8. Et soles mattUt nitent 
"And the beams of the sun shine forth with purer splendor." — 10. Car 
pathti maris. Consult note on Ode i., 35, 8. — 11. Cunctantem spatio, «Scc, 
"Delaying longer than the annual period of his stay." — 12. Vocat. "In- 
vokes the return of." — 15. Desideriis ictejidelibus. "Pierced with faitn- 
ful regrets." — 17. Etenim. Equivalent to nal yap. " And no wonder she 
does so, for," &c. — Tuta. The common text has rura, for which we have 
given tuta, the ingenious emendation of Bothe, thus avoiding the awk« 
wardness of having rura in two consecutive lines. The blessings of 
peace, here described, are all the fruits of the rule of Augustus ; and 
hence, in translating, we may insert after etcnim the words "by thy 
guardian care." — 18. Almaque Faustitas. " And the benign tavoi of heav- 
en," i. e., benignant prosperity. — 19. Volitant. "Pass swiftly, ' i. e., are 
impeded in their progress by no fear of an enemy. — 20. Culpari metuit 
fides. " Good faith shrinks from the imputation of blame." — 21. Nullis 
polluitur, &c. Alluding to the Lex Jidia " de Adulterio," passed by Au- 
gustus, and his other regulations against the immorality and licentious- 
ness which had been the order of the day. — 22. Mos et lex maculosum, dec. 
" Purer morals and the penalties of the law have brought foul guilt to sub- 
jection." Augustus was invested by the senate repeatedly for five years 
with the office and title of Magister morxim. — 23. Simili prole. "For an 
offspring like the father." — 24. Culpam Pana premit comes. "Punish- 
ment presses upon guilt as its constant companion." 

25-39. 25. Quis Parthum paveat, Sec. The idea intended to be con- 
veyed to this: The valor and power of Augustus have triumphed over the 
Parthians, the Scythians, the Germans, and the Cantabri; what have we. 
therefore, now to dread? As regards the Parthians, consult notes on Ode 
i. 96, 3, and hi., 5, 3. — Gclidum Scythen. "The Scythian, the tenant of 
the North." By the Scythians are here meant the barbarous tribes in the 
vicinity of the Danube, but more particularly the Geloni. Their inroads 
nad been checked by Lentulus, the lieutenant of Augustus. — 26. Quis, 
Clcr mania quos horrida, &c. "Who, the broods that horrid Germany 
oriiu-s forth. '' The epithet horrida has reference, in fact, to the wild and 
«a\ age appearance, as well of the country as of its inhabitants. — 29. Con- 
di.' f/uisque diem, &c. " Each one closes the day on his own hills." Un- 
der the auspicious reign of Augustus, all is peace ; no war calls off tha 
vine-dresser from his vineyard, or the husbandman from his fields. — 
30. Viduas ad, arborcs. " To the widowed trees." The elms have been 
widowed by the destruction of the vineyards in the civil wars. — 31. Et 
tlteris te mensis, &c. "And at the second table invokes thee as a god.'' 
The casna of the Romans usually consisted of two parts, the mens a prima, 
or first course, composed of different kinds cf meat, and the mensa secunda 
or altera, second course, consisting of fruits and sweetmeats. The wine 
was eet down on .the table with the dessert, and, before they began drink- 
ing, libations were poured out to the gods. This, by a decree of the senate, 
was done, also, in honor of Augustus, after the battle of Actium. — 33. Pro- 
retruitur. " He worships." — 34. Et Laribxis iuum, &c. " And blends thy 
protecting divinity with tint of the Lares, as grateful Greece does those 
of Castor and the mighty Hercules." Under the name Castoris, the 
Dioscuri, Castor and Pollux, are meant. The Lares here alluded to are 
the Lares Publici, or Dii Patrii, supposed by some to bo identical with 



>::•;: law. n>..\ note*. — BOOK I/., ODE vi. 37Q 

the Peuates.*-37. Longas O a! nuu//, &c. "Auspicious prince, in ay est 
thou afford long festal days to Italy,'' i. e., long mayest thou rule over uo 
— 38. Dicimus integro, &c. ."For this we pray, in sober mood, at earlj 
dawn, while the day is still entire ; for this we pray, moistened with the 
juice of the grape, when the sun is sunk beneath the ocear Integer 
dies is a day of which no part has as yet been used. 



Cde VI. The poet, being ordered by Augustus to prepare a hymn fcc 
the approaching Secular celebration, composes the present ode as a sort 
cf prelude, and entreats Apollo that his powers may prove adequate to 
ths task enjoined upon him. 

1-23. 1. Mag nee vindicem lingua "The avenger of an arrogant 
tongue." Alluding to the boastful pretensions of Niobe, in relation to 
her offspring. — 2. Tityosque raptor. Compare Ode ii., 14, 8. — 3. Scnsit. 
"Felt to be." Supply esse. — Trojee prope victor altee. Alluding to his 
having slain Hector, the main support of Troy. — 4. Pkthius Achilles. The 
son of Thetis, according to Homer (//., xxii., 359), was to fall by the hands 
of Paris and Phoebus. Virgil, however, makes him to have been slain by 
Paris, (yEn., vi., 56, seqq.) — 5. Ceteris major, tibi miles impar. "A 
warrior superior to the rest of the Greeks, but an unequal match for t"hee.'' 
— 7. Mordaciferro. " By the biting steel," i. e., the sharp-cutting axe. — 
10. Impulsa. "Overthrown." — 11. Posuitque. "And reclined." — 13. lilt 
non, inclustcs, &c. The poet means that, if Achilles had lived, the Greeks 
would not have been reduced to the dishonorable necessity of employing 
the stratagem of the wooden horse, but would ha^ e taken the city in open 
fight. — Equo Minervee sacra mentito. " In the horse that belied the wor 
ship of Minerva," i. e., which was falsely pretended to have been an offer 
ing to the goddess. — 14. Maleferiatos. " Giving loose to festivity in an 
evil hour." — 16. Falleret. For fefellisset. So, in the 18th verse, urcret 
for ussisset. — 17. Palam gravis. "Openly terrible" — 18. Nescios fart 
infantes. An imitation of the Greek form, V7}nia riicva. — 21. Flexus 
"Swayed." Bent from his purpose. — 22. Vocibus. " Entreaties." — Ad- 
nuisset. " Granted." — 23. Potiore ductos alite. " Beared under more 
favorable auspices." 

25-39. 25. Doctor Arcjivce, &c. " God of the lyre, instructor of thp 
Grecian Muse." Than<e is here equivalent to Musaz lyricae, and Apollo 
is invoked as the deity who taught the Greeks to excel in lyric numbers, 
or, in other words, was the xopodcduGicaXoc Movcuv- — 26. JCantho. Al- 
luding to the Lycian, not the Trojan Xanthus. This stream, though the 
largest in Lycia, was yet of inconsiderable size. On its banks stood a 
eity of the same name, the greatest in the whole country. About sixty 
stadia eastward from the mouth of the Xanthus was the city of Patara, 
famed for its oracle of Apollo. — 27. Dauniec defende decus Camcsnee. 
"Defend the honor of the Roman Muse," i. e , grant that in the Soecula* 
hymn, which Augustus bids me compose, I may support the honor of the 
lloman lyre. As regards Dannies, put here for ./talcs, i. e., Romanes, 
consult the notes on Ode ii., 1, 34, and i., 22, 13.— 28 Levis Agyieu. "O 
youthful Apollo." The appellation Agyieus is of Greek origin {'hyvievc) 
a"id. if the common derivation be correct (frnra ilwui, " a street"), denotes 



380 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK IV*, ODE VII. 

"the guardian deity of streets." It was the custom at Athens to erect 
small conical cippi, in honor of Apollo, in the vestibules and before the 
doors of their houses. Here he was invoked as the averter of evil, and 
was worshipped with pei-fumes, garlands, and fillets. — 29. Spiritum Phoe- 
bus mihi, &.c. The bard, fancying that his supplication has been heard, 
now addresses himself to the chorus of maidens and youths whom he sup- 
poses to be standing around and awaiting his instructions. My prayer is 
granted, "Phoebus has given me poetic inspiration, Phoebus has given me 
the art of song and the name of a poet." — Virginum prima;, &.c. "Ye 
noblest of the virgins, and ye boys sprung from illustrious sires." The 
caai lens and youths who composed the chorus at the Saccular celebration, 
and whom the poet here imagines that he has before him, were chosen 
from the first families. — 33. Delias tutela deae. "Ye that are protected by 
tee Delian Diana." Diana was the patroness of moral purity. — 35. Les- 
bix 7.1 sewate pedem, &c. " Observe the Lesbian measure and the striking 
of my thumb." The Sapphic measure, which is that of the present oae, 
is meant. The expression pollicis ictum refers to the mode of marking 
the termination of cadences and measures, by the application of the thumb 
to the sitings of the lyre. — 38. C rcscentem face Noctilucam. "The god- 
dess that illumines the night, increasing in the splendor of her beams." — 
39. P rosveram frugum. " Propitious to the productions of the earth.' 
A Gnccism for fnt gibus. — Celeremque pronos, Sec. "And swift in rolling 
onward the rapid months." A Graecism for eelerem in volvendis pronis 
mensibus. 

41--43. 11. Nupta jam dices. "United at length in the bands ol wed 
lock, thou shalt say." Jam is here used for tandem. The poet, in the bo 
ginning of this stanza, turns to the maidens, and addresses himself to the 
leader of the chorus as the representative of the whole body. The induce- 
ment which he holds out to them for the proper performance of their part 
in the celebration is extremely pleasing ; the prospect, namely, of a hap- 
py marriage ; for the ancients believed that the virgins composing the 
chorus of the Saccular and other solemnities were always recompensed 
with a happy union. — 42. Seeculo festas referente luces. " When the See- 
ular period brought back the festal days." The Saccular games were 
celebrated once every 110 years. Before the Julian reformation of the 
calendar, the Roman was a lunar year, which was brought, or was meant 
to be brought, into harmony with the solar year by the insertion of an in 
tercalary month. Joseph Scaliger has shown that the principle was to in 
tercalate a month, alternately of twenty-two and twenty-three days, every 
■)ther year during periods of twenty-two years, in each of which periods 
such an intercalary month was inserted ten times, the last biennivm be 
Lng passed over. As five years made a lustrum, so five of these periods 
mr.de a sasculum of liO years. (Scaliger, de emendat. temp., p. 80, seqq. ; 
Nvebuhr's Roman History, vol. i., p. 334, Car.ibr. transl.) — 43. Reddidi 
car-men. " Recited a hymn." — Docilis modorum, &c. " After having 
learned, with a docile mind, the measures of the poot Horace." Modorum 
refers here as well to the movements as to the singing of the chorus. 



Ode VII. This piece is similar, in its complexion, to the fourth ode oi 
the first book In both thes^ productions the same topic is enforced, the 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. — BOOK IV., ODE Vn, 381 

brevity of life and the wisdom of present enjoyment The individual to 
whom the ode is addressed is the same with the Torquatus to whom the 
fifth epistle of the first hook is inscribed. He was grandson of L. Manlius 
rorquatus, who held the consulship in the year that Horace was bom. 
(Ode iii., 21, 1.) Vanderbourg remarks of him as follows : " On ne con 
nait ce Torquatus que par l'ode qui nous occupc, et l'epitre 5 du livre 1, 
qu'Horace lui adresse pareillcment. II en resulte que cet ami de notre 
poete etait un hommc eloquent et fort estimable, mais un peu attaquo do 
la manic de thesauriscr, manie d'autant plus bizarre chez lui, qu'il etait, 
diton, celibataire, et n'entassait que pour des collateraux." 

1- <56. I. Dijfugcre nives, &c. "The snows are fled: their verdure is 
now returning to the lields, and their foliage to the trees." The student 
mast note the beauty and spirit of the tense dijfugcre. — 3. Mutat terra 
vices. "The earth changes its appearance" Literally, "changes its 
changes." Compare the Greek forms of expression, tcovov ttoveZv, paxv v 
udxeuOj,i,, as cited by Orelli, and also the explanation of Mitscherlich. 
" Vices terras de colore ejus, per annuas vices apparente, ac pro divcrsa 
anni tempestate variante, dictce." — Et decrcsccntia ripas, &c. Marking 
the cessation of the season of inundations in early spring, and the ap- 
proach of summer. — 5. Audet duccre choros. "Ventures to lead up the 
dances." — 7. Immorlalia. " For an immortal existence." — 9. Monet an- 
nus. " Of this the year warns thee." The vicissitudes of the seasons re 
mind us, according to the poet, of the brief nature of our own existence. — 
9. Frigora mitescunt Zephyris. " The winter colds are beginning to 
moderate under the influence of the western winds." Zephyri mark the 
vernal breeze's. — Protcrit. "Tramples upon." Beautifully descriptive 
of the hot and ardent progress of the summer season. — 10. Interitura, 
simul, &.c. " Destined in its turn to perish, as soon as fruitful autumn shall 
have poured forth its stores." Simul is for simul ac. — 12. Bruma iners. 
"Sluggish winter," i. e., when the powers of mature are comparatively at 
rest. Compare the language of Bion (vi., 5) xzl\ia dvgepyov. — 13. Damna 
timen celeres, &c. "The rapid months, however, repair the losses occa- 
sioned by the changing seasons." Before the Julian reformation of the 
calendar, the Roman months were lunar ones. Hence luna was fre- 
quently used in the language of poetry, even after the change had taken 
place, as equivalent to menses. — 15. Quo. " To the place whither." Un- 
derstand eo before quo, and at the end of the clause the verb deciderunt 
— Dives Tulluset Ancus. The epithet dives alludes merely to the wealth 
and power of Tullus Hostilius and Ancus Marcius as monarchs ; with a 
reference, at the same time, however, to primitive days, since Claudian 
(xv., 109), when comparing Rome under Ancus with the same city under 
the emperor, speaks of the "mania pauperis And." — 16. Sumus. "There 
we remain." Equivalent to manemus. — 17. Adjiciant. " Intend to add." 
— Crastina tempora. "To-morrow's hours." — 19. Amico quce dederu 
animo. "Which thou shalt have bestowed on thyself." Amico is hero 
equivalent to luo, in imitation of the Greek idiom, by which <piXoc is put 
for k/xoc, aoc, ioc. — 21. Splendida arbitria. "His impartial sentence." 
The allusion is to a clear, impartial decision, the justice of whirl is in- 
stantly apparent to all. So the Bandusian fount is called (Ode ili., 13, 1) 
yplcndidior vitro. " Clearer than glass." — 2T Restitue. " Will restore 
to the light of day."- -2(5. Tnfernie 'fucbris. "From the ilarkncss of the 



382 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK IV., ODjL VIII. 

lower world." Horace does nut follow here the common legend. Accord- 
ing to this last, iEsculapius, at the request of Diana, did restore Hippoly 
tus to life, and he was placed under the orotection of the nymph Eseria, 
at Aricia, in Latium, where he was also worshipped. Compare Virg., 
JEn., vii., 761. — Lethcea vinculo,. "The fetters of Lethe," i. e., of ceatt 
The reference is to Lethe, the stream of oblivion in the lower world, and 
which is here taken for the s^ate of death itself. 



Ode VIII. Supposed to have been written at the time of the Saturnalia, 
at which period of the year, as well as on other stated festivals, it wag 
customary among the Romans for friends to send presents to one another 
The ode before us constitutes the poet's gift to Censorinus, and, in order 
to enhance its value, he descants on the praises of his favorite art. There 
were two distinguished individuals at Rome of the name of Censorinus, 
the father and son. The latter, C. Marcius Censorinus, is most probably 
the one who is here addressed, as in point of years he was the more fit of 
the two to be the companion of Horace, and as Velleius Paterculus (ii., 
102) styles him, virum demcrcndis hominibus genitum. He was consul 
along with C. Asinius Gallus, A.U.C. 746. 

1-11. 1. Donarcm patcras, &c. "Liberal to my friends, Censorinus, ] 
would bestow upon them cups and pleasing vessels of bronze," i. e., I 
would liberally bestow on my friends cups and vessels of beauteous 
bronze. The poet alludes to the taste for collecting antiques, which then 
prevailed among his countrymen. — 3. Tripodas. The ancients made very 
frequent use of the tripod for domestic purposes, to set their lamps upon, 
and also in religious ceremonies. Perhaps the most frequent application 
of all others was to serve water out in their common habitations. In these 
instances, the upper part was so disposed as to receive a vase. — 4. Ncquc 
tu pessima munerum ferres. " Nor shouldst thou bear away as thine own 
the meanest of gifts." A litotes, for tu optima et rarisgima munera ferres. 
— 5. Divite me scilicet artium, &c. "Were I rich in the works of art 
which either a Parrhasius or a Scopas produced ; the latter in marble 
the former by the aid of liquid colors, skillful in representing at one time 
a human being, at another a god." — Sollers ponere. A Graacism for soU 
lers in ponendo, or sollers ponendi. The artists here mentioned are takec 
by the poet as the respective representatives of painting and statuary 
Parrhasius, one of the most celebrated Greek painters, was a native of 
Ephesus, but practiced his art chiefly at Athens. He flourished about 
B.C. 400. He was noted for true proportion and for the accuracy of his 
outlines. Scopas, a statuary of Paros, flourished shortly before Parrhasiun. 
His statue of Apollo was preserved in the Palatine library at Rome. — 
£. Scd non hate mihi vis, &c. "But I possess no store of these things 
nor hast thou a fortune or inclination that needs such curiosities." In 
other words, I am too poor to own such valuables, while thou art too ricb 
and hast too many of them to need or desire any more. — 11. Gaudcs car 
minibus, &c. " Thy delight is in verses : verses we can bestow, and can 
fix a value on the gift." The train of ideas is as follows : Thou carest far 
less for the things that have just been mentioned, than for the productions 
of the Muse. Here we can bestow a present, and can explain, moreover, 
the frrne value of the gift. Cups, and v9ses, and tripods are estimated m a « 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK IV., ODE VIII. 3H3 

wcrdancc with the caprice and luxury of tho age, but the fame of verse is 
immortal. The bard then proceeds to exemplify the never-dying boners 
which his art can bestow. 

13-33. 13. Nun incisa nolis, &c. "Not marbles marked with public 
inscriptions, by which the breathing of life returns to illustrious leaders 
after death." Incisa is literally " cut in," or " engraved." — 13. Non cele- 
res fugce, Sec. " Not the rapid flight of Hannibal, nor his threats hurled 
back upon him." The expression celeres fugts refers to the sudden de- 
parture of Hannibal from Italy, when recalled by the Carthaginians to 
make head against Scipio. He had threatened that he would overthrow 
tho power of Rome ; these threats Scipio hurled back upon him, and hum- 
bled the pride of Carthage in the field of Zama. — 17. Non stipendia Car 
thaginis impia;. "Not the tribute imposed upon perfidious Carthage" 
The common reading is Non incendia Carthaginis impia, which involves 
an historical error, in ascribing the overthrow of Hannibal and the destruc 
tion of Carthage to one and the same Scipio. The elder Scipio imposed 
a tribute on Carthage after the battle of Zama, the younger destroyed the 
city. "We have given, therefore, stipendia, the emendation of Doring. 
Orelli supposes that two lines are wanting before ejus, in accordance with 
his idea that odes in this particular metre run on in quartrains. — 18. Ejus 
qui domita, Sr.c. The order of construction is as follows : Clarius indi- 
cant laudes ejus, qui rediit lucratus nomen ab Africa domita, quam, &,c. 
Scipio obtained the agnomen of " Africanus" from his conquests in Africa, 
a title subsequently bestowed on the younger Scipio, the destroyer of 
Carthage. — 20. Calabra Pierides. * The Muses of Calabria." The allu- 
sion is to the poet Ennius, who was born at Rudiao in Calabria, and who 
celebrated the exploits of his friend and patron, the elder Scipio, in his 
Annals or metrical chronicles, and also in a poem connected with these 
Annals, and devoted to the praise of the Roman commander. — Ncque si 
chartce silcant, &c. " Nor, if writings be silent, shalt thou reap any re- 
ward for what thou mayest have laudably accomplished." The consfruc- 
tion in the text is merccdem (illius) quod benefeceris. — 22. Quidforet Ilia, 
&c. " "What would the son of Ilia and of Mars be now, if invidious silence 
had stifled the merits of Romulus?" In other words, Where would be 
the fame and the glory of Romulus if Ennius had been silent in his praise ? 
Horace alludes to the mention made by Ennius, in hifl Annals, of the fa- 
bled birth of B.omulus and Remus. As regards Ilia, compare note, Ode 
iii., 9, 0. — 24. Ubstarct. Put for obstitisset. — 25. Ercptum Stygiis Jlucti- 
bus yEacum, &c. " The power, and the favor, and the lays of eminent 
bards, consecrate to immortality, and place in the islands of the blessed, 
^Cacus rescued from the dominion of the grave." Stygiis jluctibus is 
here equivalent to morte. — 27. Divitibus consecrat insulis. Alluding to 
the earlier mythology, by which Elysium was placed in one or more of 
the isles of the Western Ocean. — 29. Sic Jovis interest, dec. " By this 
means the unwearied Hercules participates in the long-wished-for ban 
quet of Jove." Sic is here equivalent to carminibus poetarv/m. — 31. Cla 
rum Tyndarida? sidus. "By this means the Tyndaridaa, that bright con 
stellation." Understand sic at the beginning of this clause. The allusion 
is to Castor and Pollux. Consult note on Ode i., 3, 2. — 33. Ornatus viridt 
tempora. pampino. We must again understand sic. " By this means 
bacchus. ha i . his temples adorned with the verdant vine-leaf, leads U 



384 EXPLANATORY NOTES.— -BOOK IV., ODE IX 

a successful issue tbe prayers of the husbandmen." In other words, B\ 
the songs of the bards Bacchus is gifted with the privileges and attri 
butes of divinity. Consult note on Ode iii.. 8. 7. 



Ode IX. In the preceding cde the poet asserts that the only pith to 
immortality is through the vei-ses of the bard. The same idea again 
meets us in the present piece, and Horace promises, through the medium 
of his numbers, an eternity of fame to Lollius. "My lyric poems are not 
destined to perish," he exclaims; "for, even though Homer enjoys the 
first rank among the votaries of the Muse, still the strains of Pindar, Si- 
aionides, Stesichorus, Anacreon, and Sappho, live in the remembrance of 
men ; and my own productions, therefore, in which I have followed the 
footsteps of these illustrious children of song, will, I know, be rescued 
from the night of oblivion. The memory of those whom they celebrate de- 
scends to after ages with the numbers of the bard, while, if a poet be 
wanting, the bravest of heroes sleeps forgotten in the tomb. Thy praises 
then, Lollius, shall be my theme, and thy numerous virtues shall live in 
the immortality of verse." 

M. Lollius P*alicanus, to whom this ode is addressed, enjoyed, for a long 
time, a very high reputation. Augustus gave him, A.U.C. 728, the gov- 
ernment of Galatia, with the title of propraetor. He acquitted himself so 
well in this office, *hat the emperor, in order to recompense his services, 
named him consui, in 732, with L. jEmilius Lepidus. In this year the 
present ode was written, and thus far nothing had occurred to tarnish his 
fame. Being sent, in 737, to engage the Germans, who had made an ir- 
ruption into Gaul, he had the misfortune, after some successes, to expe- 
rience a defeat, known in history by the name of Lolliana Clades, and in 
which he lost the eagle of the fifth legion. It appears, however, that he 
was able to repair this disaster and regain the confidence of Augustus ; 
for this monarch chose him, about the year 751, to accompany his grand- 
son,*Caius Cassar, into the East, as a kind of director of his youth {"velutt 
moderator juve?tice." Veil. Pat., ii., 102). It was in this mission to the 
East, seven or eight years after the death of our poet, that he became 
guilty of the greatest depredations, and formed secret plots, which were 
disclosed to Caius Caesar by the king of the Parthians. Lollius died sud- 
denly a few days after this, leaving behind him an odious memory. 
Whether his end was voluntary or otherwise, Velleius Paterculus de- 
clares himself unable to decide. We must not confound this individual 
with the Lollius to whom the second and eighteenth epistles of the first 
book are inscribed, a mistake into which Dacier has fallen, and which he 
endeavors to support by very feeble arguments. Sanadon has clearly 
shown that these two epistles are evidently addressed to a very young 
man, the father, probably, of Lollia Paulina, whom Caligula took away 
from C. Memmius, in order to espouse her himself, and whom he repudi- 
ated soon after. "We have in Pliny (N. H., ix., 35) a curious passage re- 
specting the enormous riches which this Lollia had inherited from her 
grandfather. 

1-9. 1. Ne forte credas, &c. "Do not perchance believe that those 
words are destined to perish, which I, bom near the banks of the far- 
^eaounding Aufidus. am wout to i tter, to be accompanied by tbe strings 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK IV., ODE IX 385 

of tbe lyre through an art hefore unknown." Horace alludes to himself 
as the first that introduced into the Latin tongue the lyric measures of 
Greece. — 2. Longe sonantcm natus, &c. Alluding to his having heen bom 
in Apulia. Consult Ode iii., 30, 10. — 5. Non si priorcs, &c. "Although 
the Maeonian Homer holds the first rank among poets, still the strains of 
Pindar and the Caean Simonides, and the threatening lines of Alcaeus, and 
the dignified effusions of Stesichorus, are not hid from the knowledge of 
posterity." More literally, " The Pindaric and Ca)an muses, and the 
theatening ones of Alcaeus, and the dignified ones of Stesichorus." As 
regards the epithet Mceonius, applied to Homer, consult note on Ode i., 6, 
2. — 7. C<£(E. Consult note on Ode ii., 1, 37. — Alccci minaccs. Alluding to 
the effusions of Alcaeus against the tyrants of his native island. Consult 
note on Ode ii., 13, 26. — 8. Slesichorique graves CamcenoB. Stesichorus 
was a native of Himera, in Sicily, and born about 632 B.C. He was con- 
temporary with Sappho, Alcaeus, and Pittacus. He used the Doric dia 
lect, and besides hymns in honor of the gods, and odes in praise of heroes, 
composed what may be called lyro-epic poems, such as one entitled " The 
Destruction of Troy," and another called "The Orestiad." — 9. Nee, si quid 
olim, &c. " Nor, if Anacreon, in former days, produced any sportive effu- 
sion, has time destroyed this." Time, however, has made fearful ravages 
for us in the productions of this bard. At the present day, we can attrib- 
ute to Anacreon only the fragments that were collected by Ursinus, and 
a few additional ones, and not those poems which commonly go under his 
name, a few only excepted. 

11-49. 11. Calores JEoli<z puella. " The impassioned feelings of tho 
^Eolian maid." The allusion is to Sappho. Consult note on Ode ii., 13, 
24. — 13. Non sola comtos, &c. The order of construction is as follows: 
Lacasna Hclene non sola arsit comtos crines adulteri, et mirata (est) an 
rum,. " The Spartan Helen was not the only one that burned for," &c. — 
14. Aurum vestibus illitum. "The gold spread profusely over his gar 
ments," i. e., his garments richly embroidered with gold. 15. Regalesquc 
cullus et comites. "And his regal splendor and retinue." Cultus here 
refers to the individual's manner of life, and tho extent of his resources 
— 17. Cydonio arcu. Cydon was one of the most ancient and important 
cities of Crete, and the Cydonians were esteemed the best among tho 
Cretan archers. — 18. Non semel Ilios vexata. " Not once merely has a 
Troy been assailed." We have adopted here the idea of Orelli. Other 
commentators make the reference a distinct one to Troy itself: " Not once 
merely was Troy assailed." Troy, previous to its final overthrow, had 
been twice taken, once by Hercules, and again by the Amazons. — 19. In 
gens. " Mighty in arms." — 22. Acer Deiphobus. Deiphobus was regard- 
ed as the bravest of the Trojans after Hector. — 29. Inertia. The dativo 
for ab inertia by a Graecism. — 30. Celata virtus. " Merit, when uncelo« 
brated," i. e., when concealed from the knowledge of posterity, for want 
of a bard or historian to celebrate its praises. — Non ego te meis, &c. " I 
will not pass thee over in silence, unhonored in my strains." — 33. Lividas 
"Envious." — 35. Rerumque prudens, &c. "Both skilled in the manage- 
ment of affairs, and alike unshaken in prosperity and misfortune." The 
poet here begins to enumerate some of the claims of Lollius to an immor- 
tality of fame. Hence the connection in the train of ideas is as follows > 
A.nd worthy art thou, O Lollius, of being remembered by after ages, for 

Ii 



386 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK IV., CDE XI. 

u thou bast a mind,'' &c. — 37. Vindex. Pat in apposition with animus -» 
33. Ducentis ad se cicncta. "Drawing a.l things within the sphere of its 
influence." — 39. Consulque non unius ar«ni. "And not merely the con- 
sul of a single year." A bold and beautiful personification, by which the 
term consul is applied to the mind of Lollius. Ever actuated by the pur- 
est principles, and ever preferring honor to views of mere private inter- 
est, the mind of Lollius enjoys a perpetual consulship. — 42. Rejccit alto 
dona nocentium, &c. " Rejects with disdainful brow the bribes of the 
guilty; victorious, makes for himself a way, by his own arms, amid op 
posing crowds." Explicuit sua arma may be rendered more literally 
though less intelligibly, " displays his arms." The " opposing crowds 
are the difficulties that beset the path of the upright man, as well from 
the inherent weakness of his own nature, as from the arts of the flatterer, 
and the machinations of secret foes. Calling, however, virtue and firm- 
ness to his aid, he employs these arms of purest temper against the host 
that surrounds him, and comes off victorious from the conflict. — 46. Recte. 
" Consistently with true wisdom." — Rcctius oocupat nomen beati. " With 
far more propriety does that man lay claim to the title of happy." — 49. 
Calkt. " Well knows." 



Ode XL The poet invites Phyllis to his abode, for the purpose of cele- 
brating with him the natal day of Maecenas, and endeavors, by various 
arguments, to induce her to come. 

1-19. 1. Est mini nonum, &c. "I have a cask full of Alban wine, 
more than nine years old." The Alban wine is ranked by Pliny only as 
third rate ; but, from the frequent commendation of it by Horace and Juve- 
nal, we must suppose it to have been in considerable repute, especially 
when matured by long keeping. It was sweet and thick when new, but 
became dry when old, seldom ripening properly before the fifteenth year 
— 3. Nectendis apium coronis. "Parsley for weaving chaplets." Nee 
lendis coronis is for ad nectendas coronas. — 4. Est ederce vis mulla. 
"There is abundance of ivy." — 5. Fulges. "Thou wilt appear more beau 
teous." The future, from the old verb fulgo, of the third conjugation, 
which frequently occurs in Lucretius. — 6. Ridet argento domus. " The 
house smiles with glittering silver." Alluding to the silver vessels (*. e. $ 
the paternal salt-cellar, and the plate for incense) cleansed and made 
ready for the occasion, and more particularly for the sacrifice that was to 
take place. Compare note on Ode ii., 16, 14. — Ara castis vincta verbenis. 
The allusion is to an ara cespititia. Consult notes on Ode i., 19, 13 and 
14. — 8. Spargier. An archaism for spargi. In the old language the syl- 
lable er was appended to all passive infinitives. — 11. Sordidum fiarmnm 
trepidant, &c. "The flames quiver as they roll the sullying smoke 
through the house-top," i. e., the quivering flames roll, &c. The Greeks 
and Romans appear to have been rmacquainted with the use of chimneys. 
The more common dwellings had merely an opening in the roof, which 
allowed the smoke to escape ; the better class of edifices were warmed 
by means of pipes inclosed in the walls, and which communicated with a 
large stove, or several smaller ones, constructed in the earth under the 
building. — 14. Idus tibi sunt agenda., &c. •' The ides are to be celebrated 
by thee, a day that cleaves Aprd, the menth of sea born Venus," i. e., thoo 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. COOK IV., ODE XII. 387 

art to celebrate along with me the ides of April, a month sacred to Venus, 
who rose from the waves. The ides fell on the 15th of March, May, July, 
and October, and on the 13th of the other months. They received their 
uame from the old verb iduare, " to divide" (a word of'Etrurian origin, ac- 
cording to Macrobius, Sat., i., 15), because in some cases they- actually, 
and in others nearly, dhided the month. HenceymeZ^ on tho present oc 
casion. — 15. Mensem Veneris. April was sacred to Venus. — 17. Jure so- 
tennis mihi, &c. "A day deservedly solemnized by me, and almost held 
more sacred than that of my own nativity." — 19. AJJlucntcs ordinat annos, 
" Counts his increasing years." Compare, as regards ajjluentes, the expla 
uation of Orolli : " sensim sibi succcdcntes." 



Ode XII. It has never been satisfactorily determined whether the 
present ode was addressed to the poet Virgil, or to some other individual 
of the same name. The individual here designated by the appellation of 
Virgil (be he who he may) is invited by Horace to an entertainment where 
each guest is to contribute his quota. The poet agrees to supply the wine, 
if Virgil will bring with him, as his share, a box of perfumes. He begs 
bim to lay aside for a moment his eager pursuit of gain, and his schemes 
of self-interest, and to indulge in the pleasures of festivity. 

1-27. 1. Jamvcris comites, &c. " Now, the Thracian winds, the com 
panions of Spring, which calm the sea, begin to swell the sails." The al- 
lusion is to the northern winds, whose home, according to the poets, was 
the land of Thrace. These winds began to blow in the commencement 
of spring. The western breezes are more commonly mentioned in de- 
scriptions of spring, but, as these are changeable and inconstant, the poet 
prefers, on this occasion, to designate the winds which blow more steadi- 
ly at this season of the year. — 4. Hiberna nive. "By the melting of the 
winter snow." — 6. Infelix avis. The reference is here to the nightingale, 
and not to the swallow. Horace evidently alludes to that version of the 
story which makes Procne to have been changed into a nightingale and 
Philomela into a swallow. — Et Cccropice domus, &c. "And the eternal 
reproach of the Attic line, for having too cruelly revenged the brutal lusts 
of kings." Cecropia is here equivalent simply to Attica, as Pandion, 
the father of Procne, though king of Athens, was not a descendant of Ce- 
crops. — 11. Deum. Alluding to Pan. — Nigri colics. "The dark hills," i. 
e., gloomy with forests. Among the hills, or, more properly speaking, 
mountains of Arcadia, the poets assigned Lyca^us andMaenalus to Pan as 
his favorite retreats. — 13. Adduxere sitim iempora. "The season of the 
year brings along with it thirst," i. e., the heats of spring, and the thirst 
produced by them, impel us to the wine-cup. The heat of an Italian spring 
almost equalled that of summer in moro northern lands. — 14. Pressum 
Calibus liberum. "The wine pressed at Cales." Consult note on Ode 
i., 20, 9. — 15. Juvenum nobilium elicits. Who the "juvencs nobiles" were, 
to whom the poet here alludes, it is impossible to say : neither is it a mat 
ter of the least importance. Those commentators who maintain that the 
ode is addressed to the bard of Mantua, make them to be the you^g Neroa, 
Drusus and Tiberius, and Doring, who is one of the number that advocate 
this opinion relative to Virgil, regards cliens as equivalent to the German 
Giinslling, " favorite." — 10 Nar<J/j vina merebcris. " Thou shalt earn thy 



#88 EXPLANATORY NOTES. HOOK IV., ODE XIV. 

wine with spikenard." Horace, as we have already stated in the intro- 
ductory remarks, invites the individual whom he here addresses to an 
entertainment, where each guest is to contribute his quota. Our poet 
agrees to furnish the wine, if Virgil will supply perfumes, and hence tells 
him he shall have wine for his spikenard. — 17. Parvus onyx. "A small 
alabaster box." According to Pliny (H. N., xxxvi., 12), perfume boxes 
were made of the onyx alabaster. — Elicict cadum. " Will draw forth a 
cask," i. c, will cause me to furnish a cask of w T inefor the entertainment. 
The opposition between parvus onyx and cadus is worthy of notice. — 
18. Qui nunc Sulpiciis, &c. "Which now lies stored away in the Sul 
pician repositories." Consult note on Ode iii., 20, 7. According to Por 
phyrion in his scholia on this passage, the poet alludes to a certain Sul 
picius Galba, a well-known merchant of the day. — 19. Donarelargus. A 
Graecism for largus donandi, or ad donandum. — Amara curarum. "Bit- 
ter cares." An imitation of the Greek idiom (rd. niKpa tQ>v [xspifxvQv), in 
place of the common Latin form amaras curas. — 21. Cum tua mcrce. 
"With thy club," i. c, with thy share toward the entertainment; or, in 
other words, with the perfumes. The part furnished by each guest to- 
ward a feast is here regarded as a kind of merchandise, which partners 
in trade throw into a common stock, that they may divide the profits. — 
22. Non ego te mcis immuncm, &c. " I do not intend to moisten thee, al 
free cost, with the contents of my cups, as the rich man does in some well- 
stored abode." — 2G. Nigrorumque memor ignium. "And, mindful of the 
gloomy fires of the funeral pile," i. c., of the shortness of existenco. — 
27. Misce stultitiam consiliis brevem, &c. " Blend a little folly with thy 
worldly plans : it is delightful to give loose on a proper occasion." D&i 
pere properly signifies " to play the fool," and hence we obtain other kin 
dred meanings, such as " to indulge in festive enjoyment," " to unbend,' -1 
"give loose," &c. 



Ode XIV. We have already stated, in the introductory remarks to tb«» 
fourth ode of the present book, that Horace had been directed by Angus 
tus to celebrate in song the victories of Drusus and Tiberius. The piece 
to which we have alluded is devoted, in consequence, to the praises of 
the former, the present One to those of the latter, of the two princes. In 
both productions, however, the art of the poet is shown in ascribing the 
success of the two brothers to the wisdom and fostering counsels of Augus- 
tus himself. 

1-15. 1. Quce cura Patrum, &c. "What care on the part of the fa- 
thers, or what on the part of the Roman people at large, can, by offerings 
rich with honors, perpetuate to the latest ages, O Augustus, the remem- 
brance of thy virtues, in public inscriptions and recording annals?" — 
2. Muneribus. Alluding to the various public monuments, decrees, &c, 
proceeding from a grateful people. — 4. Titulos. The reference is to pub- 
lic inscriptions of every kind, as well on the pedestals of statues, as on 
arches, triumphal monuments, coins, &c. — Memoresqne fastos. Consult 
note on Ode iii., 17, 4. — 5. J&ternet. Varro, as quoted by Nonius (iL, 57), 
uses this same verb: " Li tier is ac laudibus cctemare." — 6. Principun* 
This term is here selected purposely, as being the one which Augustus 
affected for a title, declining, at the same tiinw, that of dictator or king 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK IV., ODE XIV. 889 

Compare Tacit., Ann., i., 9. — 7. Quern legzs cxpcrlcs Latino, &c. " Whom 
the Vindelici, free before from Roman sway, lately learned what thou 
could st do in war." Or, more freely and intelligibly, "Whose power in 
war the Vindelici, <5cc, lately experienced." We have here an imitation of 
a well-known Greek idiom. — 8. Vindelici. Consult note on Ode iv., 4, 18. 
— 10. Gcnaunos, implacidum genus, Breunosque veloccs. The poet here 
substitutes for tho Raeti and Vindelici of the fourth ode, the Genauni and 
Breuni, Alpine nations, dwelling in their vicinity and allied to them in 
war. This is done apparently with the view of amplifying the victories 
of the young Neros, by increasing the number of the conquered nations. 
Tho Genauni and Breuni occupied the Vol d'Agno and Vol Braunia, to 
the east and northeast of the Lago Maggiorc (Lacus Verbanus). — 13. Dc- 
jecit accr plus vice simvlici. "Bravely overthrew with more than an 
equal return." — 14. Major Neronum. " The elder of the Neros." Alluding 
to Tiberius, the future emperor. — 15. Immancsquc Rcstos auspiciis, &c. 
" And, under thy favoring auspices, drove back the fei'oeious Raeti." In 
the time of the republic, when the consul performed anything in person, 
he was said to do it by his own conduct and auspices (duclu, vel imperio, 
et auspicio sud) ; but if his lieutenant, or any other person, did it by his 
command, it was said to be done, auspicio consults, duclu legati, under 
the auspices of the consul and the conduct of the legatus. In this manner 
the emperors were said to do every thing by their own auspices, although 
they remained at Rome. By the Raeti in the text are meant the united 
forces of the Raeti, Vindelici, and their allies. The first of these consti- 
tuted, in fact, the smallest part, as their strength had already been broken 
by Drusus. Compare Introductory Remarks to the fourth ode of this book. 

17-33. 17. Spectandus in certamine Martio, &c. " Giving an illustri- 
ous proof in the martial conflict, with what destruction he could overwhelm 
those bosoms that were devoted to death in the cause of freedom." The 
poet here alludes to the custom prevalent among these, and other barbar- 
ous nations, especially such as were of Germanic or Celtic origin, of <xq- 
voting themselves to death in defence of their country's freedom. — 21. Ex- 
ercet. "Tosses." — Pleiadxim choro scindente nubes, &c. "When the 
dance of the Pleiades is severing the clouds." A beautiful mode of ex- 
pressing the rising of these stars. The Pleiades are seven stars in the 
neck of the bull. They are fabled to have been seven of the daughters of 
Atlas, whence they are also called Atlantidcs. (Virg., Georg., i., 221.) 
They rise with the sun on the tenth day before the calends of May (22d 
of April), according to Columella. The Latin writers generally call them 
Vergilia, from their rising about the vernal equinox. The appellation 
of Pleiades is supposed to come from irleu, "to sail," because their rising 
marked the season when the storms of winter had departed, and every 
thing favored the renewal of navigation. Some, however, derive the 
name from irTieiovec, because they appear in a cluster, and thus we find 
Manilius calling them "sidus glomcrabilc." — 24. Mcdios perignes. Some 
commentators regard this as a proverbial expression, alluding to an affair 
full of imminent danger, and compare it with the Greek dta nvpbc P-oXelv. 
The scholiast, on the other hand, explains it as equivalent to "per medium 
pugna fervorem." We rather think with Gesner, however, that the ref 
ei'cnce is to some historical event which has not come down to us. — 25. Sic 
tauriformis volvitur Aujidus. "With the same fury is the buJl-formec 



390 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK IV., ODE XIV. 

Aufidus rolled along." The epithet tauriformis, analogous to the Greeh 
ravpo/j.c3(poc, alludes eithor to the bull's head, or to the horns with which 
the gods of rivers were anciently represented. The scholiast on Eurip 
ides (Orest., 1378) is quite correct in referring the explanation of this to 
the roaring of their waters. Consult note on Ode iii., 30, 10. — 26. Qua 
regno- DauTii, &c. "Where it flows by the realms of Apulian Daunus," 
i. e. t where it waters the land of Apulia. — Prcefluit. For pv&terjluit. 
Compare Ode iv., 3 10. — 29. A gmina f errata. "The iron-clad bands." — 
31. Metendo. " By mowing down." — 32. Sine clade. " Without loss to 
himself," i. e., with trifling injury to his own army. — 33. Consilium ct tuos 
divos. "Thy counsel and thy favoring gods," i. e., thy counsel and thy 
auspices. By the expression tuos divos, the poet means the favor of 
heaven, which had constantly accompanied the arms of Augustus : hence 
the gods are, by a bold figure, called his own. A proof of this favor is 
given in the very next sentence, in which it is stated that, on the fifteenth 
anniversary of the capture of Alexandrea, the victories of Drusus and Ti- 
berius were achieved over their barbarian foes. 

34-52. 34. Nam, tibi quo die, &c. "For, at the close of the third las- 
tram from the day on which the suppliant Alexandrea opened wide to 
thee her harbors and deserted court, propitious fortuae gave a favorable 
issue to the war." On the fourth day before the calends of September 
(August 29th), B.C. 30, the fleet and cavalry of Antony went over to Oc- 
tavius, and Antony and Cleopatra Bed to the mausoleum, leaving the pal- 
ace empty. The war with the lta:ti and Vindelici was brought to a close 
on the same day, according to the poet, fifteen years after. — 36. Vacuam 
aulam. Alluding to the retreat of Antony and Cleopatra into the mauso- 
leum. — 37. Lustro. Consult note on Ode ii., 4, 22. — 40. Laudemque el op- 
iaium, &c. " And claimed praise and wished-for glory unto your finished 
campaigns." — 41. Cantabcr. Consult note on Ode ii., 6, 2. — 42. Medus- 
que. Compare Introductory Remarks, Ode iii., 5, and note on Ode i., 26, 
3. — Indus. Consult note on Ode i., 12, 55. — Scythes. Consult notes on 
Ode ii., 9, 23, and iii., 8, 23. — 43. Tutela preesens. Consult note on Ode 
iii., 5, 2. — 44. Domini. "Mistress of the world." — 45. Fontium qui eclat 
origines Nilus. The Nile, the largest river of the Old World, still con- 
ceals, observes Malte-Brun, its true sources from the research of science. 
At least scarcely any thing more of them is known to us now than was 
known in the time of Eratosthenes. — 46. Istcr. The Danube. The poet 
alludes to the victories of Augustus over the Dacians and other barbaroui 
tribes dwelling in the vicinity of this stream. — 46. Rapidus Tigris. The 
reference is to Armenia, over which country Tiberius, by the orders of 
Augustus, A.U.C. 734, placed Tigranes as king. The epithet here applied 
to the Tigris is very appropriate. It is a very swift stream, and its great 
rapidity, the natural effect of local circumstances, has procured for it the 
name of Tigr in the Median tongue, Diglito in Arabic, and Hiddekel in 
Hebrew, al which terms denote the flight of an arrow. — 47. Bclluosus. 
" Teeming with monsters." — 48. Britannis. Consult note on Ode iii., 5, 
3. — 49. Non parentis funera Gallice. Lucan (i., 459, seqq.) ascribes the 
contempt of death which characterized the Gauls to their belief in the 
metempsychosis, as taught by the Druids. — 50. Audit. " Obeys." — 51. 
Sygambri. Consult note on Ode iv., 2, 36. — 52. Composiiis armis. " 'xhort 
arms being laid up." 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. UUOK IV., ODE XV. 891 

Ode XV. The poet feigns that, when about to celebrate in song the 
battles and victories of Augustus, Apollo reproved him for his rash at- 
tempt, and that He thereupon turned his attention to subjects of a less 
daring nature, and more on an equality with his poetic powers. The bard 
therefore sings of the blessings conferred on the Roman people oy the 
glorious reign of the monarch ; the closing of the Temple of Janus ; the 
prevalence of universal peace ; the revival of agriculture ; the re-estab- 
lishment of laws and public morals ; the rekindling splendor of the Roman 
name. Hence the concluding declaration of the piece, that Augustus 
shall receive divine honors, as a tutelary deity, from the hands of a grate 
ful people. 

1-31. 1. Phoebus volentem, &c "Phoebus stornly reproved me, by the 
striking of his lyre, when wishing to tell of battles and subjugated cities, 
and warned me not to spread my little sails over the surface of the Tus- 
can Sea." To attempt, with his feeble genius, to sing the victories of Au 
gustus, is, according to the bard, to venture in a little bark on a broad, 
tempestuous ocean. As regards the expression increpuit lyra, compare 
the explanation of Orelli: "lyra plectro tacta hoc nefacerem vetuit." — 
5. Fruges uberes. " Abundant harvests." Alluding to the revival of agri 
culture after the ravages of the civil war had ceased. — 6. Et signa nostro 
reslituit Jovi. " And has restored the Roman standards to our Jove." 
An allusion to the recovery of the standards lost in the overthrow of Cras- 
sus and the check of Antony. Consult note on Ode i., 26, 3, and Introduc- 
tory Remarks, Ode iii., 5. — 8. Et vacuum duellis, &c. " And has closed 
the temple of Janus (iuirinus, free from wars." The Temple of Janus was 
open in war and closed in peace. It had been closed previous to the reign 
of Augustus, once in the days of Numa, and a second time at the conclu- 
sion of the first Punic war. Under Augustus it was closed thrice : once in 
A.U.C. 725, after the overthrow of Antony (compare Orosius, vi., 22, and 
Dio Casszus, 51, 20) ; again in A.U.C. 729, after the reduction of the Can- 
zabri (compare Dio Cassius, 53, 26) ; and the third time when the Dacians, 
Dalmatians, and some of the German tribes were subdued by Tiberius 
and Drusus. (Compare Dio Cas-sius, 54, 36.) To this last Horace is here 
supposed to allude. As regards the expression Janum Quirinum, com- 
paro the language of Macrobius (Sat., i., 9) : " Invocamus Janum Quiri- 
num quasi bellorum potentcm, ab hasta, quam Sabini curim vocant." — 
9. Et ordinem rectum, &c. The order of construction is as follows : et in 
jecit frena Licentics evaganti extra rectum ordinem. "And has curbed 
licentiousness, roaming forth beyond the bounds of right order," i. e., un 
bridled licentiousness. Consult note on Ode iv., 5, 22. — 12. Veteres artes 
" The virtues of former days." — 16. Ab Hesperio cubili. "From his rest- 
ing-place in the west." — 18. Exiget otium. " Shall drive away repose." 
— 20. Inimicat. "Embroils.' — 21. Non qui prof undum, &c. Alluding to 
the nations dwelling along the borders of the Danube, the Germans, Rasti, 
Dacians, &c. — 22. Edicta Julia. "The Julian edicts." The reference is 
to the laws imposed by Augustus, a member of the Julian line, on van- 
quished nations. — Gclce. Consult note on Ode iii., 24, 11. — 23. Seres. Con- 
sult note on Ode i., 12, 55. Florus states that the Seres sent an embassy 
with valuable gifts, to Augustus (iv., 12, 61). — Infidive Persce. "Or the 
faithless Parthians." — 24. Tanain prope Jlumen orti. Alluding to the 
Scythians. Among the embassies sent to Augustus was one from th<" 



392 EXPLANATORY NOTES. BOOK IV., ODE XV 

Scythians. — 25. Et profestis lucihus et sacris. "Both on common and sa 
cred days." Consult note on Ode ii., 3, 7. — 26. Munera Libert. Consult 
note on Ode i., 18, 7. — 29. Virtutefunctos. " Authors of illustrious deeds." 
— 30. Lydis remixto carmine tibiis. " In song, mingled alternate with 
the Lydian flutes," i. e., with alternate vocal and instrumental music. 
The Lydian flutes were the same with what were called the left-handed 
flutes. Among the ancient flutes, those most frequently mentioned are 
the tibia dextrcB and sinistra, pares and impares. It would seem that 
the double flute consisted of two tubes, which were so joined together as 
to have but one mouth, and so were both blown at once. That which the 
musician played on with his right hand was called tibia dextra, the right- 
handed flute ; with his left, the tibia sinistra, the left-handed flute. The 
former had but few holes, and sounded a deep, serious bass; the other had 
many holes, and a sharper and livelier tone. The left-handed flutes, a? 
has already been remarked, were the same with what were called the 
Lydian, while the right-handed were identical with what were denomina- 
ted the Tyriaa. — 31. Alma progeniem Veneris. An allusion to Augustus, 
who had passed by adoption into the Julian family, and consequently 
claimed descent, with that line, from A§can;us, the grandaon of Anchisas 
aad Venus. 



E P O D E S. 



The term Epode ('E7rwJ6f) was used in more than one signification 
It was applied, in the first place, to an assemblage of lyric verses imme- 
diately succeeding the strophe and antistrophe, and intended to close the 
period or strain. Hence the name itself from eiri and l)6tj, denoting some- 
thing sung after another piece. In the next place, the appellation was 
given to a small lyric poem, composed of several distichs, in each of which 
the first verse was an iambic trimeter (six feet), and the last a dimeter 
(four feet). Of this kind were the Epodes of Archilochus, mentioned by 
Plutarch in his Dialogue on Music (c. xxviii., vol. xiv., p. 234, cd. Hutten), 
and under this same class are to be ranked a majority of the Epodes of 
Horace. Lastly, the term Epode was so far extended in signification as 
to designate any poem in which a shorter verse was made to follow a long 
one, which will serve as a general definition for all the productions of 
Horace that go by this name. Compare, in relation to this last meaning 
of the word, the language of Hephceslion (De Metr., p. 129, ed.Gaisf.),£ta} 
d' ev role norf/iaoc icai ol afifrevLKGJc gvtgj KaXovjievoi iTrudoi, urav fie- 
yu?i(f) ot(£Cl) irepiTTOv rt E7Ti(}>eprjTai' where nepiTrov corresponds to the 
Latin impar, and refers to a verse unequal to one which has gone before, 
*r, in other words, less than it. 



Epode I. Written a short time previous to the battle of Actium. The 
Sard offers himself as a companion to Maecenas, when the latter was on 
<he eve of embarking in the expedition against Antony and Cleopatra, and 
expresses his perfect willingness to share every danger with his patron 
and friend. Maecenas, however, apprehensive for the poet's safety, re- 
fused to grant his request. 

1-19. 1. Ibis Liburnis, &c. " Dear Maecenas, wilt thou venture in the 
h'ght Liburnian galleys amid the towering bulwarks of the ships of An- 
tony?" If we credit the scholiast Acron, Augustus, when setting out 
against Antony and Cleopatra, gave the command of the Liburnian gal- 
leys to Maecenas. — 5. Quid nos, quibus te, &c. The ellipses are to be 
supplied as follows : Quid nos faciamus, quibus vita est jucunda si te 
superstite vivitur, si contra acciderit, gravis ? " And what shall I do, to 
whom life is pleasing if thou survive; if otherwise, a burden?" — 7. Jussi. 
Understand a te. — 9. An hunc laborem, &c. " Or shall I endure the toils 
of this campaign with that resolution with which it becomes the brave to 
bear them 1" — 12. Inhospitalem Caucasum. Consult note on Ode i., 22, 
6. — 13. Occideniis usque ad ultimum sinum. "Even to the farthest bay 
of the west," i. e., to the farthest limits of the world on the west. — 18. Ma- 
jor habet. "More powerfully possesses." — 19. Ut assidens implumibus, 
&c. "As a bird, sitting near her unfledged young, dreads the approaches 
of serpents more for them when left by her, unable, however, though she 
be with them, to render any greater aid on that account to her offspring 
placed before her eyes. ' A poetical pleonasm occurs in the term prm 



394 EXPLANATORY NOTES. EPODE 1. 

senlibus, and, in a free translation, the word may be regarded as equivx 
lent simply to iis. The idea intended to be conveyed by the whole sen 
tence is extremely beantiful. The poet likens himself to the parent bird, 
and, as the latter sits by her young, though even her presence can not 
protect them, so the bard wishes to be with his friend, not because he is 
able to defend him from harm, but that he may fear the less for his safety ? 
while remaining by his side. 

23-29. 23. Libenter hoc et omnc, &c. The idea inteuded to be convey 
ed is as follows : I make not this request in order to obtain from thee more 
extensive possessions, the usual rewards of military service, but in the 
spirit of disinterested affection, and with the hope of securing still more 
firmly thy friendship and esteem. — 25. Non ut juvencis, &c. An elegant 
hypallage for non ut plures juvcnci illigati meis aratris nitantur. " Not 
that more oxen may toil for me, yoked to my ploughs," i. e., not that 1 
may have more extensive estates. — 27. Pecusve Calabris, &c. "Nor that 
my flocks may change Calabrian for Lucanian pastures, before the burn- 
ing star appears," i. c, nor that I may own such numerous flocks and 
herds as to have both winter and summer pastures. An hypallage for 
Calabra pascua mutct Lucanis. The more wealthy Romans were accus- 
tomed to keep their flocks and herds in the rich pastures of Calabria and 
Lucania. The mild climate of the former country made it an excellent 
region for winter pastures ; about the end of June, however, and a short 
time previous to the rising of tho dog-star, the increasing heat caused 
these pastures to be exchanged for those of Lucania, a cool and woody 
country. On the approach of winter Calabria was revisited. — 29. Nee ut 
supcrni, Sec. "Nor that my glittering villa may touch the Circaean walls 
of lofty Tusculum," i. e., nor that my Sabine villa may be built of white 
marble, glittering beneath the rays of the sun, and be so far extended as 
to reach even to the walls of Tusculum. Tho distance between the poet's 
farm and Tusculum was more than twenty-five miles. Bentley considers 
superni an incorrect epithet to be applied to Tusculum, which, according 
to Cluver, whom he cites, but whose meaning he mistakes, the critic 
makes to have been situate " in clivo leviter assurgente." The truth is, 
ancient Tusculum was built on tho summit, not on the declivity of a hill. 
— Candens. Alluding to the style of building adopted by the rich. — Tus- 
uli Circcca mania. Tusculum was said to have been founded by Tele- 
gonus, the son of Ulysses and Circe. Compare Ode iii., 29, 8. 

33-34. 33. Chremcs. Acron supposes the allusion to be to Chremes, a 
character in Terence. This, however, is incorrect. The poet refers to 
one of the lost plays of Menander, entitled the "Treasure" (Qrjoavpoc), 
an outline of which is given by Donatus in his notes on the Eunuch of 
Terence (Pro!., 10). A young man, having squandered his estate, sends 
a servant, ten years after his father's death, according to the will of the 
deceased, to carry provisions to his father's monument; but he had before 
sold the ground in which the monument stood to a covetous old man, ta 
whom the servant applied to help him to open the monument, in which 
they discovered a hoard of gold and a letter. The old man seizes the 
treasure, and keeps it, under pretence of having deposited it there, foi 
safety, during times of war, and the young fellow goes to law with him 
— 34. Discinctus aut perdam ut nepos. " Or squander a way like a disso 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. EPODtt If. 395 

mte spendthrift." Among the Romans, it was thought effeminate to ap- 
pear abroad with the tunic loosely or carelessly girded. Hence ductus 
and succi actus are pat for industrius, expeditus, or gnavus, diligent, ac- 
tive, clever, because they used to gird the tunic when at work ; and, on 
the other hand, disci/ictus is equivalent to incrs, mollis, ignavus, &c. — 
Nepos. The primitive meaning of this term is " a grandson :" from the 
too great indulgence, however, generally shown by grandfathers, and the 
ruinous consequences that ensued, the word became a common designa- 
tion for a prodigal. 



Epode II. The object of the poet is to show with how much difficulty 
a covetous man disengages himself from the love of riches. He there- 
fore supposes a usurer, who is persuaded of the happiness and tranquil 
lity of a country life, to have formed the design of retiring into the coun 
try and renouncing his former pursuits. The latter calls in his money, 
breaks through all engagements, and is ready to depart, when his ruling 
passion returns, and once more plunges him into the vortex of gain. 
Some commentators, dissatisfied with the idoa that so beautiful a descrip 
tion of rural enjoyment should proceed from the lips of a sordid usurer, 
have been disposed to regard the last four lines of the epode as spurious, 
and the appendage of a later age. But the art of the poet is strikingly 
displayed in the very circumstance which they condemn, since nothing 
can show more clearly the powerful influence which the love of riches can 
exercise over the mind, than that one who, like Alphius, has so accurate 
a perception of the pleasures of a country life, should, like him, sacrifice 
them all on the altar of gain. 

1-22. 1. Procul negotiis. "Far from the busy scenes of life." — 2. Ut 
prisca gens mortalium. An allusion to the primitive simplicity of the 
Golden Age. — 3. Exercet. "Ploughs." — 4. Solutus omnifcenore. "Freed 
from all manner of borrowing or lending," i. e., from all money transac- 
tions. The interest of money was called faenus, or usura. The legal in- 
terest at Rome, toward the end of the republic and under the first em- 
perors, was one as monthly for the use of a hundred, equal to twelve per 
cent, per annum. This was called usura centesima, because in a hun- 
dred months the interest equalled the capital. — 5. Neque excitatur, &c. 
" Neither as a soldier is he aroused by the harsh blast of the trumpet, nor 
does he dread, as a trader, the angry sea." — 7. Forum. " The courts of 
law." — Superba civium, &c. " The splendid thresholds of the more pow- 
erful citizens." The portals of the wealthy and powerful. Some, how 
ever, understand by superba, an allusion to the haughtiness displayed by 
the rich toward the clients at their gates. In either case, the reference 
is to the custom, prevalent at Rome, of clients waiting on their patrons to 
offer their morning salutations. — 11. Inutilesque, &c. All the MSS. and 
early editions place this and the succeeding verse after the 13th and 14th, 
with the exception of a single MS. of H. Stephens, in which they are ar- 
ranged as we have given them. Many of the best editors have adopted 
this arrangement. After alluding to the marriage of the vine with the 
trees, it seems much more natural to make what immediately follows 
have reference to the same branch of rural economy. — 12. Inserit. " In- 
grafts." — 13. Mugientium. Understand bourn- 14. Errant**. * Graz- 



?J96 EXPLANATORY NOTES. EPODE I. 

ing." — 16. Injirmas. "Tender." Compare the remark of Doring: "Nai 
uraenim sua imbec tiles sunt oves." — 17. Decorum mitibuspomis. "Adorn 
ed with mellow fruit." — 19. Insitiva pira. " The pears of his own graft 
ing." — 20. Certantem et uvam, &c. "And the grape vying in hue witl 
the purple." Purpura is the dative, by a Grrecism, for the ablative.— 
21. Priape. Priapus, as the god of gardens, always received, as an offer 
ing, the first produce of the orchards, &c. Compare note on Ode Hi., 29 
22. — 22. Tutor finium. " Tutelary god of boundaries." 

24-47. 24. In tenaci gramine. " On the matted grass." The epithet 
tenaci may also, but with less propriety, be rendered "tenacious," or 
' Btrong-rooted." — 25. Labuntur altis, Sec. "In the mean time, the streams 
glide onward beneath the high banks." Some editions have rivis for ripis, 
but the expression altis rivis ("with their deep waters") does not suit 
the season of summer so well as altis ripis, which alludes to the decrease 
of the waters by reason of the summer heats. — 26. Queruntur. "Uttei 
their plaintive notes." — 27. Frondcsque lymphis, Sec. "And the leaves 
murmur amid the gently flowing waters," i. e., the pendant branches mur- 
mur as they meet the rippling current of the gently-flowing stream. — 
28 Quod. "All which." Equivalent to id quod. — 29. Tonantis annus 
hibermis Jovis. "The wintry season of tempestuous Jove." The allu- 
sion is to the tempests, intermingled with thunder, that are prevalent in 
Italy at the commencement of winter. — 30. Comparat. " Collects to- 
gether." — 31. Multa cane. "With many a hound." — 33. Aut amite levi, 
&c. " Or spreads the nets of large meshes with the smooth pole." Ames 
denotes a pole or staff to support nets. — Levi. We have rendered this 
epithet, as coming from levis ; it may also, however, have the meaning 
of " light," and be regarded as coming from Igvis. Consult note, page lxiv 
of this volume. — 35. Advenam. "From foreign climes." Alluding to the 
migratory habits of the crane, and its seeking the warm climate of Italy 
at the approach of winter. Cranes formed a favorite article on the tables 
of the rich. — 37. Quis non malarum, Sec. "Who, amid employments 
such as these, does not forget the anxious cares which love carries in its 
train ?" Complete the ellipsis as follows : Quis non obliviscitur malarum 
curarum, quas curas, Sec. — 39. In partem juvat, Sec. "Aid, on her side, 
in the management of household affairs, and the rearing of a sweet off- 
spring." — 41. Sabina. The domestic virtues and the strict morality of 
the Sabfnes are frequently alluded to by the ancient writers. — Aut perusta 
solibus, Sec. " Or the wife of the industrious Apulian, embrowned by the 
sun." — 43. Sacrum. The hearth was sacred to the Lares. — Vetustis In 
the sense of aridis — 45. Latum pecus. "The joyous flock." — 47. Horna 
vina. " This year's wine." The poor, and lower orders, were accustom 
ed to drink the new wine from the dolium, after the fermentation had sub- 
aided. Hence it was called vinum doliare. The dolium was the large 
vessel in which the wine was left to ferment, before it was transferred to 
the amphora or cadus. 

49-54. 49. Lucrina conchylia. "The Lucrine shell-fish." The Lu- 
crine lake was celebrated for oysters and other shell-fish. — 50. Rhombus. 
" The turbot." — Scan. The Scarus (" Scar" or " Char") was held in high 
estimation by the ancients. Pliny [H. N., ix., 17) remarks of it, that it is 
the only fish which ruminates : an observation which had been made by 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. EPODE III. 397 

Aristotle before him ; and hence, according to this latter writer, the name 
(iTJpvl;, given to it by the Greeks. The ancients, however, were mistaken 
on this point, and BufFon has corrected their error. The roasted Scarua 
was a favorite dish (compare A/hencsus, vii., cd. Schweigh., \ol. iii., p. 
175), and the liver of it was particularly commended. — 51. Si quos Eois. 
Sec. "If a tempest, thundered forth over the Eastern waves, turn any of 
their number to this sea." — 53. Afra avis. " The Guinea fowl." Soma 
commentators suppose the turkey to be here meant, but erroneously, since 
this bird was entirely unknown to the ancients. Its native country is 
America. On the other hand, the Guinea fowl (Numida melcagris) was 
ft bird well known to the Greeks and Romans. — 54. Attagen Ionicus. 
"The Ionian attagen." A species, probably, of heath-cock. Alexander 
the Myndian (Athenceus, ix., 39, vol. iii., p. 431, cd. Schiveigh.) describes it 
as being a little larger than a partridge, having its back marked with 
numerous spots, in color approaching that of a tile, though somewhat more 
reddish, Mr. Walpole thinks it is the same with the Tetrao Francolinus. 
( Walpole 's Collect., vol. i., p. 262, in notis.) 

57-67. 57. Herba lapathi. The lapalhum, a species of sorrel, takes its 
name {TidnaOov) from its medicinal properties (Aa7ra£cj, purgo). — 58. Hal- 
ves. Compare note on Ode i., 31, 16. — 59. Terminations. The Termina- 
lia, or festival of Terminus, the god of boundaries, were celebrated on the 
23d of February (7th day before the calends of March). — 60. Hadus <trcp- 
tus lupo. Compare the explanation of Gesner : " Ad frugalitatem rus- 
ticam refertur. Non mactaturus paterfamilias hecdum integrum, epula- 
tur ereptum lupo, ct alioqui periturum." — 65. Positosque vernas, &c. 
"And the slaves ranged around the shining Lares, the proof of a wealthy 
mansion," i. e., ranged around the bright fire on the domestic hearth. The 
epithet renidentes is well explained by Doring : "Ignis infoco accensi 
splendore refulgcntes." — 67. Hoec ubi locutus, &c. "When the usurer 
Alphius had uttered these words, on the point of becoming an inhabitant 
of the country, he called in all his money on the ides — on the calends (of 
the ensuing month) he seeks again to lay it out !" The usurer, convinced 
of the superior felicity which a country life can bestow, calls in all his out- 
standing capital for the purpose of purchasing a farm ; but when the ca- 
lends of the next month arrive, and bring with them the usual period for 
laying out money at interest, his old habits of gain return, the picture 
which he has just drawn fades rapidly from before his view, and the in- 
tended cultivator of the soil becomes once more the usurer Alphius 
Among the Romans, the calends and ides were the two periods of the 
month when money was either laid out at interest or called in. As the 
interest of money was usually paid on the calends, they are hence called 
tristes (Serm., i., 3, 87) and ecleres [Ovid, Rem. Am., 561), and a book in 
which the sums demanded were marked, was termed Calendarium 
(Senec , Bene/., i., 2, and vii., 10. Id., Ep., xiv., 87.) 



Epode III. Maecenas had invited Horace to sup with him, and had 
sportively placed amid the more exquisite viands a dish highly seasoned 
with garlic (moretum alliatum. Compare Donatus, ad Terent. Pkorm., 
ii.. 2). Of this the poet partook, but having suffered severely in conse- 
quence, he here wreaks his vengeance on the offending plant desrribinp 



398 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. EPODE IV. 



it as a sufficisnt punishment for the blackest crimes, and as foriaiug one 
of the deadliest of poisons. 

1-17. J. Olhn "Hereafter." — 3. Edit cicutis, &c. "Let him eat 
garlic, more noxijus than hemlock." The poet recommends garlic as a 
punishment, instead of hemlock, the usual potion among the Athenians. 
Edit is given for edat, according to the ancient mode of inflecting, edim, 
edis, edit ; like sim, sis, sit. This form is adopted in all the best editions. 
The common reading is edat. — 4. O dura messorum ilia. Garlic and wild 
thyme (serpyllum), pounded together, were used by the Roman farmers 
to recruit the exhausted spirits of the reapers, and those who had labored 
in the heat. The poet expresses his surprise at their being able to endure 
such food. — 5. Quid hoc venetti, &c. "What poison is this that rages ii» 
my vitals?" — 6. Viperimis cruor. The blood of vipers was regarded by 
the ancients as a most fatal poison. — 7. Fefellit. In the sense oilatuit. 
— An malos Canidia, dec. "Or did Canidia dress the deadly dish?" 
Cauidia, a reputed sorceress, ridiculed by the poet in the fifth epode. 
Compare the Introductory Remarks to that piece. — 9. Ut. "When."— 
11. Ignota tauris, &c. An hypallage for ignotis tauros illigaturumjugis. 
An allusion to the fire-breathing bulls that were to be yoked by Jason as 
one of the conditions of his obtaining from iEetes the golden fleece. — 12. 
Pcrunxit hoc Iasonem. Medea gave Jason an unguent, with which he 
was to anoint his person, and by the virtues of which he was to be safe 
from harm. The poet pleasantly asserts that this was none other than the 
juice of garlic. — 13. Hoc dclibutis, &c. " By presents infected with this 
having taken vengeance on her rival, she fled away on a winged serpent." 
Alluding to the fate of Creusa, or Glauce, the daughter of Creon, and the 
flight of Medea through the air in a car drawn by winged serpents. — 15. 
Nee tantus unquam, &c. " Nor hath such scorching heat from the stars 
ever settled on thirsty Apulia." The allusion is to the supposed influence 
of the dog-star in increasing the summer heats. — 17. Nee munus humeris, 
&c. " Nor did the fatal gift bum with more fury on the shoulders of the 
indefatigable Hercules." The reference is to the poisoned garment which 
Dejanira sent to Hercules, and which had been dipped in the blood of the 
centaur Nessus, slain by one of the arrows of Hercules. 



Epode IV. Addressed to some individual who had risen, amid the 
troubles of the civil war, from the condition of a slave to the rank of mili- 
tary tribune and to the possession of riches, but whose corrupt morals aud 
intolerable insolence had made him an object of universal detestation. 
The bard indignantly laments that such a man should be enabled to dis- 
play himself proudly along the Sacred Way, should be the owner of ex- 
tensive possessions, and should, by his rank as tribune, have it in his 
power to sit among the equites at the public spectacles, in advance of the 
rest of the people. The scholiasts Acron and Porphyrion make this epode 
to have been written against Menas, tho freedman of Pompey, an opinion 
adopted by the earlier commentators. In most MSS., too, it is inscribed 
to him. The more recent editors, however, have rejected this supposi- 
tion, and with pei*fect propriety. We read nowhere else of Menas's hav- 
ing obtained the oifice of military tribune, nor of any servile punishment! 
which ho had undergone in a peculiar degree while still in a state of slav 



JByrLAiNATORY NOTES. EPOUJS IV. 398 

cry, neither is any mention made here of that perfidy and frequent chang- 
ing of sides which formed so great a hlot in the character of this nidivid 
cal. Consult note on Ode iii., 16, 15. 

1-9. 1. Lupia ct agnis, &c. "There is as strong an aversion on my 
part toward thee, O thou whose hack has been galled by the Iberian 
lash, and whose legs have been lacerated by the hard fetter, as falls by 
nature to the lot of wolves and lambs." — 3. Ibericis funibus. Alluding to 
a lash composed of ropes made of the spartum, or Spanish broom. This 
plant grew in great abundance near Carthago Nova, on the coast of Spain. 
— 4. Dura compede. Among the Romans, tho worst kind of slaves were 
compelled to work in fetters, as well in tho ergastulum, or work-bouse, as 
in the fields. — 7. Sacram metientc te viam. "As thou struttest proudly 
along the Sacred Way." The term metiente well describes the affected 
dignity of the worthless upstart, in his measuring, as it were, his very 
steps. — Sacram viam. The Sacred Way was a genei'al place of resort 
for the idle, and for those who wished to display themselves to public 
view. Compare Sat., i., 9, 1. — 8. Cum bis trium ulnarum toga. The 
wealthy and luxurious were fond of appearing abroad in long and loose 
gowns, as a mark of their opulence and rank. — 9. Ut ora vertat, <5cc. 
•How the indignation of those who pass to and fro, most openly express- 
ed, turns their looks on thee." 

11-20. 11. Scctus flagcllis, &c. " This wretch, (say they), cut with the 
rods of the triumvirs until the beadle was weary," &c. The allusion is 
to the Triumviri Capitales, who judged concerning slaves and persons of 
the lowest rank, and who also had the charge of the prison and of the ex 
ccution of condemned criminals. The prccco used to proclaim the offence, 
and the sentence passed upon it, while that sentence was being inflicted. 
— 13. Arat. In the sense of possidet. — Falcrni fundi. The wealthy Ro- 
mans were accustomed to have large possessions in the fertile territory 
of Campania, which is here designated by the name of its celebrated vine- 
yards. — 14. Et Appiam mannis terit. "And wears out the very Appian 
Way with his horses," i. e., is constantly frequenting the Appian Way with 
his long train of equipage. The Appian Way led first to Capua, and after- 
ward to Brundisium. It was commenced by Appius Claudius Codcus, in 
his censorship, E.C. 312, and carried on to Capua. The part from Capua 
to Brundisium was begun by the consul Appius Claudius Pulcher, grand- 
son of Coccus, B.C. 249, and was completed by another consul of the same 
family thirty-six years after. — 15. Sedilibusque magnus, &c. According 
to the law of L. Roscius Otho, passed A.U.C. 686, fourteen rows of benches, 
immediately after the orchestra, a place where tho senate sat, were ap- 
propriated in the theatre and amphitheatre for the accommodation of the 
knights. As the tribunes of the soldiers had an equal right with the 
equites, they were entitled to seats in this same quarter; and hence the 
individual to whom the poet alludes, though of servile origin, boldly takes 
his place on the foremost of the equestrian benches, nor fears the law of 
Otho. — 17. Quid alLinet, &c. "To what purpose is it that so many ves- 
sels, their beaks armed with heavy brass, are sent against pirates and a 
band of slaves, if this wretch is made a military tribune V The idea in- 
tended to be conveyed is as follows : Why go to so much expense in 
equipping fleets against pirates ar I slaves, when slaves at homo elevaU 



400 EXPLANATORY NOTES. EI'ODE V. 

themselves to the highest stations? The allusion appears to be to hie 
armament fitted oat by Octavianus (Augustus) against Sextus Pornpeius-, 
A.U.C. 718, whose pi'incipal strength consisted of.pirates and fugitive 
slaves. — 20. Tribuno militum. In each legion there were six mihtary 
tribunes, each of whom in battle seems to have had charge of ten cen 
tunes, which, when full, would amount to a thousand men ; hence the cor- 
responding Greek appellation is x^^PX^Q- 



Epode V. The bard ridicules Canidia, who, herself advanced in years, 
was seeking by incantations and charms to regain the affections of the old 
and foolish Varus. A strange scene of magic rites is introduced, and the 
piece opens with the piteous exclamations of a boy of noble birth, whom 
Canidia and her associate hags are preparing to kill by a slow and dread- 
ful pi'ocess, and from whose marrow and dried liver a philter or love- 
potion is to be prepared, all-powerful for recalling the inconstant Varus. 
It will be readily perceived that the greater part of this is mere fiction, 
and that the real object of the poet is to inflict well-merited chastisement 
on those females of the day, iri whose licentious habits age had been able 
to produce no alteration, and who, when their beauty had departed, had 
recourse to strange and superstitious expedients for securing admirers. 

1-24. 1. At, O deorum, &c. The scene opens, as we have already re- 
marked, with the supplications of a boy, who is supposed to be surround- 
ed by the hags, and who reads their purpose in their looks. He conjures 
them to have compassion on him by the tenderness of mothers for their 
children, by his birth, and by the justice of the gods. — 4. Traces. " Fierce- 
ly turned." — 5. Partubus veris. Alluding to the frequent stealing of in- 
fants on the part of these hags. — 7. Per hoc inane, &c. " By this vain or- 
nament of purple." Young men of family wore a gown bordered with 
purple, called the toga prcetcxta, until the age of seventeen, when they 
put on the toga virilis. The epithet inane expresses the disregard of 
Canidia for this emblem of rank. — 9. Aut utipetita, &c. " Or like a savage 
beast of prey wounded by the dart." — 11. Ut hcec tremente, &c. " When 
the boy, after having uttered these complaints with trembling lips, stooo. 
among them, with his ornaments stripped off, a tender body," &c. Undei 
the term insignia, the poet includes both the toga prcetexta and the bulla. 
This latter was a golden ball or boss, which hung from the neck on tho 
breast, as some think in the shape of a heart, but, according to others, 
round, with the figure of a heart engraved on it. The sons of freedmen 
and of poorer citizens used only a leathern boss. — 15. Canidia, brevibus 
implicata, &c. " Then Canidia, having entwined hor locks and dishevel- 
led head with small vipers," &c. The costume most commonly assigned 
to the furies is here imitated. — 17. Jubet sepulcris, &c. Preparations are 
now made for the unhallowed i-ites ; and first, the wood to be used for the 
fire must be that of the wild fig-tree, torn up from a burying-place. The 
wood supposed to be employed on such occasions was always that of soma 
inauspicious or ill-omened tree, and in this class the wild fig-tree was par- 
ticularly ranked, both on account of its sterility, and its springing up spon- 
taneously among tombs. — 18. Cupressusfunebres. " Funereal cypresses." 
Consult note on Ode ii., 14, 23. — 19. Et uncta turpis ova ranee sanguine, 
&c. The order of constraction is as follows : FA ova nocturnal strigis 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. EPODE V. 401 

• 

■uncta sanguine turpis rancc, plumamque noclumae slrigis. "And tho 
eggs, smeared with the blood of a loathsome toad, and the plumage of a 
midnight screech-owl." The ancients believed the blood of the toad, like 
that of the viper, to be poisonous. — 31. Iolcos. A city of Thessaly, all 
which country was famed for producing herbs used in magic rites. Iolcos 
was situate, according to Pindar (Nem., iv., 87), at the foot of Mount Pelion, 
and was the birth-place of Jason and his ancestors. — Iberia. A tract of 
country bordering upon, and situate to the east of Colchis. The allusion 
is consequently to the same herbs in the use of which Medea is reputed 
to have been so skillful. — 24. Flammis aduri Colchicis. " To be concoct- 
ed with magic fires." The epithet Colchicis is here equivalent to magicis, 
i. e. t such fires as the Colchian Medea was wont to kindle, from tho wood 
of baleful trees, for the performance of her magic rites. 

25-39. 25. Expedita. "With her robe tucked up." The term may 
also be Rimply rendered " active." Consult note on Epode i., 34. — So- 
gana. Sagana, Veia, and Folia were sorceresses attendant on Canidia. 
— 26. Avernales aquas. "Waters brought from the Lake Avernus, one of 
the fabled entrances to tho lower world, and used here for the purposes 
of magic lustration. — 27. Marinus echinus. "A sea-urchin." The sea- 
urchin among fishes is analogous to the hedgehog among land animals, 
and hence the name echinus {exlvoc) applied by tho ancients to both. 
The sea-urchin, however, has finer and sharper prickles than the other, 
resembling more human hair in a bristly state. — 28. Laurens aper. Tho 
mai'shes of Laurentum, in ancient Latium, were famous for the number 
and size of the wild boars which they bred in their reedy pastures. — 
29. Abacba nulla conscicntia. " Deterred by no remorse." — 30. Humum 
exhauriebat. "Began to dig a pit." — 32. Quo posset infossus puer, Sec, 
" In which the boy, having his body buried, might pine away in full view 
of food changed twice or thrice during the long day." The expression 
longo die is well explained by Mitscherlich : " Qui puero fame excruciato 
longissimus videbatur." — 35. Quum promineret ore, &c. " Projecting 
with his face above the surface of the ground, as far as bodies suspended 
by the chin arc out of the water," i. e., as far as the persons of those who 
swim appear above the level of the water. — 37. Exsucca medulla. "His 
marrow destitute of moisture." — 38. Amoris esset poculum. " Might foma 
the ingredients of a potion for love." A philter, which had the power of 
producing love. — 39. Interminato quum scmel, Sec. " When once his eye 
balls had withered away, fixed steadily on the forbidden food." Quum 
semel is here equivalent to simul ac. 

41-G0. 41. Hie irrescctum, &c. The long, uncut nail occupies a prom- 
inent place in the costume of the ancient sorceresses. — 43. Quid dixit ? 
aut quid tacuit ? Equivalent in spirit to Ncfaria quccque ejfata et palam 
professa est. — 45. Nox et Diana. Canidia, after the manner of sorceress- 
es, invokes Night and Hecate, who were supposed to preside over magic 
rites. — Ques silentium regis. An allusion to Diana's shining during the 
silence of the night, the season best adapted for the ceremonies of magic. 
— 47. Nunc, nunc adeste, Sec. Mitscherlich makes this an imitation of an 
old form of prayer, and equivalent to " Mihi propitia sitis, ira vestra in 
hostes obligata." The scholiast is wrong in supposing the meaning of 
the latter part to be "in Varum iram vcstra.m cjfmidite." — 48. Numeru 



402 EXPLANATORY NOTES. EPODE V. 

* 

"Power." —51. Senem, quod omnes rideant, &c. "May the dogs of tb.1 
S'ibura drive him hither with their barking, that all may laugh at his ex 
pense, tne aged profligate, anointed with an essence more powerful than 
any which my hands have hitherto prepared." — Senem adulterum. Tha 
allusion is to Varus, and the manner in which he is here indicated by Ca- 
nidia tends indirectly to cast ridicule upon herself for seeking to reclaim 
such an admirer. — 52. Suburance canes. The Subura was the mostprofii 
gate quarter of Rome, and the rambles of Varus, therefore, in this part of 
the capital, were any thing else but creditable. — 53. Nardo perunctum. 
The allusion here is an ironical one. Canidia does not refer to any actual 
unguent of her own preparing, but to the virtues of the magic herbs, which 
are to be all-powerful in recalling the inconstant Varus. — 55. Quid acci 
dit, &.c. The dash at the end of the preceding verse is placed there to de 
note that Canidia, after having proceeded thus far with her incantations, 
pauses in expectation of the arrival of Varus, which is to be their intended 
result. When this, however, is delayed longer than she imagined it 
would be, the sorceress resumes her spell : " What has happened 1 Why 
are my direful drugs less powerful than those of the barbarian Medea?' 
i. e., why have these once efficacious spells lost all their power in bring- 
ing back the absent Varus 1 — Barbaras. This epithet, here applied to 
Medea, in imitation of the Greek usage, is intended merely to designate 
her as a native of a foreign land, i. e., Colchis. — 57. Quibus superbamfugit, 
&c. Consult note on Epode iii., 13. — 59. Tabo. Equivalent to veneno. — 
60. Incendio abstulit. Compare the graphic picture drawn by Euripides 
{Med., 1183, seqq.) of the unearthly fires which consumed the unfortunate 
rival of Medea. 

61-79. 61. Subhccc. " Upon this."— 62. Lenire. "Attempted to move." 
The infinitive is here put for the imperfect of the indicative. This con- 
struction is usually explained by an ellipsis of caspit or casperunt, which 
may often be supplied ; in other cases, however, it will not accord with 
the sense. In the present instance, tentav'd may be understood. There 
appears to be some analogy between this usage of the infinitive in Latin, 
and the idiom of the Greek, by which the same mood, taken as an abso- 
lute verbal idea only, is made to stand for the imperative. — 63. Unde. 
" In what words." The unhappy boy is at a loss in what words to ex- 
press his angry and indignant feelings at the horrid rites practiced by the 
hags, and at the still more horrid cruelty which they meditate toward him- 
self. — 64. Thyesteas preces. " Imprecations." Such as Thyestes uttered 
against Atreus. — 65. Venena magica, Sec. " Drugs, of magic influence, 
may confound, indeed, the distinctions between right and wrong, but they 
can not alter the destiny of mortals." The idea intended to be conveyed 
is this : The spells of the sorceress may succeed in accomplishing the 
darkest of crimes, but they can not avert the punishment which such of- 
fences will inevitably receive. — 67. Diris agam vos. " With my curses 
will I pursue you." After diris understand precibus. — 70. Nocturnus oc~ 
currant furor. " I will haunt you as a tormentor in the night season." — 
72. Qua vis deorum, Sec. " Such is the power of those divinities the Ma- 
nes." The ellipsis is to be supplied as follows : " Ea vi qua vis est," &c 
' — 75. Vicatim. " From street to street." — 76. Obscenas anus. "Filthy 
hags." — 77. Different. " Shall tear." — 78. Esquilinm alites. The birds 
of prey frequented the Esquiline quarter, because here the bodies of maJ 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. EPODE VI. 403 

efactors vrero left exposed, and here, also, the poor and slaves were in> 
terrcd. Subsequently, however, the character of" the place was entirely 
changed by the splendid residence and gardens of Maecenas. Consult 
note on Ode iii., 29, 10. — 79. Negue hoc parentcs, &c. The boy's last 
thoughts, observes Francis, are tenderly employed in reflecting upon tho 
grief" of his parents ; yet he seems to comfort them, and at the same time 
to confirm the truth of his prediction, by that consolation which they shall 
receive in the death of these sorceresses. 



Epode VI. Addressed to a cowardly and mercenary slanderer. It if 
commonly thought that this piece was written against Cassius Severus, 
and, in many editions, it appears with an inscription to this effect. Such 
a supposition, however, is perfectly gratuitous. It is probable that the 
title in question originated with some scholiast, who, having read in Taci- 
tus (Ann., i., 72, and iv., 21) of the licentious spirit and defamatory pen of 
Cassius Severus, erroneously imagined him to be the one whom the poet 
here attacks. 

1-14. 1. Quid immerentes, Sec. " Thou cur, why, being cowardly 
against wolves, dost thou snarl at inoffensive strangers V By the term 
hospitcs are here meant those who are entirely unknown to the individ- 
ual, but whom he, notwithstanding, makes the subjects of his envenomea 
attacks. — 3. Inanes. As proceeding from a cowardly and spiritless cur. 
--4. Remorsurum. " Who am ready to bite in return." — 5. Molossus, aut 
fulvus Lacon. "A Molossian, or a tawny Laconian dog." The Molos- 
sian and Laconian dogs were of a robust make, and valuable as well in 
hunting wild beasts as in defending the flocks from nocturnal thieves and 
from the attacks of wolves. Travellers still describe the dogs in this quar- 
ter as remarkable for size and extremely fierce. The Molossi occupied 
the northeastern part of Epirus. — 6. Arnica vis. "A friendly aid." — 7. 
Agam qucccunquc prcecedet fera. "I will pursue whatever savage beast 
6hall go before me." — 10. Projectum odoraris cibum. "Smell at the food 
thrown to thee." A figurative mode of expressing that the individual 
whom he attacks was easily bribed to silence. — 12. Parata tollo cornua. 
The poet alludes to his iambics, with which he stands prepared to assail 
all evil-doers, as the bull is ready with its horns against every one who 
provokes it to the attack. — 13. Qualis Lycambce, &c. " Like him who was 
rejected as a son-in-law by the faithless Lycambes, or like the fierce en- 
emy of Bupalus." Lycambce is the dative, by a Graecisni, for the abla- 
tive, and, by another Graecism, Bupalo, the dative, is put for Bupali. — 
Lycambce. The allusion is to Archilochus. Lycambes had promised him 
his daughter Neobule in marriage, but afterward changed his mind and 
gave her to another. Archilochus, in revenge, wrote a poem against him, 
in iambic verse, so cruelly satirical that both father and daughter hung 
themselves in despair. Such, at least, is the common account. It would 
seem, however, from some authorities, that Neobule killed herself, not 
on account of the verses of Archilochus, but through despair at the loss 
of her father. (Compare Schocll, Hist. Lit. Grcec , vol. i., p. 199.) — 14. 
Bupalo. The allusion is to the poet Hipponax, and the brothers Bupa'u* 
and Anthermus. 



404 EXPLANATORY NOTES. EPODE IX, 

Epode VJI. After the overthrow of Sextus Pornpeius, the republic 
seomed once more destiued to taste of repose. The respite, however, 
was of short duration, and the enmity of Octavianus and Antony soon re- 
kindled the flames of war. It was about this period that the present 
poem was written. The bard ruoums over the intestine divisions of his 
countrymen, and imputes the horrors of the civil wars to the evil destiny 
entailed open the Romans by the blood of Remus. 

1-20. 1. Scelesti. " Stained with guilt." An allusion to the guilt and 
loodshed of the civil wars. — 2. Conditi. *< So lately sheathed." Under- 
stand vaginis. The poet refers to the short period of repose which ensued 
after the overthrow of Sextus Pompeius. Compare Introductory Remarks. 
— 3. Campis atque Neptuno super. " On the fields and on the ocean." 
Equivalent to terra marique. Compare Ode ii , 1, 29. — 5. Non ut super- 
bas, &c. The idea intended to be conveyed is as follows : These sworda 
are not drawn against the enemies of our country, as they were in forme! 
days against haughty Carthage, and as they now should be against the 
Britons, still bidding defiance to our arms : they are to be turned upon 
ourselves, they are to enter our own bosoms, in order that the wishe3 
of the Parthians, of our bitterest foes, may be accomplished, and that 
Rome may fall in ruins by the hands of her sons. — 7. Intactus. " Still 
unsubdued." — Descenderet Sacra catenatus via. "Might descend in 
chains along the Sacred Way," i. e., might be led in triumph through the 
streets of the capital, and, after this, be consigned to imprisonment and 
death. In the celebration of the triumph, the Roman general, when he 
reached the spot where now is the Arch of Severus, and before he as- 
cended the Capitoline Hill, gave the signal to conduct tho captive kings 
and leaders of the enemy to prison, and there put them to death. — 11. 
Hie mos. " This custom" of raging against their own species. — Fuit. 
The aorist, in the sense of deprehetiditur, "is found." — 12. Nunquam 
nisi in dispar feris. "Which are never cniel except toward animals 
of a different kind." — 13. Vis acrior. " Some superior power," i. e., that 
of destiny. — 14. Culpa. "The guilt of your forefathers, entailed upon 
their offspring." The allusion is to the guilt of Romulus, which is to be 
atoned for by posterity. — 15. Pallor albus. " A deadly paleness." Con- 
sult note on Ode ill., 10, 14. — 16. Mentesque perculsae stupent. "And their 
conscience-stricken minds are stupefied." — 17. Sic est, &c. After a pa- 
thetic pause, as Sanadon remarks, Horace adheres to the last two causes 
he had mentioned. He therefore imputes the civil wars to the destinies 
and to the death of Remus, as if the destinies had condemned the Ro- 
mans to expiate the fratricide of that prince by destroying one another 
with their own arms. This was going very far back in order to remove 
the idea of the real cause of their present calamities. — Agunt. " Harass." 
•—18. Scelusque fraternce necis. The guilt of Romulus in slaying his 
brother Remus. — 19. Ut. "Ever since." — 20. Sacer nepotibus. "Ac- 
cursed for posterity," i. e., fatal to them. Compare the explanation of the 
scholiast, as cited by Zeune : " Quern suo cruore expiaturi erant." 



Epotje IX. Written when the news of the victory at Acticm was first 
received at Rome. The bard addresses his patron, then at the scene oc' 
action 



ESVLANATOIir NOTES. EPODE IX. 405 

1 -i5. 1. Repostunt Caecubum adfestas dapes. " Cajcuban wine, stored 
away for joyous feasts," i. e., put away in some inner and secret crypt 4 
and purposely preserved for some joyous occasion. Consult note on Odt 
1., 20, 9. — 3. Sub alta domo. "Beneath thy stately abode." Consult note 
on Ode iii., 29, 10. — Sic Jovi gratum. " So is it pleasing to Jove," i. e*. 
in doing this, we shall be performing an act agreeable to Jove, the guard- 
ian of our empire. — 4. Beate. This epithet has reference to the opulence 
of Maecenas, to his lofty abode on the Esquiline [alta domus), his beautiful 
gardens, &c. — 5. Sonante mixtum tibiis, &c. "While the lyre sends 
forth a strain intermingled with the music of flutes, that uttering the Do- 
rian, these the Phrygian mood." With hac understand sonante; with 
xllis, sonantibus. The music of the lyre and the flute aro to succeed each 
other alternately : the strains of the former are to be grave and severe, 
such being the character of the Dorian mood ; the music of the flutes, on 
the other hand, is to be of a wild and bacchic character, in accordance 
with the Phrygian mood. Donkin, in explanation of this passage, remarks 
|s follows : "If the ancient Dorian and Lydian octave were employed, 
the former being of the fourth species, while the latter was of the second, 
and pitched two tones higher, the series of intervals heard would consist 
of fourths and major thirds, or rather double tones." — 7. Actus cum. j'relo 
Ncptunius dux. " When the Neptunian chief, driven from the Sicilian 
strait." The allusion is to Sextus Pompeius, who boastingly styled him- 
self the son of Neptune, because his father had once held the command 
of the sea. Agrippa, in B.C. 36, defeated him off the northern coast of 
Sicily, off Mylae, and again off Naulochus. — 10. Scrvis amicus pcrjidis. Ac- 
cording to Dio Cassius (xlviii., 19), the number of fugitive slaves who went 
over to Pompeius was so great, that the Vestal Virgins were accustom- 
ed, during the performance of sacred rites, to offer up prayers for a ces- 
sation of this evil. — 11. Rowanus. The allusion is to the Romans in the 
army of Antony. — 12. Emancipatus femince. "Subjected as a voluntary 
slave to a woman." The reference is to Cleopatra. — 13. Fert vallum et 
arma miles, &c. "Bears the stake and arms as a soldier, and can yield 
obedience to withered eunuchs." The poet expresses his indignation, 
that Romans, hardy enough to endure the toils of military service, can, at 
the same time, be so wanting in spirit as to yield obedience to the orders 
of eunuchs. The allusion, in the words fert vallum, is to that part of Ro- 
man discipline which compelled each soldier to carry, among other things, 
a certain number of stakes (usually three or four) to be used in encamp- 
ing. — Spadonibus. The allusion seems to be principally to the eunuch 
Mardion, who, according to Plutarch, along with Pothinus, Iras, and Char- 
mion, had the chief direction of Cleopatra's affairs (v<f>' &v to, fxtyiara 
dioifcelrai rf/c Tjyeiioviac. Plut., Vit. Ant., c. lx., vol. vi., p. 132, ed. Hut- 
ten). — 15. Turpe conopium. "A vile Egyptian canopy." The conopium 
was a canopy, curtain, or veil of net-work, used for the purpose of keep- 
ing off gnats and flies. It was principally employed by the Egyptians 
on account of the great number of these insects produced by the marshes 
of the Nile. The scholiast, in his explanation of the term, furnishes us 
with its etymology : " Genus retis ad muscas et culices (Kuvwirag) abi 
gendos, quo Alexandrini potissimum utuntur propter culicum illic abuvt, 
danliam." To a genuine Roman spirit the use of such an article appear 
cd degr^ing cftermnasy. 



4:00 EXPLANATORY NOTES.— ETODE 1a. 

17-22. 17. Ad hoc frementes, &c. "Indignant at this spectacle, two 
thousand Gauls turned about their steeds, bidding Caesar hail." The poet 
evidently alludes to the defection of Deiotarus and Amyntas, two leaders 
of the Gallo-Graacians, or Galatians, who went over to Augustus a short 
time previous to the battle of Actiurn. In the motive, however, which 
Horace assigns for this step, there is more of bitter sarcasm than histori- 
cal truth. — Verlerunt. The penult is here shortened by systole, as it ia 
called. — 19. Hostiliumque navium portu latent, &c. "And the sterns of 
hostile ships, impelled toward the left, lie concealed in the harbor." In 
order to understand clearly this somewhat obscure passage, we must bear 
in mind that the present piece was written before any veiy definite par- 
ticulars respecting the battle of Actium had reached the capital. The 
poet, therefore, exercises some licence on the occasion, and supposes 
that a division of Antony's fleet, equally indignant with the Gallic horse- 
men, retired from the fight into the harbor, and, in order that their defec- 
tion might be less apparent, rowed their vessels astern, or impelled them 
into the harbor stern foremost. (Compare the Greek expression trpv/ivav 
Kpovoaodai, and Valckenaer, ad Herodot., viii., 84.) In executing this 
movement they would have necessarily to move toward the left, as Anto- 
ny's fleet was drawn up on the right and facing Italy. — 21. Io Triumphe! 
&c. The poet, personifying Triumph, addresses it as a god, and complains 
of its tardy approach. Tho idea intended to be conveyed by the whole 
passage from the present line to the 26th, both inclusive, is simply as fob 
'ows : When shall we celebrate the triumph due to this most glorious 
victory, a triumph to be ranked far before both that of Marius over Ju- 
gurtha, and that of Scipio for the overthrow of Carthage ? — Aureos currus. 
Alluding to the triumphal chariot, which was wont to be adorned with 
gold and ivory. — 22. Intactas boves. The Roman triumphs always ended 
with a sacrifice to Jove, and the victims, as in every other offering to the 
gods, were to be such as had never felt the yoke. With intactas, there 
fore, we must understand jugo. 

23-38. 23. Ncc Jugurlhino parem, &c. " Thou didst neither bring 
back a leader equal to him from the war of Jngurtha, nor Africanus, unto 
whom valor reared a monument upon the ruins of Carthage," i. e., Marius 
did not return with equal glory from the subjugation of Jugurtha, nor the 
younger Africanus from the destruction of Carthage. — 27. Punico lugubre. 
mutavit sagum. " Has changed his purple robe for one of mourning." 
An hypallage for mutavit Punicum sagum lugubri sago. The Roman 
sagum was properly a military robe : here, however, the term is taken 
in a more extended sense. The allusion in the text is to Antony, and the 
epithet Punico may either refer simply to the color of his paludamentum, 
or general's robe, or else, what appears preferable, may contain a general 
censure on the previous luxury and splendor of his attire. — 29. Aut Hit 
centum nobilem, &c. This passage would seem to confirm the truth of the 
remark made in a previous note (v. 19), that nc accurate accounts had as 
yet reached the capital either respecting the details of the fight itself, or 
the ulterior movements of Antony. — 30. Ventis won suis. "With unpro- 
pitious winds." — 31. Exercitatas Noto. "Agitated by the blast of the 
South." As regards the Syrtes, consult note on Ode i., 7, 22. — 32. Incerto 
man. "In doubtful course over the sea," i. c, as if not knowing where 
to anchor. — 33. Capaciores offer hue, &c. The joy of Horace was toe 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. EPODE X. 407 

lively, as Dacier remarks, to wait the return of Maecenas. Ho celebrates 
the victory tbe moment he receives tho news, and he thinks his appre- 
hensions far the safety of Octavianus ought now to cease, for it was not 
known at Rome that he intended to complete his cenquest by pursuing 
Antony, and exposing himself to new dangers. — 35. Fluentcm nauseam. 
" The rising qualm." — 37. Rcrum. " For the interests." — 38. Lyaso. Con- 
sult note on Ode i., 22, 4. 



Epode X. Addressed to Maevius, a contemptible poet of the day, who 
was on the evo of embarking for Greece. The bard prays heartily that 
he may be shipwrecked, and vows a sacrifice to the storms if they will 
but destroy him. This Maevius is the same with the one to whom Virgil 
satirically alludes in his third Eclogue (v. 90) : " Qui Davium non odit, 
amet tua carmina, Mcevi." He would seem to have incurred the resent- 
ment of both Virgil and Horace by his railing and slanderous propensities. 

1--24. 1. Mala soluta, &c. " The vessel, loosened from her moorings, 
Bails forth under evil auspices, bearing as she does the fetid Maevius." — 
2. Olentem. Compare the explanation of Mitscherlich : " Hircini odoris 
hominem." Rutgersius (Lect. Venus., x., 10) thinks that this epithet is 
rather meant to be applied to the character of Maevius as a poet, and to 
his affectation of obsolete words. There is far more of bitter satire, how- 
ever, in olentem, if considered as a personal allusion. — 3. Utrumque latus. 
"Each side of her." Understand navis. — 4. Auster. The poet enumer- 
ates the winds Auster, Eurus, and Aquilo, in order to convey a livelier 
image of a tempest, by the contending together of these opposing blasts, 
bo that, in fact, a tornado is meant. — 5. Niger rudentes Eurus, &c. "May 
tho dark southeast wind scatter her rigging and shivered oars in the 
6ea turned up from its lowest depths." By niger is meant, in reality, a 
dark, cloud-collecting wind. — 7. Quantus. "With as great fury as," i. e., 
with all the fury it has when, &c. — 8. Trcmentes. " Waving to and fro 
beneath the blast." — 9. Sidus amicum. "The star friendly to mariners.'' 
The allusion is to the Dioscuri. Consult note on Ode i., 3, 2. — 10. Orion 
Consult note on Ode iii., 27, 17. — 12. Qicam Graia victorum manus, &c. 
The poet alludes to the destruction by Minerva of the vessel that bore tho 
Oilcan Ajax, and to the shipwreck of the Grecian fleet off the promontory 
of Caphareus in Euboea. — 16. Pallor luteus. Consult note on Ode iii., 10, 
14. — 18. Aversum ad Jovem. " To unpropitious Jove." — 19. Ionius iido, 
&c. " When the Ionian Sea, roaring with the blasts of the rainy South." 
The term sinus, here applied to the Ionian Sea, has reference to its being 
bent into numerous gulfs. In strict geographical language, however, the 
expression Ionius sinus, about the time of Horace, denoted merely a part 
of the Adriatic. — 21. Opima quod si, &c. The poet vows a sacrifice to the 
Tempests, if the corpse of the shipwrecked Maevius, cast unburied on the 
shore, become the prey of birds. Some commentators refer the expression 
opima prada to corpulence of person on the part of Maevius. This, how- 
ever, is mere conjecture. The words may, with more propriety, be ren- 
dered " a dainty prey." — 24. Tempestatibus. The ancients were accus- 
tomed to sacrifice a black lamb to the Storms and Tempests, and o white 
one to the Western wind 



40b EXPLANATORY NOTES. EPODE XVI. 

Epode XIII. Addressed to a party of friends, with whom the poet 
wishes to spend a day of rain and storm amid the joys of wine. He ex- 
horts them to seize the present hour, and to dismiss the futur^. from ther? 
thoughts. To add weight to this Epicurean maxim, the authority of the 
Centaur Chiron is adduced, who advises the young Achilles, since fate had 
dastined him for a short career, to dispel his cares with wine and song. 

1-6. 1. Horrida tempestas caelum contraxit "A gloomy tempest has 
narrowed the expanse of heaven." The space appears diminished when 
the sky is covered with clouds.— 2. Dcducunt Jovcm. "Bring down the 
upper air."' By Jupiter is here meant the higher part of the atmosphere 
[aether). The aucients considered ram as the air dissolved. — Siluce.- A 
diaeresis, on account of the metre, for silvce. — 3. Rapiamus, amici, &c. 
" My friends, let us seize an opportunity from the passing day." — 5. Ob- 
ducla solvaturfrorde seticclus. " Let the clouded brow of sadness be re- 
laxed." • Literally, ' ; let sadness, with clouded brow, be relaxed." Sen.cc- 
tus does not here mean age, but "sadness" or "melancholy." Compare 
the scholium of Porphyrion : " Scncclulem- pro gravitate ac severitate ac 
cipc." — 6. Tu vina Torquato move, dec The poet, eager for the expect 
ed entertainment, imagines his friends already present, and, addressing 
himself to one of the party supposed to be assembled, exclaims, "Do thou 
produce the wine, pressed when my Torquatus was consul." The force 
of move, in this passage, is best explained on tho principle that this was 
to be a feast of contribution, and that Horace calls first upon him who was 
to furnish the wine. The wiue to be drank on this occasion is that 
which had been made in the year when L. Manlius Torquatus was con- 
sul. Consult note on Ode iii., 21, 1. 

7-13. 7. Ccctera mitte loqui. "Cease to talk of other things." The 
poet alludes to some cause of anxiety on the part of his friend. — Deus htec 
fortasse benigna, &c. " Perhaps the deity will, by a kind change, restore 
what now disquiets thee to its former state. — 8. Acluemenio. Consult note 
on Ode iii., 1, 44. — Cyllcnca. The lyre is here called " Cyllencan," be- 
cause invented by Mercury, who was born on Cyllene, a mountain in the 
northern part of Arcadia, on the borders of Achaia. — 11. Nobilis centaurus 
Chiron. — Alumno. Achilles. — 13. Assaraci tellus. " The land of Assar- 
acus," i. e., Troy. Assaracus was a son of Tros, and the grandsire of An- 
chises. (Compare II., xx., 230.) — 15. Curto subtemine. "By a short 
thread." We have adopted Bentley's emendation, curto. The common 
lection, certo subtemine ("by a thread that fixes thy destiny"), is far in- 
ferior. The term subtemen means properly the woof or weft, i. e., tho 
threads inserted into the warp. — 18. Deformis cegrimonice, &c. "The 
Gweet soothers of disfiguring melancholy." 



Epode XVI. The republic, as Sanadon remarks, had been violently 
agitated by civil commotions for almost sixty years, beginning with the 
days of Marius and Sylla. A fresh scene of bloodshed was now approach- 
ing, and the quarrel between Octavianus and Antony threatened th^ Re- 
man world with a general dissolution. A battle was expected, and thai 
battle was to decide, as it were, the fate of the universe. An event ol 
huch deep interest engrossed the minds of men. A feeling of uncertainty 



EXPLANATORY NOTES. ErODE XV,, 409 

as to tne issue of the contest filled them with alarm, and a remembrance 
of the preceding wars collected into one point of view all the horrors 
which they had produced. The poet, amid these scenes of terror, con*- 
posed this epode. He proposes to the Romans a desertion of their coun 
try, and a retreat to the Fortunate Islands, where the gods promised them 
a more tranquil and a happier life. To confirm this advice, the example 
of the Phocoeans is cited, who abandoned their native city rather than live 
under the dominion of Cyrus, and bound themselves by a common oatfc 
never to return. 

1-13. 1. Altera jam teritur, &c. "A second age is now wasting awaj 
in civil wars." By this second age is understood the period which inter- 
vened between the death of Caesar and ihc contest of Octavianus and An 
tony. The first age extended from the entrance of Sylla into Rome with 
an armed force to the death of Caesar. If we make the present epode to 
have been written A.U.C. 721, B.C. 32, the whole antecedent period hero 
referred to would be fifty-six years ; and if we allow, as is commonlj 
done, thirty years to an atas (or yeveu), the "second age" was within foui 
years of its completion. — 2. Ipsa. " Of her own accord." Equivalent t<? 
the Greek avTTJ. — 3. Quarn neque fimtimi, &c. The order of construction 
is as follows : Nos, impia cetas, devoti sanguinis, perdemus earn civita- 
tern, quam neque, &c. — 3. Marsi. The poet assigns the first place to the 
Marsic, or Social War, as most fraught with danger to the republic— 
4. Minacis aut Etrusca, &c. Alluding to the efforts of Porsena in behalf 
of the bauished Tarquins, and the siege which Rome in consequence un- 
derwent. Niebuhr has clearly shown that Rome must have surrendered 
to Porsena, and acknowledged his sovereignty by the sacrifice of a third 
part of her territory. Compare Tacitus, " dedita urbe" (Hist., iii., 72). 
One of the conditions of the treaty was that the Romans should use iron 
only for tillage (Plin., H. N., xxxiv., 39). This, of course, would only 
have been submitted to by a conquered people. — 5. yEmula nee virtus 
Capuce. " Nor the rival strength of Capua." The allusion in the text 
appears to be to the bearing of Capua after the overthrow of Cannae, 
when, as it would seem from Livy (xxiii., 6), she aimed at the empire of 
Italy. Capua made a league with Hannibal after this battle. — Spartacus 
Consult note on Ode hi., 14, 19. — 6. Novisque rebus infidelis Allobrox. 
" And the Allobroges, faithless in their frequent commotions," i. e., dis- 
playing their faithless character in their numerous seditions. The Alio 
broges were situate in the southern part of Gaul, between the Rhodanus 
(Rhone) and Isara (Isere). — 6. C&ruleapube. "With its blue-eyed youth.*' 
Compare the description given by Tacitus (Germ., 4) of the Germans; 
" Habitus corporum .... idem omnibus ; truces et carulei oculi, rutilce 
comes, magna corpora." The allusion in the text seems to be principally 
to the inroad of the Cimbri and Teutones. — 9. Devoti sanguinis. " Of de- 
voted blood," i. e., whose blood is devoted to destruction as a punishment 
for our fathers' crimes. — 10. Barbarus. Alluding to the barbarian nations 
which formed part of the forces of Antony. — Et urbem eques, &c. " And 
the horsemen strike our city with sounding hoof," i. e., ride insulting over 
the ruins of fallen Rome. — 13. Quceque carent ventis, &e. "And insolently 
scatter the bones of Romulus, which lie concealed from winds and suns, 
(unlawful to be beheld!)" The sanctity of sepulchres was always guard 
ec" by the strictest laws, and their sacred character was founded on th« 

S 



410 EXPLANATORY NOTES. EPODE XVI. 

circumstance of their being dedicated to the Manes. The tombs of the 
founders of cities were regarded as particularly entitled to veneration, 
and it was deemed a most inauspicious omen if the remains contained iv 
them were, by accident or in any other way, exposed to view. As, ac- 
cording to the Roman legend, Romulus was caught up to the skies, the 
allusion here to his mortal remains lying in an earthly sepulchre becomes 
merely a poetic one. Romulus, in fact, is here the ideal representative 
of the Roman people, and by the ossa Quiririi are meant the bones of 
Roman citizens, which the poet, with prophetic vision, beholds scattered 
about, exposed to the